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Listing 36 - 20 of 2206 results.

Measuring The Relative Efficiency of Tournaments

Research Article
Author(s): Graham Pollard, Denny Meyer, Geoff Pollard
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
The efficiency of various tournament structures such as knock-outs and round robins has been considered by several authors, and it has been noted that the round robin structure has a higher probability that the best player wins than do the other structures, but it is at the cost of playing a larger number of matches. On the other hand the knock-out tournament requires relatively few matches, but has a smaller value for the probability that the best player wins. Thus, the compromise between the number of matches played in a tournament and the probability that the best player wins that tournament has remained to some extent an unsolved problem. The Masters Tennis tournament, being a combination of two round robins and a knock-out, is one attempt at such a compromise. In this paper the balance between the number of matches played and the probability that the best player wins is addressed, and the efficiency of several different tournament structures is evaluated. It is noted that although the efficiency has been evaluated for just some of the commonly used tournament structures, the approach outlined in this paper can be used for a wide range of other structures.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper formulates a method for finding the relative efficiency of tournaments. The knock-out structure is shown to be a very efficient one, and the draw and process quite efficient.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 09-2015 Issue: 3

Comparative Assessment of Co2 Emission Factors Estimated Using Stack Flue Gas Measurement Data for Two Types of Brick Kiln: A Case Study in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam

Research Article
Author(s): Duc Luong Nguyen, Thanh Trung Nguyen, Duy Thai Nguyen, Duy Dong Nguyen
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
In Vietnam, the brick production sector is one of the construction material production sectors that has large emission of CO2 – the major greenhouse gas, since it consumes a large amount of fossil fuels. This research aims at preliminarily estimating the CO2 emission factors for two major kiln technologies used in brick production sector in Vietnam, namely tunnel and vertical shaft brick kiln (VSBK). For this purpose, field measurement of CO2 concentration in stack flue gases of two brick factories in Phu Tho province – one of the largest brick production areas in the North of Vietnam were conducted. The results of data analysis have shown that the tunnel kiln has higher CO2 emission factors compared to those of VSBK. The lower specific energy consumption and lower heat losses are the major causes for lower CO2 emission factors of VSBK.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the CO2 emission factors for kiln technologies used in brick production sector in Vietnam. 
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Postbuckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams Using Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory

Research Article
Author(s): Mokhtar Bouazza, Khaled Amara, Mohamed Zidour, Abedlouahed Tounsi, EL Abbas Adda-Bedia
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
In the present study, post-buckling of a thick FGM rectangular beam is carried out using the hyperbolic shear deformation theory (HYSDT). The theory accounts for parabolic distribution of transverse shear stresses across the thickness satisfying the stress free boundary conditions at top and bottom surfaces of the beam. It is assumed that elasticity modulus is changing in the thickness direction and all other material properties are taken to be constant. Variation of elasticity modulus in the thickness direction, are described by a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. Governing equations of FGM beam for post-buckling problem were found by applying Hamilton principle and Navier type solution method was used to solve post-buckling problem. The results obtained for post-buckling analysis of functionally graded beams are compared with those obtained by other theories, to validate the accuracy of the presented theory.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates new formula to investigate the postbuckling behaviors of simply supported FGM beams subjected to mechanical loads.
Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Review of the Role of PPAR Gamma and Agonists in the Development of Heart

Research Article
Author(s): Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Peroxisome-proliferator activator receptor ? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor of central importance in metabolic processes. Recent experimental pieces of evidence demonstrate that PPAR? is implicated in cardiac function and development. Here we reviewed the role of PPAR? and ligands  that emerged as a potential new therapeutic target for several cardiac diseases.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 2

Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections

Research Article
Author(s): Nwele James Obasi, Uduimoh Anthony Akwawa
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
This paper examines the nexus between governments, human right organisations and electorates on elections in relation to economic development through human capacity building templates of society. The society problems, the complexities of business cycle and development that we face today, is leadership inability to handle democratic indices and draw a line between marginal utility and social value.  The conflict line services of affluence that is measured on regressional competition is grossly taking over the political field and true democracy becoming unattainable feat in most economies of the world, and particularly in Nigeria.  This finding reveals that most politicians think it is not necessary to learn the specific bases of power as they are meant to provide a sense of the variety and complexity of power, and not as an exhaustive list of its important sources.  In developing countries it is of essence to make all political template in the field of play favourable to even development, so that, positive government actions permeate all channels in the process.  This research examines the broad principles of all about politics especially, about the politics of democracies, like the United States, Britain, the State of Israel, and Italy, et cetera. The relationship between the Nigerian government, human right organisations, the electorate and social security and peace needs to be harmonised for secured tranquillity in our society. The findings of this study reveal that politics and economic development, elections, democracy, electorates and human right organisations has a nexus that cannot be overemphasised.  This is because the growth of economy is dependent on how the indices of these compound templates are harmonised.  According to Shively (2001), “Despite the complexity and elusiveness of power, we can say that all politics is based on some form of power and that its sources may be highly varied.  For most practical applications of politics, however, it is not necessary to specify in detail exactly what sort of power is involved.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on politics and development of nations, good governance and rewards.  This study uses new estimation methodology that is focused on poverty reduction to near zero aggregate of every electoral population. This study documents that leaders has to be more objective towards change management and good governance.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 1

Performance Based Budgeting System Design in Universitas Sebelas Maret

Research Article
Author(s): Santosa Tri Hananto, Lulus Kurniasih, Adi Firman Ramadhan
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Performance based budgeting requires information system in order to attain its goal. Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS) has used the combination system of performance based budgeting and traditional budgeting. The objective of this research is to design application software that is useful for UNS in its budgeting process. This research analyzes system application of performance based budgeting. The system design consists of output design, document design, and input design. Output design of performance based budgeting consists of Planning Report, Financial Statement, and Performance Report. These reports supposed to be integrated. In document design, all files should be documented by the Development Plan Team. The final design is input design, which concern about planning and activities process.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis about system of perfomance based budgeting  in Indonesia’s public university. Performance based budgeting has been demanded by the Goverment but there are little reasearch about it.  
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Asset System Design Based on Accrual To Improvement Quality of Financial Information (A Case Study in the City of Pacitan)

Research Article
Author(s): Subekti Djamaluddin, Santoso Tri Hananto, Bandi .
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Accrual-based accounting is implemented in Goverment Accounting standards now (Government Regulation No. 71 of 2010).  In Regulation 71 of 2010 depreciation shall be conducted on all goods belonging to the State/Region. Therefore, asset systems are adequate to accommodate the asset depreciation. In addition, asset system is necessary because asset management of the State/Regional is not optimal according to the Financial Oversight Bodies (BPK). This reasearch aims to create a prototype system of asset system in local government with a case study on the Government Pacitan. This reasearch is able to provide a solution to the problem of assets with an adequate information system.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that asset system is necessary for regional goverment in Indonesia. Asset is one big problem that faces regional goverment in Indonesia.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Protectionism and Containment in the Twenty-First Century: Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)

Research Article
Author(s): Claude V. Chang, Karl Kluegel
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
This paper advances two premises in regard to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): The first is that TPP represents the latest initiative on the protectionism continuum, thus the latest substitute for domestic adjustment. As argued, its primary focus is to facilitate the perceived need to “rebalance global growth” within the existing institutional framework of global capitalism with minimal disruption to the US economy,  hence it is unlikely to succeed in an era of increasing uncertainty surrounding the world economic and political order in a post-Great Recession world.. The second premise is that, as a two-pronged initiative TPP further represents the latest attempt to contain China in its sphere of influence in the region and the wider world, hence it is equally likely to fail in this objective given China’s established geo-economic role in the region and its use of soft power.  
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the United States seeks to use the process of trade creation and trade diversion as means to effect a rebalance of global trade without incurring the cost of domestic adjustment and to contain China in its ambition as a regional power. 
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

The Basics of Kenyan Morals and the Professional Practice of Journalism: The Case for Society-Centered Media Decency

Research Article
Author(s): Jonai Wabwire
Journal: Journal of New Media and Mass Communication

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Abstract
The theme of this paper is that the communal approach should be used in solving moral hitches in journalism. The individualism and divisionism that permeate the practice of journalism in Kenya today should be thrown away since they are not only unKenyan but also professionally unpleasant. The article asserts that Kenyan journalism should have an ingrained self-correcting mechanism that facilitates journalists counseling one another. It is submitted herein that world journalism, equally overwhelmed with divisionist and selfish styles to the practice of ethical journalism, could learn from Kenya the value of journalistic solidarity and common problem-solving. The paper ends with a recommendation that the world needs journalism with a human face.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is finding that Kenyan ethical foundations would, if taken seriously into account in the practice of journalism in Kenya, donate to world journalism, contaminated by questionable objectives and practices, a new lease of life that would make journalists deserve the tag ’respectable professionals’ rather than the present one of ’professional liars’.
Social Sciences » Journal of New Media and Mass Communication » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Frequency of Gastrointestinal Parasites and Egg per Gram Faeces Count of Nematodes in Black Bengal Goat under Field Condition in West Bengal, India

Research Article
Author(s): K. C. Dhara, N. Ray, C. Lodh, P.K. Bandopadhyay, A. Goswami
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
Prevalence as well as intensity of infection of gastro-intestinal parasites in Black Bengal goat under field condition in different season was done to assess the prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in Black Bengal goat under field condition to guide farm managers. The Coprological study of faecal samples of apparently healthy Black Bengal goat was conducted in field condition at Nadia district of West Bengal state of India from July 2005 to June 2006 through direct microscopic examination as well as floatation and sedimentation methods. Out of 1147 faecal samples examined, 715 (62.34%) samples were found to be positive for gastrointestinal parasites. Strongyle sp. was the most prevalent (77.48%) parasites followed by Paramphistome sp. (30.63%), Trichuris (14.55%), Moneizia (12.73%) and Fasciola sp. (6.29%). Seasonal prevalence rate and eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) count was highest in monsoon and lowest in summer. Monthly EPG count and prevalence rate was highest in November followed by October and September.The present study might help to decide the deworming schedule and management measures for farmers to increase the productivity of Black Bengal.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Description of Immature Stages of the Brown Dog Tick Rhipicephalus Sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Using Scanning Electron Microscopy

Research Article
Author(s): Sobhy Abdel-Shafy, Amira H. El Namaky, Hala A. Abou Zeina, Alaa A. Ghazy
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
The brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a three-host tick that feeds primarily on dogs and occasionally on other hosts, including humans. Therefore, this study aimed to describe in details the immature stages (larva and nymph) of R. sanguineus using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and morphometeric analyses. The measurements of nymph and larva structures are relatively close to those of Hyalomma excavatum.  The number and distribution of setae on either the dorsal or ventral surfaces of nymph differ from those of other ixodid ticks. Eyes have an elongated shape in nymph and larva. The position of sternal setae in nymph resembles the position of these setae in H. dromedarii. The shape and position of spurs on coxae in nymph and larva are considered the unique characters that can differentiate this species from other three species of R. sanguineus group (R. camicasi, R. turanicus and R. sulcatus). Palpi in nymph and larva are tending to each other forming triangular shape. The apices of palpi in nymph and larva are tapering. Basis capitulum has hexagonal shape dorsally in nymph and larva. Basis capitulum of nymph has a pair of spur-like ventrally. Further studies are needed in details on the immature stages of other tick species of R. sanguineus group such as R. camicasi, R. turanicus and R. sulcatus using advanced techniques such as SEM or molecular biology. These techniques may provide additional characteristics which may facilitate the identification of the immature stages of R. sanguineus group.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the immature stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus morphologically by scanning electron microscope. 
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Examination of Oribatid Mites for Cysticercoids of Moniezia Sp

Research Article
Author(s): Reena K. K., Jobin Thomas, Nirmal Chacko, Lucy Sabu, K. Devada
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
Two hundred oribatid mites separated from the soil collected from the vicinity of the manure pits of Cattle and Goat farms under the Kerala Veterinary & Animal Sciences University, Mannuthy using Berlese apparatus. All the mites separated were identified upto family level as Mochlozetidae. On dissection of all the collected mites, one fully developed and an immature cysticercoid could be detected from only one mite.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the role of intermediate host in spreading of cestodiasis. The infection status of intermediate host is the major risk factor for infection in definite host. So it is very important to know the prevalence of infection in intermediate host for taking proper control measures against the disease. Much work has not been done in this field so far. So this is a good initiative and work can be carried forward on a higher level.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Assessment of Veterinary Inspection Practices on Quality of Beef Produced In Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Oyediran, Wasiu Oyeleke
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
Beef is an important animal protein source in Nigerian diet and its quality depends on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes. Hence, this study was carried out to assess veterinary inspection practices on quality of beef produced in Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The findings of this study showed that the butchers were young with mean age of 40.51years and 95.70% were males. All the respondents strongly agreed that facilities such as lighting, carcass carriers, security fence and cooling facilities had never been provided in the study area. The result also showed that 45.70% of the respondents always cleaned the abattoir’s environment once in a week or at month end, and dungs and wastes were dumped around the abattoir. None of the respondents neither hang the beef in the open air nor put it in a deep freezer but always displayed the beef on the table for customers to see. However, all the respondents allowed customers to touch the beef. It was revealed that ante-mortem inspection was always carried out by the Veterinary Officers attached to the abattoirs. The prominent challenges to quality of beef produced are lack of essential infrastructure, training and workshop for the butchers on hygiene practices and use of modern processing equipment. It can be concluded that beef production is a lucrative venture in the study area but the hygiene practices is below Codex Alimentarius recommended standard. It is hereby recommended that the veterinary officers should intensify effort on ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections while health extension workers and other stakeholders should organize a training/workshop on hygiene practices that will improve the quality of beef produced in the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effects of veterinary practices on the quality of beef produced for public consumption in the rural areas. The study identified that the veterinary inspection of the beef was not comprehensive and the hygiene practices of butchers were shortcomings. 
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Blood Picture and Selected Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Dromedary Camels Naturally Infected With Trypanosoma Evansi

Research Article
Author(s): I.M. Eljalii, W.M. EL-Deeb, T.A. Fouda, A.M. Almujalli, S.M. El-Bahr
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
Additional Biomarkers are required for estimation of the oxidative stress status in camel trypanosomiasis. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine lipid peroxidation, enzymatic antioxidants level and hematological indices in camels naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi and trypanosome free camels (control). The clinical examinations reveled that all the infected camels showed signs of loss of appetite, diarrhea and loss of weight with poor body condition. Hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease  (P=0.022-0.031) in the values of total erythrocytic count (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) and Packed cell volume (PCV) in trypansoma infected camels (5.0 ± 0.5 ×1012/L; 5.7 ± 0.5 g/dl; 21.8 ± 1.0%) compared to control group (9.6 ± 0.6 ×1012/L; 10.3 ± 0.5 g/dl; 29.1 ± 1.5%). However, the values of total leucocytic counts (TLC) and differential counts were comparable to the control values except for Eosinophils value which were significantly (P=0.023) increased in trypanosome infected camel (6.0 ± 1.9%) compare to the control (1.8 ± 0.8%). Biochemical analysis indicated that, lipid peroxidation level was significantly (P=0.021) increased in trypansoma infected camels as reflected on higher values of malonaldhyde (MDA; 6.3 ± 0.3µM) as compare to the control (0.07 ± 0.01µM). The activity of glutathione reductase was significantly (P=0.025) increased in trypansoma infected camels (1.3 ± 0.01nmol/ml) compare to the control (0.8 ± 0.2nmol/ml) whereas, the activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD) remained unchanged (P=0.072) in trypansoma infected camels compare to the control healthy animal. The present findings concluded that Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels was associated with lipids peroxidation and oxidative stress. In addition, the present study suggests that glutathione reductase may use as oxidative stress biomarker in Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated lipid peroxidation, enzymatic antioxidants level and hematological indices in camels naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Classification and Identification of Risk Management Techniques for Mitigating Risks with Factor Analysis Technique in Software Risk Management

Research Article
Author(s): Abdelrafe Elzamly, Burairah Hussin
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
Regardless how much effort we put for the success of software projects, many software projects have a very high failure risk rate. The failure risk is not always avoidable, but it could be controllable by using risk management technique through the software development Lifecycle.  The aim of this study is to present the factor analysis techniques to classify and identify the risk management techniques in the software development project. The best thirty risk management techniques were presented to respondents and all risk management techniques are used most of the time, and often. We have chosen three components: Planning and requirement techniques, communication techniques, models and tools for thirty risk management techniques. The study has been conducted on a group of software project managers in software development companies. We will intend to apply these study results on a real-world software project to verify the effectiveness of the risk management techniques on a software project for mitigating risks. Successful identifying of risk management techniques will greatly improve the probability of mitigating software risk.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is to present the factor analysis technique to classify and identify the risk management techniques (controls) in the software development project for mitigating risks.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Constraints to Brood and Sell Poultry Production among Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Onwubuya, E.A, Ajani, E.N., Nenna M.G
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The paper examined constraints to brood and sell poultry production among farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of fourty (40) respondents. Data was analyzed using frequency, percentage and mean scores. Results of the study showed that the respondents were young, educated and have acquired some experience over the years and were able to finance the poultry enterprise through self-help efforts. The study further revealed a gap in the information service delivery of extension systems and the prospects observed were still below standard for extension expectations of the recent times in some rural areas of Nigeria. The respondents were highly constrained by high cost of feeds and raw materials (85.0%), poor extension agents’ contact (65.0%), inadequate drugs and veterinary services (65.0%), high infestation of diseases (60.0%) and difficulty in procurement of quality stocks (62.5%). It was concluded that Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) should integrate the activities of brood and sell poultry farmers into its programmes by providing the techniques involved to contact farmers. Efforts of government of Enugu State are highly needed in subsidizing farm inputs to farmers in order to ensure optimum productivity.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Income Elasticity of Poverty: Estimates for South Asian Countries

Research Article
Author(s): Rati Ram
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
Responsiveness of poverty to growth of income in developing countries is of obvious importance. The responsiveness is usually stated in terms of the magnitude of the so-called growth elasticity of poverty, which has received much attention. Noting that in the vast literature on the topic, there is hardly any study that provides estimates of the elasticity for individual countries, this short paper makes a beginning by reporting the elasticity for six South-Asian countries during the period 1990-2005. Even in this relatively cohesive group, the elasticity shows a huge variability from nearly zero for Bangladesh and 0.35 for India to 4.67 for Pakistan, and illustrates the important point that income growth can translate into poverty reduction at vastly different rates, primary reliance on income growth for poverty reduction does not seem appropriate, and poverty-reducing public policy measures may matter even more than income growth.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper reports income elasticity of poverty in South Asian countries and brings out the enormous diversity in the rate at which income growth translates into poverty reduction even in this small group. One important implication is that direct public policies may be as important as income growth for poverty reduction.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

Affective Humanism: Towards an Ontology for Accountability in Local Government Administration in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Francis Etim
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Among the myriads of problems betting the developmental strive in Nigeria, besides the problem of leadership, is the issue of corruption. The endemic nature of the problem calls for concern because of its moral implications and replying effects. Indeed, no stratum of the society is devoid of its clawing effect to such an extent that it is taken as a la mode. To redress the scenario, many measures have been taken, institutions set up to combat this menace yet to no avail. The failure could be adduced to among other reasons limiting the fight to only empirical dimension with no attention paid to the ontological dimension of the problem. This is the onus of this paper but with particular reference to the Local Government administration because of its strategic nature as a grassroot political institution and its vital role in any developmental effort and discuss in the Nigerian polity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of philosophy and public affairs.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Oguamalam Masquerade Performance beyond Aesthetics

Research Article
Author(s): Akas Nicholas Chielotam
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Masquerade in its form, style, costume and performance has remained an indispensable art in the African society. At times, people misinterpret masquerade performance to be barbaric, mundane and something to be avoided. This misinformation has raised a lot of unanswered questions on masquerade performance and its essence. This paper, therefore, aims at presenting in an unbiased way, the idea behind masquerade performance in Africa. It will explore how it goes beyond aesthetics and mere entertainment, to motivate people in appreciating their culture and the tradition that brought it into being. In order to actualize the interpretative and communicative potency in masquerade and its performance, qualitative method of analyzing data using content analysis will be used to x-ray Oguamalam Mmanu Performance of Erim community in Imo State.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper finally documents and sustains the mythological belief system imbedded in oguamalam masquerade performance of Erim community.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Sacred Rituals at a Chepni Village in Western Anatolia

Research Article
Author(s): Sinan Caya
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This article basically contains some information translated from a (Turkish-originated) French scholar’s ethnographic work. It is about the descendants of previously-nomadic Turkoman tribe of Chepnis, in Western Anatolia. Those people preserved most of their authentic social structure even after becoming sedentary. Their social dynamic impetus itself drives its force from the venerated Anatolian version of Shiism. Since the vast majority of Anatolian soil belongs to the Sunnite interpretation of Islamic tradition; Chepnis and similar closed communities had a hard time throughout the Ottoman history.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which investigate the Qizilbash communities of Anatolia in contemporary times. Such scientific works are indeed not many in number even in Turkish, the language of the mentioned people. It is a fact that the Sunnite majority despised those people or at best ignored their spiritual aspects. No doubt this negative general attitude have dissuaded a tendency to investigate the communities, on the part of social scholars themselves. Word of mouth was widespread ― (usually in a discrediting manner, too― but one can not claim that stuff which had been printed on sheer paper amounts to substantial volumes. The work may be considered a review article based on the book in French: GOKALP (1980). Têtes rouges et bouches noires, une confrérie  tribale de l’ouest Anatolien, Société d’Ethnographie, Paris. A number of auxiliary sources are also employed.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2