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Modern power system is a complex network comprising of numerous distributed generators, transmission lines, switchgears, distribution network and variety of loads. However, the quality of the power supplied to the end users is deteriorating as network expand due to inherent system disturbances such as voltage dips, harmonic distortions and phase angle deviations caused mainly due to low voltage network faults. This has resulted to high level of customers’ dissatisfaction and complains. Research has shown that over 60% of system perturbations are caused by natural events such as lightning strikes and system faults. There are various methods power utilities are employing to realize a robust and reliable power transmission system. Such methods include re-conducting of transmission lines, construction of new transmission lines and in recent time installation of Flexible AC transmission system (FACTs) devices. The FACTS are power electronic devices that have ability of controlling the network voltage condition both in steady and transient state of complex power system. The most common power electronic controllers are, Dynamic voltage stabilizer (DVS), Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM), shunt compensators and Unified power flow controller (UPFC). The STATCOM devices are the most widely installed power electronic controllers as they provide excellent performance in stabilizing the power system both in steady state and non-steady state (system disturbances) conditions. It is for this reason the author propose installation of STATCOMs to reinforce the Kenya Power national power grid to achieve a robust and resilience system which improves the power quality supplied to the end users. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the impact of installing STATCOM devices to enhance the quality of power supplies and improve on power stability/ reliability in Kenya power grid. In recent time, the power grid has experienced several power disturbances in major load centers.
This paper presents a summary of the results of a study on the use of a local admixture Ipomoea asarifolia (‘Ajara’) on the compressive strength and weight of specimens made from both cement stabilized and unstabilized lateritic soils. The effect of Ipomoea asarifolia extractions on the strength characteristic of lateritic blocks was investigated. Three mix proportions of cement: laterite of 0:1, 1:2 and 1:4 using lateritic soils from four different locations from around Ife while using six concentration levels of extracted liquid of Ipomoea asarifolia (0; 20; 40; 60; 80 and 100%) in fresh water as the mixing “water” (fluid). Ipomoea asarifolia specimen was analyzed to determine constituent chemical composition and their effect in reaction with other materials. Sieve analysis of the lateritic of the lateritic soil mix was carried out while a total of 132 – 100 mm cubes size were tested using a 1570 kN Avery-Denison Compression Testing Machine. Contribution/ Originality
The right to good administration is a concept through which there are protected the rights of citizens against the abuse of public authorities and institutions, based on the general principles of European administrative law, such as: objectivity, proportionality and equality, non-discrimination, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Maladministration occurs when a public authority or institution violates the principles of good administration and it does not respect the fundamental rights of citizens. For the achievement of the paper we have used content analysis and descriptive documentary research of the documents relevant to this very current issue and of particular interest to citizens, European institutions, national public authorities and institutions, especially the European Ombudsman Report for 2015 and 2014. In conclusion, the most common instances of maladministration in the European Union refer to transparency issues (transparency of decision making, transparency of lobbying activities), ethics, human rights etc. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few that has analysed, in parallel, the most frequent types of maladministration found in the European Union and in Romania, starting from the definitions given for good administration.
Tanzania has one of the largest populations of domestic ruminants in Africa. Their performance is less than their potential. Health, particularly disease due to gastrointestinal parasites, is a major constraint to improved productivity. Internal parasites also affect the country’s very diverse and huge array of wild ruminants. This review is based on a thorough search of the formal and informal literature pertaining to gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in Tanzania. The occurrence and geographical distribution of helminth (nematodes, trematodes and cestodes) and protozoan parasites are presented. Cattle, goat and sheep nematodirus (roundworm) infection usually comprises mixed infections of several taxa of which 13 species in nine genera have been recorded. A total of seven species of trematodes (flukes) in six genera have been found. Some six species of cestodes (flatworms) have been recorded, three being in the genus Taenia. The most prevalent species of protozoan parasites, of which seven have been identified in cattle and 18 in sheep and goats, belong to the genus Eimeria: four other species of protozoan parasites are also recorded. A general overview of the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites is provided and the main methods of control are discussed. Contribution/ Originality
Domestic ruminants are an important part of the Tanzania economy. They contribute to food security, biodiversity, household income and human welfare. This paper reviews with the aid of 74 published references the status and distribution of the main internal parasites of domestic ruminants in Tanzania.
The objectives of this study were to determine the growth and survival parameters and blood IgG and total protein levels of calves born in the first production year of Brown Swiss and Simmental cows imported from Austria to a newly-established dairy cattle enterprise in Manisa, Turkey. The study material consisted of 62 Brown Swiss and 266 Simmental calves. Calves were separated from their mothers after birth and put into individual sections and subjected to colostrum feeding. At the end of three days, calf grower feed was given. Calves were weaned around 60-days of age unless there was an abnormality with their development. Birth weights, weaning weights on the 65th day, and daily weight gains of calves were 40.31 kg and 41.76 kg, 77.16 kg and 83.9 kg, 0.56 kg and 0.64 kg for Brown Swiss and Simmental breeds respectively. Simmental calves were born heavier and had more weight gain until weaning. We determined that breed and sex affected calves’ growth while delivery method only affected birth weight. Calves with high birth weights caused difficult birth, but this effect disappeared until weaning. Survival rates of calves until weaning were 98.39% for Brown Swiss and 95.49% for Simmental. The survival and mortality rates of Brown Swiss and Simmental calves at weaning were at normal levels, while the calves with difficult birth had losses around 10%. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the performance and adaptation levels of imported breeds in Turkey. It contributes in the existing literature by producing information on the growth, survival, immunity levels and locality adaptations of calves born in Turkey after heifers’ importation.
Growth characteristics of Bifidobaceria pseudocatenulatum G4 in low concentration milk medium were studied. During cultivation process, profiles of cell growth, pH changes, organic acids and sugar profile were monitored. A finding showed that final cell concentration (cfumL-1) obtained in 2 and 4% (w/v) milk concentration was two times lower than in comparative media. However, 6% (w/v) skim milk gave a promising media for B. pseudocatenulatum G4 growth. Organic acids production (acetic, lactic, formic and citric acid) by strains was detected in all milk medium concentrations and similar profile were observed. Except for formic acid which actively produced in 2 and 4% (w/v) milk concentration. The accumulation of formic acids was believed due to carbon limitation. As for sugar profile, co-metabolized galactose and glucose were observed in 2, 4 and 6% (w/v) skim milk concentration. Meanwhile high carbon remains occurred in 8 and 10% (w/v) milk concentrations after cultivation period. Among all concentrations, milk with 6% (w/v) concentration showed better support for cells growth without formic acid presence and low carbon remains at the end of cultivation period. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated financial table's reports gaps in Jordanian Islamic banks. There must be way to face ten gaps by unit efforts between Supervisory Sharia Board report, External Auditor report and Islamic Managing Announcing Disclosure. There work must be unit as integration to give one result. Jordanian Islamic banks case study shows this cooperation to get fair result for major accounting data in financial tables. The searcher recommended to apply model as work paper to study strength or weakness of gaps which impact the financial analysis success in Islamic banks. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated practically impact of corporation between Supervisory Sharia board external auditor and internal auditor on Income statement fairly in Jordanian Islamic banks.
This study determined the influence of nursing-mothers’ parity and index child factors on adoption of exclusive breastfeeding practice by rural nursing-mothers in Imo State Nigeria. Nigeria has only 13% compliance to exclusive breastfeeding practice, hence the need for this study that employed descriptive survey design to obtain information from 340 nursing mothers from three selected communities in the state. The target population of the study was all the 405 nursing-mothers with children aged twenty-four months and below in the selected communities but 340 nursing-mothers responded. Instruments for data collection were structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Reliability of the instrument was established and r = 0.8. Ten nursing mothers from each of the communities participated in FGD. Results of the study revealed that exclusive breastfeeding practice was 13.5% in the target communities. Only parity, place of ante-natal care and place where the child was delivered were statistically significant (P<0.05). The study concluded that parity and type of facility attended for ante and natal care played a role in the adoption of exclusive breastfeeding practice. There is need to strengthen maternity facilities to render effective exclusive breastfeeding promotion, and also to follow up mothers in the community. Contribution/ Originality
This is an original research article. The study contributes to existing literature on exclusive breastfeeding, particularly as it relates to nursing-mother’s parity, facility where she received ante-natal care, where she delivered her child and index child’s factors. These variables received little attention previously and hence, this study fills this gap.
This study aimed at investigating linguistic errors committed by students majoring in Non-English Department in writing English composition. A total of 20 first year students at Economic College IBBI Medan who have taken an English subject course were involved in this study. Their compositions were analyzed for the purpose of scrutinizing linguistic errors they made. In analyzing the data, this study adopted Hubbard (1996) classification of errors including grammatical, syntactic, substance, and lexical errors. The results of data analysis discovered that students committed 352 errors in their compositions with the following frequencies: 82 errors in propositions, 32 errors in tenses, 29 errors in articles, 48 errors in subject verb agreements, 37 errors in word order, 17 errors in capitalization, 21 errors in punctuation, 28 errors in spelling, and 58 errors in word choice. Hence, it is concluded that the most difficult linguistic error that students face is prepositions, while the easiest part of linguistic error that poses difficulty for students is capitalization. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that Indonesian EFL learners tend to face problems in deciding which prepositions to use in writing. The results showed that almost all types of prepositions were misused by students. Thence, it is important for English teachers in Indonesia to put more emphasis on preposition usage.
Making a differential diagnosis between schizoaffective disorder with major depressive episode and paranoid schizophrenia is difficult. The patient is at the threshold of neurotic versus psychotic, the intensity of ideation phenomenon being very high and specific to both disorders, it is required an assessment based on life and disorder history information, but also the emotional presence of the patient in the clinical interview. In this case study we suggest a literature comparison but also an evaluation profile of the disorder, marked by a psychiatric illness in which the person shows both affective symptoms (depressive or maniac) and symptoms of schizophrenia (such as delusions, hallucinations). Hypothesis: symptoms of the patient are oscillating between paranoid elements (paranoid schizophrenia) and affective elements (schizoaffective disorder). These oscillations are based on a fragile Ego structure with cognitive rigidity. The study outlines an immature-dependent personality profile, based on interpretativity, with passive-aggressive elements, hypersensitivity, psychotic operation and through psychotic elements manifested in the past (auditory hallucinations, as voices). Also, the basis of the transfer and counter-transference elements identified, the emotional resonance is low, with a risk of psychotic decompensation. Conclusions: Depressive schizoaffective disorder is characterized by presence of both depressive and schizophrenia symptoms in the same time period. Depressive symptoms includes: depressed mood, reduced interest, sluggishness, low energy, difficulty concentrating, insomnia, feelings of despair. During the same episode are present symptoms of schizophrenia: hallucinations, delusions of control, state of hyper-vigilance, delusions injury. Clinical examination cannot be a chance encounter because the history of mental suffering tight interfere with subject's essential history in that it creates a gap and that subjectivity psychiatric symptoms inferred immense emotional and personal participation of the subject. Contribution/ Originality
This study assessed government feeding programme on improved nutritional health status of secondary school students in Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria. Objectives and corresponding research questions were used in the study. The research design adopted for this study was survey research method. The target population for this study comprised of day public secondary schools in Maiduguri, Borno state, with a total population of nine thousand three hundred and thirty eight (9,338) students. Five public secondary schools were selected using purposive sampling technique. The sample of 934 students was selected using simple and stratified random sampling techniques. A self- developed questionnaire on government feeding programme among students in Maiduguri, Borno State was the instrument of data collection. The response mode for the instrument was a modified four(4) points Likert type scale with a response mode of strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, and percentage scores were used to answer the research question, while Chi-square was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that the school feeding programme improved the nutritional health status of the students. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Government should employ qualified food scientists, nutritionists, dieticians and caterers to assist in running the programme and to make them responsible for the purchase of needed food items to be cooked in schools. Furthermore, Government should also encourage more international donor agencies like the International Non-governmental organizations to come in with more improved varieties of school meals to increase the nutritional health status of the internally displaced students in the society. School feeding programmes should encompass both public and private primary and secondary educational institutions across the country. Feeding should be well guided by a menu which reflects the nutritional need for energy and micronutrients body requirements of the particular geographical area. Contribution/ Originality
Background and Purpose: There is currently no culturally appropriate instrument to assess Nigerian physiotherapists’ knowledge and attributes of professionalism. This study sets out to develop a psychometric instrument to assess the knowledge and attributes of professionalism of Nigerian physiotherapists, and to investigate the instrument's readability, stability, and internal consistency. Methods: A Professionalism Inventory with eight demographic questions, ten knowledge of professionalism questions and sixteen attributes of professionalism perception-based statements was developed. The attributes of professionalism scale assess clinical competence, a spirit of inquiry, accountability, autonomy, advocacy, innovation and visionary, collegiality and collaboration, and ethics and values. The Inventory was completed on two occasions, after two-week interval, by 91 Nigerian physiotherapists. Results: The Inventory’s average grade reading level was 10. The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC 3, 1) for the knowledge of professionalism scale ranged from “moderate” (0.421, p<0.001) to “substantial” (0.770, p<0.001). The Kendall's coefficient of concordance for the attributes of professionalism scale ranged from “fair” (0.368, p<0.001) to “moderate” (0.547, p<0.001). The Cronbach alpha for the knowledge of professionalism scale was “almost perfect” (0.813, p<0.0001); and “substantial” (0.780, p<0.001) for professionalism attributes scale. Conclusion: The knowledge and attributes of professionalism scales are stable and internally consistent. The availability of this psychometric instrument will promote studies of professionalism in physiotherapy. Contribution/ Originality
This study is the first psychometric instrument developed to assess Nigerian physiotherapists’ knowledge and attributes of professionalism and also the first to document the instrument's readability, stability, and internal consistency statistical properties.
This paper explores the determining of which factors/variables, and the optimal levels of these factors that lead toward successful online posts in a B2B context. Using real data from a software development company’s official social media outlets, data made available only to the authors, we conducted a fractional-factorial design with two dependent (output) variables, which were measures of success: number of impressions, and number of actions. We examined the impact of six independent variables (“factors”) and some selected interactions of these factors on the two output measures. The factors are: day of post, time of day of post, presence of an image, presence of a hashtag, length of the message, and specific channel used. Three of the six factors were significant when analyzing number of impressions, while none of the factors made the 5% significance level when analyzing number of actions. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the factors that determine the success of online posts in a B2B context. Also, it is the first paper to investigate this issue using a fractional-factorial design.
This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of prediabetes and the associated risk of kidney disease in Nnewi, Nigeria. A total of 277 apparently healthy subjects (73males and 204 females) who were willing to participate were recruited. Anthropometric indices and blood pressure were measured using standard methods while the demographic data and dietary pattern of subjects were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire. 5mls of blood was collected from eligible subjects (20 prediabetes and 20 non prediabetes ) and dispensed in fluoride oxalate and plain containers for glucose, creatinine (Cr), Urea(Ur), Na+, K+, Cl-, and HCO3- estimation respectively using standard methods. The result showed a prevalence of 7.2% prediabetes in the population. BMI was significantly higher in prediabetes than the control groups (39.4±5.8 vs 29±4.4kg/m2; P>0.05). Again, significant increases in the prediabetic values of FBG (117.54±16.84 vs 83±16.84mg/dl; P>0.05) than the control group were observed. The SBP (128± 11.26 vs 120±2.2mmHg; P>0.05) and DBP (92±4.43 vs 60±5.3mmHg; P>0.05) was also higher in prediabetic groups. Interestingly, result showed no significant difference between the renal parameters in prediabetes and non prediabetes (p>0.05). The study therefore, suggests that the major determinant for predabetes in the study population may be hypertension and obesity whereas kidney function was not impaired. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the Prevalence of Prediabetes and the associated risk of kidney disease in apparently healthy individuals in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.
The most accepted Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) is heavily applied to measure the transformational leadership in private sector and central government organizations than provincial council organizations in Sri Lanka. Thus this paper describes the development of a 21 item instrument for assessing transformational leadership in provincial council organizations in Sri Lanka with special reference to the western provincial council. To do so, both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied in three fundamental stages recommended by Churchill (1979). Initially a qualitative research was undertaken in five ministries in the western provincial council within Colombo district through interviews with 15 senior and middle level administrative officers from different back grounds which produced 21 items with four factors emerged. These 21 -items were included in a questionnaire and quantitative study was undertaken with the same respondents who were currently involved in the service in the Western Provincial Council. 60 questionnaires were distributed and 56 questionnaires were returned and found to be useful 56, which represents a 93% response rate. More than half (52) of the respondents were female between the age of 40-55. To ensure the reliability and validity of the measures of transformational leadership construct, mainly reliability test, factor analysis, was used. Finally, 21 items were deducted into 10 items and a new scale was developed to measure the transformational leadership in public sector organizations with three dimensions idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and. Regarding the limitations of the study in this respect, only the senior and middle level managers were considered. The sample size was 60 and it was selected only from the western provincial council with the use of purposive sampling technique. Further studies with large sample size which covers the all provincial councils using newly developed scale to measure the transformational leadership and replication studies with other organizations would be useful for further generalizations of the newly developed scale. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have developed scale for measuring transformational leadership in the public sector organizations in Sri Lanka. Such a study is significant that its leadership development is at crucial stage. Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 4
The Influence of Communication, Work Motivation and Career Development on Elementary School Teacher’s Job Performance in Medan, Indonesia
Kepler Sianturi, Manner Tampubolon
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management
Work performance requires the integration of ability, efforts and the opportunity gained. This means that work performance is the result of work for a specified period of time and it accentuates more on the result of work completed for a specified period of time. One of the duties personnel department held responsible for in improving teacher job performance is through providing communication, implementing teacher career development program and motivating teachers so as to create work performance. This study sought to determine the influence of communication, career development and work motivation on work performance of elementary school teachers in Medan, Indonesia. The research was conducted on elementary school teachers in Medan. The research is descriptive quantitative research in nature. Upon analyzing the data, it was discovered that there is a positive and significant influence between the variables of communication (X1), work motivation (X2) and career development (X3) collectively on the dependent variable of work achievement (Y) of elementary school teacher in Medan namely 55,998 and the results of adjusted coefficient of determination (R Square) discovered that the variables of communication (X1), work motivation (X2) and career development (X3) collectively influence the dependent variable of work achievement (Y) amounting to 83,9% which means that R Square = 0,70 is strongly related. Thus, it can be concluded that 70,4% of factors influencing work performance stem from communication, work motivation and career development, whereas the remaining 69.2% is influenced by other factors. Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution of the study is that it’s finding association between communications, working motivation for career development on the performance of elementary school teachers. It is proven that communication, work motivation and career development are very important and have great potential to improve teacher performance, so as to make new breakthrough on their performance.
Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor among women. The objective of this research is to evaluate the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of BSGI, DC, and WE-MRI in the diagnosis of breast benign and malignant breast tumors. 228 female patients have participated in this observational research. The age was ranged from 31-68 years (mean age 42.37± 8.14 years) with suspicious breast lesions according to physical and imaging examination (mammography and/or ultrasonography). Moreover, women, who have suspected local regional recurrence after resection of malignant breast tumor and who were suspected to have tumor residual following chemotherapy or radiotherapy were also included. All patients underwent breast specific gamma imaging, DW-MRI, and DCE-MRI examination, and the results of breast MRI were compared with the histopathological results that were used as the standard diagnostic method. In this research, 111 women were found to have breast lesion. All breast lesions were undergone histopathological analysis using needle biopsy and/or excisional biopsy. Also, the results of the pathological analysis were correlated and confirmed with ultrasonography and mammography. The pathologic analysis confirmed that 76 (68.5%) of 111 lesions were benign breast lesions and 35 (31.5 %) of 111 were malignant breast lesions. The results proved that BSGI had the best results for the detection of breast lesions (sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 93.6 % and accuracy 94.8%) as compared with DCE-MRI (sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 85.6% and accuracy 88.2%) and diffusion weighted imaging (sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 88.5% and accuracy 91.4%). The research stated that BSGI is the most appropriate diagnostic tool for breast lesions. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that Breast Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) is the most suitable diagnostic tool for benign and malignant breast tumors. Specifically, the study has contributed in identifying the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of BSGI in the diagnosis of breast lesions and tumors.
Measurement of wood density in Congo Basin forests are needed to reduce uncertainties on estimations of carbon stocks. The purpose of this study was to test vertical variation and temperature variation (80 °C, 105 °C) effects on wood density of species in a semi-deciduous forest of eastern Cameroon. Wood samples were collected on felled trees, at the base, middle of the trunk and on the branches in plots of 10 m x 10 m for trees <5 cm diameter, of 20 m x 10 m for trees with diameter between 5 and 10 cm and, of 20 m x 250 m for trees with diameter ? 10 cm. 162 trees with diameter between 1 cm and 146 cm were used. The highest wood density (0.912) was found in Ficus sp. and lowest (0.295) in Enantia chlorantha. Using 80 °C as temperature to estimate wood density increased the value of about 10% when compare to the reference temperature of 105 °C. A significant difference was observed between wood density of the base and the top of trees studied. 10 species did not have wood density reported in the Global Wood Density database. This study recommends further research on wood density to cover as many tree species as possible in the Congo Basin. Contribution/ Originality
The mid hill of Nepal is also known as the hub of community forestry and Dhading district alone has 681. Valuating ecosystem goods and services is expected to raise public attention to their importance and may trigger support for a suitable conservation strategy. This paper assesses how the community forest ecosystem functioning connected to human wellbeing and what is their monetary value. To answer these questions Kalika community forest of Dhading district, central Nepal was selected since it was rewarded by DFO as the best CFUG in Dhading in 2014. This study presents the results of an attempt to estimate the economic value of goods and service provided by the community forest. Market price method was used for estimation of provisioning goods, productivity method for supporting services, religious value through donation collection from the temple as cultural services and avoided damage cost for the regulating services and secondary data from the community forestry operational plan provided by DFO was also used for the estimation of provisioning goods. The economic value from the ecosystem functioning of the forest was approximate $441,739 per year with an average of $2265 per hector per year. The value of carbon sequestration was estimated high as $1342 per hector per year and the economic value of the cultural services was very low as compared to other but have a greater role in forest conservation. At last this study discusses the importance of outcome for sustainable forest management strategy and suggests some way forward. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the economic value of the specific community forest of Dhading district, Nepal. The paper documents the important information of the quantified monetary value of community forest resource that is paramount for the sustainable conservation and management of forest. Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1
Adaptation Study of Mung Bean (Vigna Radiate) Varieties in Raya Valley, Northern Ethiopia
In order to investigate the adaptability of mung bean varities; a study was carried out at the research field of Mehoni Agricultural Research Center in 2014/15 cropping season. Nine varities were arranged in 3*3 lattice design with three replications in six rows per plot with 2.4 m wide and 4 m long, and with spacing of 40 cm between rows and 10 cm between plants. Days to flowering, Days to maturity, Plant height, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight and grain yield per hectare was significantly influenced by variety. The highest grain yield (1362.50 kg ha-1) was obtained from Black bean variety; followed by Shewa robit (1225.00 kg ha-1). On the contrary, the lowest grain yield value (242.60 kg ha-1) was obtained at MH BR-1 variety. Thus, both black bean and Shewa robit varities were best adapted in Raya valley. Contribution/ Originality
This research finding contributes concrete information and attends the issues of best adaptable varieties to the specific agro-ecology (Raya valley) for mung bean producers.