International Journal of Management and Sustainability(155)
International Journal of Geography and Geology(109)
International Journal of Mathematical Research(51)
International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy(53)
The International Journal of Biotechnology(74)
International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research(55)
International Journal of Education and Practice(189)
International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research(52)
Review of Information Engineering and Applications(26)
International Journal of Natural Sciences Research(73)
Humanities and Social Sciences Letters(112)
International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research(28)
Journal of Empirical Studies(24)
The Economics and Finance Letters(55)
International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research(68)
International Journal of Business, Economics and Management(126)
Journal of Food Technology Research(49)
Journal of Social Economics Research(62)
International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research(87)
The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology(22)
International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology(12)
Review of Industrial Engineering Letters(20)
Review of Environment and Earth Sciences(29)
Current Research in Agricultural Sciences(72)
International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research(39)
Journal of Tourism Management Research(44)
Review of Knowledge Economy(22)
Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research(17)
Review of Computer Engineering Research(45)
Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications(7)
Journal of Minerals and Materials Research(2)
Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation(11)
International Research Journal of Insect Sciences(10)
Journal of Building Construction, Planning and Materials Research(3)
Journal of New Media and Mass Communication(14)
Journal of Future Internet(7)
Journal of Forests(17)
Journal of Nutrients(10)
Journal of Sports Research(44)
Journal of Diagnostics(23)
Review of Catalysts(4)
Journal of Diseases(29)
Review of Plant Studies(13)
Journal of Challenges(6)
Journal of Brain Sciences(5)
Financial Risk and Management Reviews(20)
International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research(21)
Journal of Information(16)
Journal of Cells(6)
Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research(13)
Journal of Atmosphere(7)
World Journal of Molecular Research(3)
International Journal of Hydrology Research(5)
International Journal of Climate Research(8)
International Journal of Business Strategy and Social Sciences(3)
World Journal of Vocational Education and Training(7)
This study assesses the trend and patterns of climate variability on the Hadejia-Nguru Wetland. The major sources of the climatic data were collected from Nguru Meteorological station and Ministry of Agriculture in Nguru, Yobe State. The climatic data include Maximum and Minimum temperature and rainfall for the period of 42 years (1970-2011) was collected. Time series analysis using linear trend model was used to analyze the data. The climatic results revealed changes in the climatic parameters especially in rainfall and maximum and minimum temperatures. It revealed that there was a little per unit increase in the mean annual maximum temperature which increased by 2.40?C when the time is at origin (initial time), and the mean of mean annual maximum temperature was 34.3?C. It also shows the per unit increase in the mean minimum temperature which increased by 4.33?C when the time is at origin (initial time), the mean annual minimum temperature was 19.4?C. Furthermore, it indicated that the per unit increase in years of the mean annual rainfall increased by 1.00mm, when the time is at origin, the mean of mean of annual rainfall was 32.8mm. As a result of decline in rainfall with continued increase in population, there has been more pressure exerted on the wetland resources. The implication of the climatic variation had greatly impacted on the environmental conditions of the region. This study therefore recommends the Management of the Hadejia Jama’are Komadugu Yobe Basin Trust Fund to put in place empowerment strategies for mitigating the current pressure exerted on the wetlands for sustainable livelihood. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literatures and used estimation method for assessment of climate variation. It’s one of the very few studies which investigated the influence of climate variability in the area. The primary contribution has revealed climate variation. It documents mitigation strategies for sustainability livelihood.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Hypericum for treating tensions in nowadays commonly business chaos. St. John’s Wort and Duloxetine, Cymbalta as both types of medicine are commonly used to treat depression in the business community today. It focused and covered on the possible side effects, chemical compound structure, functionality, background of both medicine. The previous scientific articles, research papers, case studies, patients’ reviews and issues regarding to the practice of these two medicines have been reviewed and taken into account as well. By identifying the previous clinical researches, St. John’s Wort is safe but less effective due to the unclear evidences. Duloxetine could be safe with presence of safety measures and effective with supporting clear evidences. St John’s Wort could only work as alternative medicine for business tensions unless an individual hardly tolerates with Duloxetine. The priority of Duloxetine hence is over St John’s Wort in choosing medicine for depression treatment as Duloxetine could be safe and more effective than St John’s Wort. By looking at various perspective of both type of medicine provided based on supportive evidences, it concluded that Duloxetine was more reliable and effective than St. John’s Wort in treating depression in our modern business community. Contribution/ Originality
This study makes a comparison between herbal medicine and modern medicine based on the evidences above which also had given rise on personal opinion and thoughts towards the regarding statements and statistics.
Purpose/objective: Emphasis on short term profit and share prices as criteria for the determination of business success have led to attrition of stakeholder trust and unlocked the doors for unethical conducts by professional accountants. Acceptable ethics and encounters of accountants are very critical in the global market place. This study was undertaken to advocate high ethical practices by accountants to protect the interest of the stakeholders. Methodology/approach: A literature review of fifteen scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles on corporate scandals caused by unethical behaviors of corporate leaders and accountants. Findings: (1) Unethical practiced by accountants have unintended consequences globally; (2) The accounting profession has suffered severe image damages as a result of unethical behaviors by corrupt accountants; (3) Unethical behaviors by accountants significantly contributed to the global corporate scandals, the Nigerian banking sector reorganization, and the extinction of some global companies from 2002 - 2009; (4) With the right corrective measures, organizations plagued with scandals can survive ethical challenges; (5) Audit committees oversight functions are critical in preventing corporate scandals; (6) (Un) ethical behaviors by professional accountants, organizational leaders is a tenable leadership theory. Implications/research limitations: This study, grounded in conceptual framework of business ethics, addressed the implications of unethical behaviors by accountants. This research examined the penalties of immoral conducts by accountants and organizational leaders citing Tyco International scandal as case study. Implications are that unethical behaviors by accountants have unintended consequences on stakeholders. Unethical behaviors by accountants contributed to global corporate scandals, the Nigerian banking sector reorganization, and the extinction of some global companies from 2002 – 2009. For imminent studies, effort should be made to include other relevant literature into the study. Contribution/ Originality
The study examine the perceived impact of corporate social responsibility in the Nigerian commercial banks in order to investigate the two constructs of independent and dependent variable one study objective was formulated as (i) To investigate if internal CSR practices have influence on employees’ performance in the Nigerian banks. A qualitative method was adopted for the study because flexibility in data gathering was essential to understand the internal CSR practices of the banks. The sample population for the interviews was directors and executives of CSR from the main six banks operating in Nigeria based on their per-capital shares and nationwide presence. The interview questions were opened ended in nature and structured based on the findings of literature on internal CSR and divided into sections. The Nvivo9 software was used to conduct the analysis of the data collected. The finding revealed that ta number of factors could contribute to the level at which internal CSR influence employee’s performance. Contribution/ Originality
The Thika River catchment is of great importance to Kenya and holds Ndakaini Dam where about 84% of Nairobi’s water supply comes from serving a population of over 3 million residents, whose contribution to Kenya’s Gross Product is 60%. The evidenced climate variability and trends for Thika catchment were assessed for significance using the Man Kendall’s trend test and discussed based on future climate variability scenarios. The results showed that the catchment has become relatively warmer over the past four decades. The annual precipitation and means of daily mean temperatures over the past 30 years has increased by about 7.8 mm (although not statistically significant), and 2.14°C respectively. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the climate variability within the Thika catchment in Kenya. This analysis will be of great help to the water policy experts within the region in terms of future planning.
The objective of this paper is to briefly review house allocation problems. We first give the definition and the aim of the mechanism design theory. Next we discuss its applications to markets with no monetary transfer, such as house allocation, kidney exchange and school choice. We review the literature for (i) house allocation problems, (ii) house allocation problems with existing tenants, and (iii) house allocation problems with existing tenants and newcomers. Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is to review important studies about the house allocation problems. It covers three different versions of these problems, standard house allocation problems, with existing tenants, and with existing tenants and newcomers.
The rationale of this study was to examine empirically how components of public sector size relates to GDP growth in East Africa from 1985-2015. Using balanced panel fixed or random effect model, public sector expenditure was disaggregated to scrutinize its effect of growth. The research tested for panel unit root and found that only two variables, that is, real GDP growth and capital spending - are stationary at level. The finding confirms the conventional view that relative capital spending - advances economic growth while consumption expenditure retards it. Finally, human capital allocation was insignificant. This study suggests that for these countries, the policy of increasing public sector size on investment budget to promote GDP growth will be appropriate, but fewer funds should be directed towards other governmental programs. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature in the field of public sector economics. This study uses panel estimation methodology. This study originates new formula of estimating public sector size.
This study appraises the spatial problems and prospects of fertilizer use in agriculture on the Environment in Mbieri, Mbaitoli Local Government Area of Imo State. Structured questionnaires were sampled in each villages randomly selected from the seven autonomous communities of Amaike-Mbieri, Awo Mbieri, Ezi-Mbieri, Ihitte Isi-Mbieri, Obazu Mbieri, Obi-Mbieri and Umueze-Mbieri for collection of data. The data were analysed using descriptive statistical tools of tables, charts and graphs. The outcome showed that 71.2% of the farmers do not have University Education. All the kinds of fertilizer in use in the study area contain Nitrogen with NPK 20-10-10 the most sought-after. Findings show that 54% of the farmers prefer the application of fertilizer NPK for replenishing lost soil nutrients while, 60% of the Farmers in the study area use surface broadcast method in application of fertilizer NPK on their farms. However, it was observed from this research that majority of this nitrogen compounds are washed down through surface runoffs causing pollution and eutrophication of the Ecosystems and water bodies. Government should set up research centre for Fertilizer use in Agriculture where farmers can be equipped with adequate knowledge of the best way to use fertilizer NPK while sustaining the environment Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the improper use of fertilizer. The study uses new estimation methodology of sampling questionnaire to villages observed to be most involved in Agriculture. This originates new formula that there is unbalanced use of fertilizer for agriculture.
The date palm, Phoenix dactylifera is one of the main cash crops of Sindh particularly of upper Sindh, district Khairpur. It is main source of nutrients such as; carbohydrates, vitamins etc. It is cultivated on 100,000 acres only in district Khairpur with total production of 293,000 tons, this production is much less as compared to other countries main cause of this low yield is the attack of date palm weevil. About, 3 species of insect pests have been recorded in Pakistan. The feeding behavior of RPW on three verities of date palm, Aseel, Fasly and Karbalian showed that Aseel was most susceptible, weekly observation showed that the given stem piece of Aseel was completely eaten from inside by RPW, while the stem piece of two other varieties partially damaged. Present study revealed that (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) weevils fed voraciously on Aseel in comparison to two other varieties those have eaten 7.58 mean % of given stem of Aseel while 6.54 of Fasly and 7.06 of Karbalian. Thus, the present study indicated that feeding behavior takes an important role towards control strategy due to lack knowledge of feeding behavior it is imperative to manage this pest. Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology of biological parameters b/c this study is one of very few studies which have been investigated from the region, Khairpur, Sindh – Pakistan on this vigorous pest of date palm orchards which would be helpful to manage the pest.
This study aims to explore the possibility to use rubber particles derived from discarded tire as aggregates for replacing fine and coarse natural aggregates to produce cement concrete towards resource recovery and environmental protection in Vietnam. The experimental results showed that the workability of fresh rubberized concrete was improved when replacing natural fine aggregate (sand) with fine rubber particles (2.5-5 mm) at the replacing proportions of 30-50% by volume, and when replacing natural coarse aggregate (crushed stone) with coarse rubber particles (5-20 mm) at the replacing proportions of 10-30% by volume. With respect to the mechanical properties of hardened rubberized concrete, a larger reduction in the compressive and flexural strengths was generally found when the replacing proportions increased and when coarse aggregate rather than fine aggregate was replaced by rubber particles at all replacing proportions. However, the study results also indicated that using fine rubber particles for replacing fine natural aggregate at the low replacing proportion (up to 10%) might not cause the significant effect on the compressive and flexural strength of rubberized concrete. Contribution/ Originality
This is the first ever study in Vietnam to investigate the potential for using rubber particles derived from discarded tires to replace natural aggregates in producing cement concrete towards resource recovery and environmental protection in Vietnam.
The paper primarily focuses urban material culture and its adverse impact on urban waste management and finally the environmental services. The study results show the increase of personal purchasing capacity, pleasure in aesthetes, upholding the social esteem push people towards material culture at a hyper level. It causes a serious risk of waste management and ecological aspects. Urban governance across the world has to cost a lion portion of its annual budget for waste management and environmental preservation. However, the more wastes (liquid and solid) generates everyday that cannot be managed more than seventy or eighty percent resulting in a severe environmental costs. The paper mainly aims to find out the socio-psychological causes of increasing material culture and its effects on urban governance, waste management and city environments. The study has been conducted in qualitative approach and secondary sources have been used for data collection. Immaterial culture might be a suitable source of pleasure, happiness and social status that have to take as a social movement to minimizing material culture and moreover, socio-politically we have to follow the ideology recycle, reuse and reduce. Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of very few studies which have investigated the adverse impacts of material culture on socio-cultural and ecological services as it also erodes spiritualism, humanism, social harmony and ecology. The paper contributes the first logical analysis of the negative effects of fast fashion producing countries’ (Bangladesh) labor rights and environments.
The aim of this paper is investigation of microbiostratigraphy and sedimentary environment of the Sarvak and Kazhdumi formations in Bahregansar oil field. To investigate these units, microbiostratigraphy and microfacies analyses were carried out on nearly 600 m of cuttings, including cutting plug samples and thin sections prepared from Bahregansar oil field in the Persian Gulf, SW Iran. 22 Species and genera of foraminifera were recognized and four biozones were identified. Also the microfacies analysis of the Sarvak and Kazhdumi formations in Bahregansar oil field is led to recognition fourteen microfacies of three facies belts (depositional environment) including open marine, bar and lagoon environments. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the Upper Cretaceous of oil fields. The results of this study will help to make Upper Cretaceous biozones, interpretation of microfacies and depositional environments.
One of the most important tasks of educationists from preschool centers in Malaysia is to prepare the young child for global readiness. This study involved (N=529) preschool children in Malaysia. The main objective was to gauge the level of global readiness of children aged (5-6 years old) according to several dimensions of global readiness namely (a) diversity and multiculturalism (b) use of ICT (c) communication and multiple language ability (d) problem solving and (e) environmental awareness. Responses to the Global Readiness Scales were recorded and analyzed using One Way ANOVA. The main findings indicated that (a) a generally high level of global readiness in diversity dimension (b) high level of global readiness was found in usage of ICT and problem solving dimension (c) moderate level of global readiness were found on communication and environmental awareness (d) all types of preschool scored high level of global readiness except in Islamic based preschool which scored moderate (e) significance differences were found according to the types of preschools in all dimensions except cause and effect. The findings suggest that (a) there is need to conduct qualitative study on the implementation of global readiness in the preschool centers (b) there is the need to develop global readiness curriculum modules to be integrated effectively in teacher training (c) a cross-cultural comparative study should be conducted across preschools at the regional and international level to gain wider perspective on the implementation of global readiness. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which studied the effect of early childhood education on the global readiness of preschool children in Malaysia. Hopefully this study will create greater awareness among curriculum developers on global readiness as well as enhance teacher’s knowledge and competencies on global readiness.
For characterization of the performance level of top weightlifter the world records (achieved till 31.12.2016.) were used. The relative performance was determined as the ratio of the records and own bodyweight (category weight). It is demonstrated that both in case of male and female lifters the performance and the relative performance depend on the body-mass, however the tendency is opposite. Theoretically the performance is the function of body-mass on the 2/3 power, so it increases with the body-mass, but the relative performance decreases as a function of body-mass on the minus 1/3 power. Evaluating the results in the clean and jerk (C&J) we have to take into account the own bodyweight of the lifters, as well, because the lifters lift during the execution of the C&J attempt the barbell + the own body, standing up from squatting position. So the weigfhtlifter lifts not only the barbell, but also his/her own bodyweight! The results with this correction show rather good agreement with the theoretically determined performance ratios for the different (8+7) weight categories. Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology for analysis of the relative performance of the top weight lifters, taking into account during the lifted the complex system of body+barbell.
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of pre-hypertension and assess the renal function in pre-hypertensive students in College of Health Sciences, Okofia, Nnewi. A total of 210 (99 males and 111 females) apparently healthy respondents aged 18-28, were recruited for the initial screening. Their blood pressure readings and body mass index (BMI) were obtained, whereas 5mls of blood sample was collected from 18 prehypertensive and 19 normotensive subjects. 5mls of blood was collect from eligible subjects and dispensed in plain containers for estimation of biochemical parameters. Serum creatinine, urea, Na+, K+, and Cl- were analyzed using standard methods. Result showed a prevalence of 11.4% with a higher percentage in males (12.12%) than in female (10.81%). BMI was significantly higher in pre-hypertensive than in normotensive (26.31±4.76 Vs 21.60±2.44;p> 0.05). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)(126.67±5.76 Vs 107.68±9.90; 79.56±6.57 Vs 69.52±7.39;p> 0.05) respectively were significantly higher in prehypertensives than in normotensives. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in the value of renal function markers of the prehypertensives when compared to normotensives (p>0.05). However, there was a positive correlation between SBP and serum urea level(r = 0.628; P =0.009). Therefore, the prevalence of prehypertension in this population was low with reference to studies in other populations. Importantly, this preliminary study did show that the renal functions are not compromised. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the Prevalence of Prehypertension and Assessment of Renal Function among the Prehypertensive Students of the College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria, a study which is original to the authors as outlined above.
China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a comprehensive development strategy that not only causes to economic and social environment in two countries but also has potential of incorporation with other sub-regions of Asia. It is like a game changer project which could transform the fate of Pakistan. It helps to improve the trade, infrastructure, and enhance regional connectivity. Despite these opportunities there exist several internal and external challenges for the government of Pakistan to implement this multidimensional project. The study is organized to analyze some internal and external challenges for Pakistan that are associated with the implementation of CPEC project. Contribution/ Originality
Advances in technology are classified as one of the external factors that trigger organisational change, even for Higher Education Institutions. The transition to e-learning presents new challenges as expectations and roles of employees and students evolve. The primary objective of this study was to investigate employee perceptions of the Open Distance and e-Learning model at a university in South Africa. The research questions for this study addressed factors that necessitate change and the barriers to change in Higher Education Institutions. The study further investigated the extent to which competences of employees match the strategic objectives for the ODeL business model and also recommended intervention strategies that can be employed to minimise risk and smoothen the change process when ODeL is introduced. A quantitative research methodology was used to arrive at the findings through a survey. The findings revealed that most of the employees acknowledge the need for change. But the ODeL model was not well embraced as the intervention that could solve the discrepancies. This was because results showed that some employees did not have appropriate capabilities to effect the change, the management was not perceived to give them the necessary support, and employees could not see how the ODeL intervention would benefit them. A recommended area for further research would be on how the institution could optimise its resources for a cost-effective ODeL. Contribution/ Originality
The primary contribution of this paper revealed that although open distance and e-learning initiatives are crucial in tertiary institutions, which have to cater for growing numbers of students, without the necessary commitment from management to allay the concerns of employees, transformative change in the form of technological advancement would be exacerbated.
This study appraised government feeding programme on increased school enrollment, attendance, retention and completion among secondary school students in Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria. Descriptive survey method was the research design adopted for this study. The target population for this study comprised day public secondary schools in Maiduguri, Borno state, with a total population of nine thousand three hundred and thirty eight (9,338) students. The sample of 934 students was selected using simple and stratified random sampling techniques. A self- developed questionnaire was the instrument of data collection. The response mode for the instrument was a modified four points Likert type scale. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, and percentage scores was used to answer the research question, while Chi-square test was also used to analyze the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that the school feeding programme improved the nutritional health status of the students. The findings recommended that Federal Government should assign Ministry of Finance to perform monitoring and evaluation functions, allocate more funds and logistics and give up-to-date records to the state government to make sure the feeding programme achieve an optimal level of the desired objectives. Appraisal tools other than questionnaires should be employed when appraising the students cognitive capabilities in order to ensure effective outcome and reporting. Borno State government Donor agencies, and stakeholders in education should increase funding and make sure the schools have constant supply of food through committed food distribution channels. Individual targeting should be used as a mechanism to motivate enrollment in school or more regular attendance. The target group should be families with children who are not in school or who are frequently absent. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of Home-grown school feeding programme. This study uses new estimation methodology of descriptive survey method in selecting sample of 934 students was selected using simple and stratified random sampling techniques. This study originates new formula on Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, and percentage scores was used to answer the research question, while Chi-square test was also used to analyze the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the trend of school feed feeding programmes existing in public secondary schools. The paper contributes the first logical analysis using a self-developed questionnaire and response mode for the instrument was a modified four (4) points Likert type scale with a response mode of strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The paper's primary contribution is finding that The Federal Government should assign Ministry of Finance to perform monitoring and evaluation functions, allocate more funds and logistics and give up-to-date records to the state government to make sure the feeding programme achieve an optimal level of the desired objectives. Other types of appraisal tools other than questionnaires should be employed when appraising the students cognitive capabilities in order to ensure effective outcome and reporting. This study documents that Borno State government Donor agencies, and stakeholders in education should increase funding and make sure the schools have constant supply of food through committed food distribution channels to ensure the children do not go hungry and this will have more positive impact on the students’ comprehensive preparedness to actively participate in the learning process. Individual targeting should be used as a mechanism to motivate enrollment in school or more regular attendance. The target group should be families with children who are not in school or who are frequently absent.
In modern day society, cleaner, more sustainable forms of electrical power are needed to keep costs lower and to ensure a healthier environment for future generations. The use of piezoelectric devices installed within a road would enable the capturing of kinetic energy from automobile traffic. This energy can then be converted into electrical energy and can be used to offset some of the power coming from the main grid. Such a source of power can also be used to operate road lighting and signage systems, or it could be injected to the grid at an appropriate Point of Common Coupling (PCC). This paper discusses investigation of energy harvesting from piezoelectric materials when installed in a road. The work includes conversion of kinetic energy to electrical using piezoelectric materials, the energy harvesting method, and experimental research on piezoelectric materials. Contribution/ Originality
Both authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.
Determining the relationship between percentage resection and development of short bowel syndrome is important as it provides information on the expected outcome of the resection carried out which will enable the surgeon to prepare adequately to manage such patients. Ten adult Nigerian indigenous dogs with mean body weight 11.2 kg were used in this study. The animals were premedicated with atropine (0.04mg/kg) and xylazine (1mg/kg) intramuscularly. Anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone sodium (10mg/kg) intravenously. The abdominal cavity was entered through the ventral midline incision. Three animals each were subjected to 50% and 60% small intestinal resection while four animals were subjected to 70% small intestinal resection. The animals subjected to 50% and 60% intestinal resection did not manifest signs of short bowel syndrome. However, the animals subjected to 70% small intestinal resection manifested clinical signs attributable to short bowel syndrome. The animals subjected to 50% and 60% small intestinal resection had remnant small intestinal tract of up to 100cm while dogs that underwent 70% resection had remnant small intestinal bowel length of less than 100 cm. It is therefore, concluded that 70% small intestinal length resection is the minimum that can produce short bowel syndrome in Nigerian dogs and animals with remnant small bowel length of less than 100 cm after undergoing resection will come down with short bowel syndrome. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the crown-rump length, total small intestinal length and the percentage small intestinal resection that will result in short bowel syndrome in Nigerian dogs.