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The soils of South western Nigeria are rapidly degrading due to nutrient mining, soil loss, inappropriate land use, low inherent soil fertility coupled with adverse effects of climate change. These have resulted to persistent low yields and farmers’ poverty. The current farming systems have failed to improve continuous decline in crop production. There is need for integrated approach that involves mineral fertilizer, organic resources, and improved crop varieties with sound agronomic practices if the region will be able to feed its population of over 35 million people. Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) is an all-encompassing resource management technique that embraces the use of good planting materials, with appropriate organic and/or inorganic fertilizer application or their integrated use. It also entails adapting the various combinations of the ISFM components to local conditions which by implication means site specific management. There is lack of coordinated information about the components of ISFM being used in SWN and most stakeholders have not appreciated the importance of integrated approach. This paper is therefore put forward to review the status of Integrated Soil Fertility Management in South western Nigeria in order to identify knowledge gap for sustainable crop production in the region. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in existing literature on integrated soil fertility management for sustainable crop production in southwestern Nigeria. The study also harmonizes research findings about ISFM thereby making information available for researchers, policy makers, extension agents and other stakeholders about ISFM protocols. It aids in identifying knowledge gaps for intervention.
Most of the slum dwellers in Rajshahi city, Bangladesh, come here from rural areas either forcefully or willingly for various purposes. They naturally lead a miserable life here which causes various health problems. Different organizations therefore come forward to the establishment of primary healthcare centers for meeting their growing demands for healthcare services. The main objective of this paper was thus to explore how social issues created opportunities for and barriers to healthcare seeking behavior among the urban poor women. This study is of importance that findings of the study will help achieve the 3rd Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)—ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages—at the right time (2030). Two hundred females in Rajshahi city were interviewed by using a semi-structured questionnaire interview method. Levels of monthly household income and of education are used as proxy determinants of class. There has been an increase in the availability of and accessibility to primary healthcare services for the poor urban women due to making healthcare services available at people doorsteps and developing awareness though some social issues like the lack of knowledge about the nearest centers, their beliefs in and perception of illness and treatment, inappropriate time set-up and high costs associated with treatment and medicine sometimes dissuade them from availing the reachable healthcare services. More hygienic behavior among them found albeit they have few sanitary latrines which push their lives at greater risks. As suggested, if all these social issues are seriously taken into consideration in the formation and adaptation of the future policy, the Bangladesh Government can easily meet the 3rd SDG. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated effects of social issues in healthcare seeking behavior. The primary contribution of it is identifying the time-table of the health center unsuitable for the poor. It documents an increase in the availability of and accessibility to primary healthcare services.
This study set out to examine capital formation among rice farmers who belong to rice farmers’ credit cooperative and to isolate factors that determined why some farmer accumulate capital more than others using Itoikin rice farmers’ cooperative society. The study draws on two sources of data namely household level surveys and secondary data to get insight about the size and composition of capital formation among rice farmers. The results showed that on average, farmers were 50 years with about 4 years of education, 6 persons in household size and about ₦73,004.37 as mean income. Capital Formation takes the form of agricultural land, rice, agricultural machinery and equipment. The results further showed that about one-quarter of the net addition to fixed capital come from household savings and the rest three-quarter are borrowed from Cooperative and other sources. Regression results indicate that the most important factors determining the level of capital formation are age, the income from rice, Loan from cooperative and other sources and farm holdings. We also found that an increase in the average education of the farmers increases agricultural capital significantly. Education of farmers/rural dwellers should be at the front burner of all rural transformation agenda. Contribution/ Originality
The study documents that capital formation took the form of agricultural land, rice agricultural machinery and equipment. One-quarter of the net addition to fixed capital comes majorly from farmer’s savings and borrowing from cooperative. Age, Rice income, Cooperative borrowing and education are important determinant of level of capital formation.
This paper presents a simulation model for Biomass-Photovoltaic Hybrid system. The energy conversion equations describing the total power generated by system have been presented. A numerical model based upon the aforementioned conservation equations was developed, coded and results were presented and analyzed. The model is intended to be used as an optimization, design and analysis tool for typical gas turbine Biomass-CHP hybrid systems. The results predicted by the proposed model compared fairly with data under various biomass loading conditions. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature of photovoltaic, biomass and district heating hybrid systems. This study uses a new approach in modeling the hybrid system by establishing the conservation and conversion equations, integrating, coding and solving them to obtain the dynamic behavior of the hybrid system.
This paper reviews the current status of Turkish silkworm genetic resources and activities being undertaken for their conservation. Silk production and the trade in silk have been important activities in Turkey, which lies on the ancient Silk Road, for many hundreds of years. Current production of silk is on the rise after a period of very low production. Turkey has a well-established programme of conservation and development of all of its domestic animal genetic resources, of which silkworm is considered a constituent part. Three distinct lines of native silkworm have been registered with the national standards body, the Turkish Standards Institute. Distribution of silkworm germplasm is regulated by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock through Cooperative Unions which have more than 10,000 members. Renewed and increased international demand for natural and biological products is favourable to Turkey’s silkworm industry. The prognosis for the future development of silk production is strongly positive. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents how silkworms have been kept in Turkey to produce silk as a value-added product for hundreds of years. They add diversity to household and national production. Three lines are being bred and conserved by Government institutions.
The International Community and other global bodies have repeatedly issued statements condemning the activities of Boko Haram, a militant organisation which emerged around 2002 as a local Islamic group. The world body has been calling on individuals and institutions, particularly the press, to help in the fight against Boko Haram. However, a typical West African country where the insurgency has as its major flashpoint is Nigeria, whose press, is accordingly used as a case study here. Given the fact that newspapers have a role to play in the fight against Boko Haram, one expects them to be creative in their coverage of the activities of the sect, if their coverage should contribute significantly towards peaceful coexistence. This is where application of aesthetic principles of violent conflict reporting, as identified in this paper, comes in. But have the newspapers been applying the aesthetic indices of violent conflict reporting identified in this paper, while contributing their quota towards the return of peace to the sub-region? An appraisal of the various stories on the activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria within the last two years of the group’s peak activities shows that Nigerian newspapers have been mainly informative and alarmist in their coverage of the activities of the group, and could not strike a balance with the other aesthetic indices. The paper concludes, therefore, that Nigerian newspapers are, to a great extent, mono aesthetic in their coverage of Boko Haram activities, and needs to ensure an aesthetic equilibrium for them to create more impact in the peace process. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing scanty literature in newspaper aesthetics. It uses a new methodology, called aesthetic content analysis. It is one of very few studies which have investigated aesthetics in conflict reporting. The paper primarily finds out that Nigerian newspapers are mono-aesthetic in their coverage of Boko Haram activities.
A study was conducted at University of Uyo Teaching and Research farm to evaluate the effect of different tillage practices on growth and yield of fluted pumpkin in an ultisol. The treatments were no till, flat, surface hoeing, raised bed, mounds and ridges. The parameters studied were establishment percentage, number of leaves per plant, vine length, leaf area, number of branches, and number of pods, length and circumference of pods as well as pod yield in tons per hectare. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared using least significant difference (LSD) at 5% probability level. There was no significant difference in the establishment count. However, significant differences occurred in all other parameters studied. Best results were obtained from the ridges and mounds over the other tillage practices. Ridges and mounds are therefore encouraged for increased production of fluted pumpkin. Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is finding that tillage practices have
additional benefits in the growth and yield performance of crops
particularly fluted pumpkin and farmers should till their soils before
planting preferably using surface hoeing which is a less costly tillage
With the collapse of Soviet Russia, transition of communist countries towards the market economy not only caused an economic transformation but also formal and informal constraints, institutional structures and legal norms in society were changed. IMF's and World Bank’s reports and governance concept containing neoliberal policies that took place in World Bank’s publications were important factors behind this transition. In this study, it is aimed to analyze quality of governance in transition economies by the year 2014. With this framework, Cluster analysis is performed by Ward (1963) Minimum Variance Method by using World Bank Governance and Freedom House dataset. Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to the literature by determination of transition economies’ position in terms of their governance scores in a multivariate framework. The results of Cluster analysis indicate that countries in the process of integration with the EU have better governance scores with respect to other transition economies.
In the recent time marketing communication, challenges need to develop obsolete business practices and create some new ones, and even stop using conventional wisdom that has proven obsolete. The pace of change is increasing and marketing communication must reflect those changing effects if it is relevant in the twenty first century. What need to change are not the only tools of marketing communications, although the impact of information technology and rapid broadcast communication will cause change enough. Advances in communications technology, increased interaction between buyer and producer and increasing integration of marketing communication will lead to change in both the levels and the impact of communication. However, marketers must also change the ways what they plan for communications and recognize the strategic implications of the shift in the power base that underpins communications. This paper attempts and discusses the main strategic issues that arise for marketers in the twenty first century such as the World Wide Web, the net, social changes and technological change encompasses more issues than information technology, cellular phones, new print technology, hologram and new media will also have a major impact in the twenty first century marketing communication. Contribution/ Originality
Nonlinear single-unit commitment problem (NSUCP) is a NP-hard nonlinear mixed-integer optimization problem, encountered as one of the toughest problems in power systems. This paper presents a new algorithm for solving NSUCP using genetic algorithm (GA) based clustering technique. The proposed algorithm integrates the main features of binary-real coded GA and K-means clustering technique. Clustering technique divides population into a specific number of subpopulations. In this way, different operators of GA can be used instead of using one operator to the whole population to avoid the local minima and introduce diversity. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is validated by comparison with other well-known techniques. By comparison with the previously reported results, it is found that the performance of the proposed algorithm quite satisfactory. Contribution/ Originality
This study presents a new algorithm for solving nonlinear single-unit commitment problem using genetic algorithm based clustering technique; where it integrates the main features of binary-real coded genetic algorithm and K-means clustering technique. The tests demonstrated that the proposed approach has a satisfactory performance compared to previous studies.
The need to diversify the economy so as to ensure sustainable economic growth has been of great concern. Accelerating productivity in agriculture is seen as one of the alternatives to support the diversification initiatives by the government and drive growth in Botswana. This study discusses the factors contributing to increased long term agricultural productivity and hence its subsequent impact on growth in the short. The study employs the vector error correction model and annual data to explain the connection between key variables. This paper concludes that there is unidirectional causality from agricultural productivity to growth. This study shows that economic growth can be improved in the short term by improvements in agricultural productivity. Agricultural productivity can be enhanced by providing adequate infrastructure, additional farming machinery per hectare of arable land and having a targeted approach in the provision of funding towards agricultural oriented initiatives. Contribution/ Originality
This study’s primary contribution is the finding that the agricultural led growth hypothesis applies to Botswana. The study is one of the few that use the vector error correction model to analyze the determinants of long term agricultural productivity.
Quality improvement is one of the most important requirements to strengthen a competitive position in our markets today. So improving the quality, will lead to decrease variations, shrinkages and so production costs hence the customers acquire the appropriate products and services to use. Control charts have an effective usage field to keep the process under control. Control charts are illustrated as graphical analysis method which defines the products whether to stay in the acceptable limits or not and as a graphical analysis technique that specifies a signal in the state of product to be out of that limits. In this paper by detecting basic concept and essentials beyond the control charts usage and the improvement; so it combined with fuzzy approach to detect the optimal limits. Hence the application of the proposed fuzzy control chart is in Al–Dura Refinery to monitor variable quality characteristics. The proposed fuzzy control chart is under vague, imprecise, uncertain, and incomplete data and based on ?-level fuzzy midrange for ? – cut approach. As a result of the application, it’s rational to say that constructing fuzzy control charts have a more flexible, a more convenient mathematical characterization concept and have more reasonable results than the traditional quality control chart techniques. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding a way to improve the quality of petroleum products in Al- Dura refinery / Baghdad/ Iraq. This can be achieved by applying fuzzy control charts to monitor the petroleum products specification which is rarely mentioned in relative literature.
Methodical approaches to the investment climate evaluation have been formed. Methodological tools for assessing the investment attractiveness of the economy have been classified. To create a database to select the most important methods of assessment of the investment climate should undertake a comparative analysis on the target group of potential investors, the depth of research, the frequency of assessment of the investment climate, purpose assessment of the investment climate. International ratings are effective tools that help reduction information asymmetry, and a large number of methods of ranking permit the investor to receive information on all aspects of the investment attractiveness of the state. Rankings are shaping the image of the state, and ignoring the results of the ratings can lead to financial isolation of the state. Information on the methodology of the ratings in most cases is transparent, so the domestic state institutions have the ability to affect the future results of the ratings in the case of related reforms. However, there is no unified model of investment climate evaluation of the national economy, which directly affects the state of the investment climate of Ukraine's economy and the volume of foreign capital in the state. Rating evaluation of the investment climate for the Ukrainian economy has been offered. Contribution/ Originality This study uses new estimation methodology of investment climate in the national economy, which based on analysis and classification of approaches and tools that are used to investment climate, investment attractiveness, business environment rating evaluate, and are directed to information sparseness reduction, target orientation of investment climate management.
The relationship among CO2 emission, Economic Growth and Energy Consumption were examine in this study. This study specifically examines the combine impact CO2 emission, and Economic Growth on Energy Consumption. The study uses a dynamic panel data of esteem the time series analysis on 1980. Our result shows that Economic Growth is positively related to Energy Consumption. But when CO2 emission is interacted with Economic Growth the combine impact is increasing in energy consumption. The study therefore recommend that appropriate policy should formulated by the government to drive up energy consumption. Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis in the existing literature of the relationship between Co2 emission, economic growth and energy consumption. The study departs from other studies by examining the combined impact of Co2 emission and economic growth on energy consumption in Sub- Saharan African countries during the period of the study. There is also robust use of system GMM developed by Arellano and Bond (1991) which gave consistent and efficient estimates.
The study assessed principally the level of equality/inequality in the sales distribution of sesame among farmers, wholesalers and retailers. The sampling procedure used involved a random selection of 120 sesame farmers, 40 wholesalers, and 60 retailers proportionately drawn from the three agricultural zones of Nasarawa State. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire. Tools of data analysis were descriptive statistics, regression technique and measures of market concentration such as Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient and Herfindahl index. The results which showed Gini coefficient index values of 0.686, 0.331 and 0.589 and Herfindahl index values of 0.115, 0.442 and 0.118 for farmers, wholesalers, and retailers, respectively, were indications of varying levels of inequality in the distribution of sesame sales income and the existence of some monopolistic forces in sesame market. Socio-economic variables which affected sales income (the main determinant of market concentration) positively and significantly (p≤0.01) were education, total value of investment and non-farm sources of income. As farmers and middlemen are indispensably interdependent, deliberate policy intervention is required in areas such as adequate formal credit, diversification of enterprises and human capital development to make them (farmers and middlemen) more competitive in the rapidly evolving global economy. Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of very few studies which have investigated the existence or otherwise of monopolistic forces in the marketing of farm products using a combination of analytical tools such as Gini coefficient, Herfindahl index, and Lorenz curve.
This paper endeavors to describe the core concept of marketing and
marketing management with the means of existing studies. However, it is
occasionally observed that business students narrow the concept of
marketing and limit to advertising or promotional activities. However,
the contribution of this paper is to enrich student?s knowledge and
attempts to diminish misconception among young students. Consequently,
the study is compiled with the help of comprehensive literature review
through research papers, books, official web sources, and some
interviews of seniors Professors in the discipline of marketing
management. Therefore, the current study endeavored to highlight the
concept of marketing and represented that marketing is not limited to
advertising activities. Despite, it is a complete strategic process
which creates value for the customers and raises the long-term
relationship with them. While promoting the product through distinct
advertising mediums is an essential element of the marketing management
process. Furthermore, the present study provides a structure to
marketing students in order to grasp the fundamentals associated with
marketing philosophy. Contribution/ Originality
The present study would contribute in the literature of marketing philosophy and insights of the management together with associated concepts. However, this study might be helpful for fresh students of business schools to grasp the fundamentals of market, marketing, and marketing management.
Swimming pools consume large amounts of energy compared with various buildings. Most of them utilize conventional fuels for covering their heating and electricity needs. Increase of their sustainability could be achieved with the replacement of conventional fuels with renewable energies. The possibility of using only renewable energies for covering all their energy requirements has been examined. Solar thermal energy, solid biomass and low enthalpy geothermal energy with heat pumps could cover their heating needs. Solar-PV energy could generate the necessary electricity in the pool. Investigation of the possibility of using different combinations of the abovementioned renewable energies in swimming pools indicate that they could cover all their energy needs zeroing their CO2 emissions and their carbon footprint due to energy use. These renewable energy technologies are also reliable, mature and cost effective. A case study in Crete, Greece has been implemented indicating that an investment in renewable energy systems of 1,072 to 1,474 € per m2 of pool would achieve reduction of 1,538 kg CO2 per m2 of pool zeroing their CO2 emissions. A significant decrease of the operating cost of the swimming pool due to lower fuel cost would be also achieved offering an attractive payback period of the investment. Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature regarding the creation of swimming pools with low environmental impact due to energy use. It indicates the replacement of fossil fuels used in them with reliable and cost effective renewable energy technologies minimizing the CO2 emissions.
The continued development of manufacturing industries along with increasing greenhouse gas emissions has become a critical concern that forces mankind to reduce global warming. Given the long atmospheric lifetimes of Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), it is especially important to reduce the emissions of PFCs which are commonly found in the semiconductor industry. In this study, we propose four master planning models that incorporate pollution taxes, subsidies, and/or progressive pollution taxes into capacity allocation to examine the problem of anthropogenic PFC emissions. The results show that master planning with subsidies and/or progressive taxes provides more flexibility to a foundry plant than that with flat taxes only. Setting emission limits and considering taxation for master planning is the first step toward the success of an environmental policy. Contribution/ Originality
This study proposes four master planning models for the semiconductor foundry plants by using ecological taxation methods. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the master planning models with subsidies and/or progressive taxes provide more flexibility to a foundry plant than the model with flat taxes only.
Freshwater wetland plays a vital role in the national economy as well as
the sustainable environment, natural habitats and the ecosystems in
Bangladesh. Population explosion is still creating pressure on the
limited resources like land, forest, water and specially the freshwater
wetland. Over exploitation of resources, variety of economic, flood
protection or control embankments, polders, dams, regulators, irrigation
channels, dredging, settlements establishments like roads, bridges are
the major threat to the freshwater wetland land in the southwest coastal
Bangladesh. Thus, the sustainable management practices of existing
wetlands need to be taken into considerations to conserve these
resources. The wetland management strategies need to be directed at
enriching wetland habitats with the component biological resources and
also addressing the needs of the resident human population. Beel Dakatia
of Dumuria Upazilla in Khulna District with 60 sq. mile is almost in
the out of actions from agricultural productions, especially rice
production due to water logging. However, the mercy of logged water has
facilitated for fisheries, not properly or regularly managed. This study
is conducted to seek the suitable or possible, acceptable by the
different social groups, management policy options or guidelines that
may foster sustainable management practices. Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature of freshwater wetland management strategies and policy options learnt from the southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. The government initiatives and policy framework for wetland management are, in some cases, become impediments of sustainable wetland management in this area.
Chickpea is one of the most cultivated grain legumes in Ethiopia for grain production and amelioration of soil fertility with less attention in research on N-fixation. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the magnitude of heterosis for nitrogen fixation and yield and yield associated traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Six F1 crosses obtained from crossing of four parents (two nodulated and non-nodulated) in a half diallel fashion were evaluated in 2014/15 season in lath house using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two replications at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center. Significant (P<0.05) differences were exhibited among entries for all traits studied. Considering all traits, relative to the mid parent (MPH), better parent (BPH) and standard heterosis (SH) in percent ranged from 0.009 to 59.8, 0.009 to39.9 and 0.009 to58.8, respectively. The highest degrees of MPH were noted for nodule dry weight and of BPH and SH were noted for number of pods per plant, while the lowest was observed for grain yield (0.009). The hybrid obtained from nodulated parents (ICC5003 x ICC19180) showed high heterosis for number of nodule on the basis of MPH and BPH, while ICC4918x ICC19181 exhibited low heterotic effect which exhibited positive and significant MPH for nitrogen fixed in grain, BPH for seed filling duration and SH for days to 50% flowering, days to 90% maturity and shoot dry weight at maturity traits. Contribution/ Originality