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Among the myriads of problems betting the developmental strive in Nigeria, besides the problem of leadership, is the issue of corruption. The endemic nature of the problem calls for concern because of its moral implications and replying effects. Indeed, no stratum of the society is devoid of its clawing effect to such an extent that it is taken as a la mode. To redress the scenario, many measures have been taken, institutions set up to combat this menace yet to no avail. The failure could be adduced to among other reasons limiting the fight to only empirical dimension with no attention paid to the ontological dimension of the problem. This is the onus of this paper but with particular reference to the Local Government administration because of its strategic nature as a grassroot political institution and its vital role in any developmental effort and discuss in the Nigerian polity.
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The potential link between governance and institutions is increasingly becoming a central concern in social science. In political science, the approach taken to explore this link involves examining the role structure plays in determining political behaviours, the overall patterns of governance, and the outcomes of political processes. Therefore, the quality of institutions has long been recognized as an important component of a well-functioning system of governance. This paper investigates and reflects on the relationship between institutions and governance in local political settings and analyzes the impacts of institutional factors on good governance. Very specifically, the paper explores different theoretical and empirical debates about governance in general and good governance in particular. Drawing upon “historical institutionalism”, the paper offers a satisfactory analytical framework for studying the ability of the institutions of governance in Tanzania, from their inception through their development over time, to meet the needs of the local community.
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The struggle to save humankind from hunger and starvation through the improvement of agricultural productivity using agrochemicals has gone a long way to settle an aspect of these challenges, but its social, health and ecological implication has always almost been forgotten. Due to man’s indiscriminate land use/farming activities and the use of agrochemicals without adhering strictly to the user instructions included in the agrochemical package, this has affected man in no small way. This is so because of man’s unregulated agricultural activities coupled with his faulty land use pattern. This has affected both the natural ecosystem and the agricultural farm produce thereby turning round to affect the health of man, his environment and his finances too. This paper therefore investigated the effect of these agrochemicals on health, environment and the social aspects. This research is therefore located within the northern senatorial district of Cross River State, which covers Ogoja, Yala, Bekwarra, Obudu and Obanliku local government areas. A total of 638 respondents including farmers, nurses, medical doctors and other laboratory scientists within the study area were randomly selected for the study using multistage random sampling technique. The instruments for the study include a structured questionnaire, personal interview and client case file, using independent t-test and simple percentage for data analysis, it was found that within the period the rural farmers started using these agrochemicals especially herbicides and those for crop storage, there has been an increase in the incidence of cancer growth, gastro-intestinal disorder and other health and birth complications within the study zone. These effects did not only affect the health of humans, it also affected the ecosystem and the finances of man. The authors are aware that a baseline data was needed to do a comparison between what was and what is in order to make a valid judgment, but unfortunately, not baseline data exist for the study, hence such comparison was not done. The authors therefore concluded that the use of agrochemicals has been done indiscriminately in the five local government areas under study. It was discovered that these chemicals are used without safety kits and are used for other purpose and not the function for which it was manufactured. The paper therefore proffered some recommendations and concluded that the current agrochemical usage in the study area is very faulty and contributes to some health, social and ecological implications.
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The current study is a contribution to existing literatures in search of international peace and global stability. The study adopts a new estimation methodology adopted every non-empirical, philosophical and theoretical researches. The study originates a new formula showing a deepening concern over US’ over-activated denial of genuine sovereignty to nations of the Arab Spring in our Post-September 11, 2011 Global Response to Sept. 11th 2011 Attacks on the US by Osama-Led Al-Qaida Groups. The study is therefore one of the few studies which have investigated into the rights of ‘underdog nations’, such as Iraq and Nigeria, under the current bipolar confrontation between the US and a seeming Arab Hegemony. The paper is a contribution to the first logical analysis of the history, the philosophy, and the challenges of the realists power-drunk approach to international politics around which the present bipolar politics between the US and an emerging Arab Hegemony seems to have been built. The main finding of the paper is its discovery that the power-based realists philosophy of bipolarity is to be rejected if the international community must move beyond the Sept. 11, 2011 event. The research documents and sources are materials which include books, internet articles, paper publications and input from journals.
The study contributes to research by raising a new question, not about the merits or demerits ofbipolar politics as in existing literature, but a new question about the philosophy behind the politics, namely, realists emphasis on domination, highlighted in the philosophy, history, and challenges of bipolar politics
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This paper traverses readings on Malay cultural identities. While previous research on Malay cultural identities has presented a broad overview, this paper attempts to frame this discussion based on elite constructions and socio-cultural worldviews of the Malay world. It proposes to be a start to exploring what is distinctive and worthwhile about Malay cultural identities.
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