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In conventional composite construction for buildings and bridges, Hot-Rolled Steel (HRS) section is well known to be used. The composite action is usually achieved by using conventional headed stud shear connectors. However, for Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) section, the use of headed stud shear connectors is not feasible as the section is very thin and incapable to be weld. Therefore, a suitable shear connection system of bolt and nut is proposed in this study by varying the size of the bolted shear connectors. This paper presents the prospect of using a bolt and nut as shear connector that could be well-suited with CFS section when integrated in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). The experimental test comprised of push-out and was conducted to determine the strength and ductility of the proposed bolted shear connectors as used in composite construction. Eight push-out test specimens of bolted shear connector size consist of M12, M14 and M16 of grade 8.8 were fabricated and tested to failure. The experimental results show that the bolted shear connectors used to possess good shear resistance capacity. Influence of varying the size of the bolted shear connectors was investigated. The results show that the size of bolted shear connectors influenced the ultimate strength capacity of the shear connectors significantly. Contribution/ Originality
This paper highlighted on the use of high strength bolted shear connectors in composite construction with CFS, specifically the M14 bolt connector as it was not established based on cited literatures.
The absorption of electromagnetic waves is the most important parameter for the processing and interpretation of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data. Both the phase velocity and the absorption coefficient are frequency-dependent. From the linear basis of the frequency dependence of of geology media, a constant Q-hypothesis is valid, whereby the Q factor is inversely proportional to and describes material-specific absorption. For the near-reality description of electromagnetic waves propagation in rocks, modeling with constant Q and velocity dispersion after Futterman is carried out. On the basis of such model, the effect of these parameters on wavelets is investigated. As a result of absorption, the wave amplitudes become smaller with increasing distance at the same Q and become smaller with decreasing Q at the same distance and the waveforms are stretched . The longer the distance at the same Q as well as the smaller Q at the same distance, the smaller is the bandwidth of the transmission wavelets. At the same time, its peak frequency moves toward smaller frequencies. In addition, three methods for the determination of the absorption through Q factor are reviewed, namely the spectral ratio method, amplitude decay method and a method over absorption coefficient determination. The applicability of the methods is then demonstrated by using real data acquired from transmission measurement at test site in Reiche Zeche Shaft in Germany. Contribution/ Originality
The new analysis for the determination of the absorption media by attenuation through Q factor.
Vacuum systems are designed for a variety of research activities and industrial performs for different vacuum ranges depending upon the process prerequisite. It is very essential that these systems should be designed by selecting the vacuum equipment for proper vacuum generation, precise vacuum measurement and particular vacuum control for immense contribution to the process effectiveness, operational ease, working efficiency and quality product. In this paper effort has been made to clarify the physical concepts to use variety of vacuum pumps, gauges and valves to design different vacuum systems with diverse vacuum ranges for their up to mark effectiveness. Contribution/ Originality
As far as the contribution of the study of this paper is concerned, it is one of very few studies which have investigated. It surely contributes in the existing literature with trustworthy methodology. It also contributes the first logical analysis. The paper's primary contribution is finding the true solution.
Study on Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data from a common-offset profiling measurement carried out in the contact area between Panosogan and Waturanda Formations in Karangsambung, Kebumen – Central of Java is done. GPR RAMAC system is utilized. The aim of the study is to recognize and eliminate surface-scattering noise and ring-down effects, to image subsurface layered structure and to identify a contact area between Panosogan and Waturanda Formations. The processed data were analyzed with the help of instantaneous attributes and the so-called joint time frequency (JTFA) analysis. Study results show that some diffraction patterns appeared in radargram are resulting from scattering of surface-objects. These can be eliminated with f-k filtering and migration. Ring-down effect resulted from impedance mismatch between subsurface electrical properties and those of antenna is difficult to eliminate. However, it can be well recognized and analyzed in the JTF representation. Instantaneous attributes and JTF analysis are proved to be useful tools in imaging the contact area and subsurface layered structures. Contribution/ Originality
The new procedure in data processing to eliminate ring down and noise. A GPR data Processing useful in imaging contact area and subsurface should be designed by using JTF analysis
Web Services are based on distributed technology and provide standard means of interoperating between different software applications across and within organizational boundaries with the use of XML. Web Services technologies allow interaction between applications. Sometimes a single service given alone does not meet user’s needs. In this case, it is necessary to compose several services in order to achieve the user’s goal. Web service composition is one of the most challenging problems of recent years. The number of service providers is increasing, and along with that for a request they offer multiple services with the same functionality, so it makes the problem of composition quite complex. In this paper, we compose multi web services for E-Commerce. We implement a new web application that use two or many web services to make some transactions and to choose the best deal. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that the composition of web services is the process of combining Web services in order to offer value-added services. Web Services composition consists in combining several Web Services into a Composite one, in order to satisfy complex users queries.
In this article based on a method of approximating equation an asymptotic solution of the general Riccati ‘s equation is obtained. The principal distinctive feature and advantage of the solution is its continuity at turning points. Estimates of accuracy of the approximate solution are derived. Limit values of the asymptotic solution in case of one-sided convergence of argument to turning point of the first order are calculated. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature. Thus, the results of that study may be applied for solving problems were set up in works , , . This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the asymptotic behavior of solutions of Riccati’s equation in the neighborhood of turning points.
The flow problem presented in this paper is to study the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a mixed convection nanofluid flow along a stretching cylinder embedded in a thermally stratified medium are numerically analyzed, with the thermal radiation effects. The governing boundary layer equations of continuity, momentum, energy and concentration are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of suitable local similarity transformations. The coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved by the implicit finite difference method along with the Thomas algorithm. The effect of various material parameters such as buoyancy parameter, solutal buoyancy parameter, Prandtl number, radiation parameter, Schmidt number, curvature parameter, magnetic parameter, stratification parameter, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented in graphs. Physical quantities such as skin friction coefficient, Nusselet number and Sherwood number are also computed. Contribution/ Originality
The primary contribution of this paper is finding that the effects of nanofluid on the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a mixed convection along a radiative stretching cylinder embedded in a thermal stratified medium. Aim of this paper is to develop a computational procedure.
This study examined the presence of dioxins – a persistent organic pollutant in domestic and burnt tyre waste residues and it’s comparison with German safety limits at the Gosa dumpsite in Abuja, Nigeria. The period of sampling and analysis was between January and March, 2011. Burnt tyre ashes and burnt solid waste residues from the dump sites were chemically analyzed to determine the concentration of the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins and furan congeners in absolute quantities using high resolution capillary column gas chromatography and low resolution mass spectrometry. The result of the analysis performed using the International Toxic Equivalent Factor (NATO/CCMS) for the calculation of the individual Toxic Equivalent Quotients (TEQs) of the seventeen 2,3,7,8- substituted dioxins and furan congers and a summation of the individual I-TEQs per sample shows that there is significant quantity of about 44 ng/kg TM of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a contaminant in Agent Orange, in one out of the five (1/5) analyzed samples. The maximum Total Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCCD/F) concentration recorded in this study was 1,350 ng/kg TM from sample Point 3. This was greater than the German Federal Soil Protection and Contamination Sites Ordinance (GFSPCSO) for Total PCDD/F equivalents for target concentration, agricultural, playground and residential landuse (which dominate the area under study) but less than its industrial landuse equivalent. There was also the presence of dioxins in the burnt domestic waste analysed with the Total PCDD/F (TEQ) of 6.6 ng/kg TM. The land usage of the area under investigation is closely interwoven across the land mass. Therefore, the results indicate that the population and activities within the area of study are under threat of health hazards that may arise from the high concentration of dioxins recorded by this study. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by providing a better understanding of the potential pollution from burnt tyres and domestic wastes residue in Nigeria’s Federal Capital City. This study adopts the method of chemically analyzing burnt residue of tyres and domestic waste to determine the concentration of the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins and furan congeners in absolute quantities using high resolution capillary column gas chromatography and low resolution mass spectrometry estimation.
Resisted sprinting devices have been examined for their effect on sprinting but there is limited research on sled pushing thus leaving a gap in the literature related to this topic. The current study examined the effects of varied push sled loads during repeated sprinting on blood lactate levels, heart rate recovery, and sprint times. Division II female power athletes (softball n = 5, volleyball n = 9), age 19.93 ± .83 years, body mass 70.71 ± 5.39 kg, height 170.29 ± 6.41 cm, and body fat 17.47 ± .04 %, participated in a randomized, repeated measures study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a traditional sprint condition (SPR), sprints pushing an unloaded sled (SLED), along with the following loads of 10 kg, 15 kg, 20 kg, 35 kg, 50 kg and completed each condition over a 7 week period with testing occurring once a week at the same time of day. For each condition, subjects performed 6 sprints over 20 yds with a 35 second passive recovery between each sprint with split times and total times measured. Blood lactate was obtained by a finger prick and was analyzed by a portable lactate analyzer (Accutrend® Lactate) at rest prior to the repeat sprint trials, 3 minutes and 5 minutes post intervals. The results demonstrated statistically significant differences in all mean sprint times and in peak sprint times except in 10 kg and 15 kg conditions. Statistically significant differences were observed in BLA3MIN and BLA5MIN in sprint conditions ≥ 15 kg. The results suggest that repeated push sled sprints ≥ 15 kg load may be beneficial to adapting the fast glycolytic system. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the acute effects of sprinting with pushing a sled of varying loads in female athletes.
The goal of producing concrete that provides long term durability with regard to properties such as strength and reduced susceptibility to alkali-silica reactions has led to the development of several high performance materials. In this research work, the effect of cellulose industrial residue in concrete matrix was investigated. A mix proportion of 1:1:6:3.2 with water-cement ratio of 0.47 were used. The percentage replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with cellulose industrial residue (CIR) is 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Concrete cubes of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm of OPC/CIR were cast and cured at 3,7,28,60 and 90 days respectively. At the end of each hydration period, the three concrete cubes for each hydration period were crushed and their average compressive strength recorded. A total of ninety (90) concrete cubes was cast. The result of the compressive strength test for 5-40% replacement of cement with cellulose industrial residue ranges from 13.02-32.81 N/mm2 as against 25.60-42.08 for the controi test. Similarly, the setting time of 5-40% replacement of cement with CIR ranges from 61-118mins for the initial setting time and 620-836mins for the final setting time as against 52mins and 950mins for the initial and final setting time respectively for the control test (0% replacement). The result of the slump test for 5-40% replacement of cement with CIR ranges from 12-53mm as against 6mm for the control test. The major aim of this research work is to determine the effect of cellulose industrial residue when used at a certain replacement level of cement in concrete matrix. Contribution/ Originality
The material (Cellulose industrial residue) can be used as a pozzolan in concrete production. This research work is original and have not been carried out anywhere.
The design of the multi-component distillation column for processing of Bonny light crude is presented using advanced process simulation software (Aspen Hysys). The steady state design models were developed from Mesh equations and were used to obtain the design parameters based on the principle of conservation of mass and energy. The design parameters were column diameter, column cross sectional area, height of the column, downcomer area, hole area, weir length, wet area and tray spacing. The equations developed are capable of predicting compositions, partial pressures and temperature of the components of interest from the mixtures of crude oil. The accuracy of the design parameters were ascertained by comparing predicted results with literature data of a distillation unit. The simulation of the design models were performed using Aspen Hysys to obtain optimum values of the most significant variables/parameters (column diameters 1.558m, column height 17.048m, cross section area 1.907m2, downcomer area 0.229m2, tray spacing 0.5m, weir length 1.200m, hole area 0.191m2 and wet area 1.678m2). The result obtained from the steady state simulation shows that the feed flow rate, temperature and pressure influence the efficiency of the distillation column. Contribution/ Originality
A model to predict the behavior of an adiabatic tubular fixed-bed reactor for the production of dimethyl ether using alumina catalyst was developed. The steady state model incorporates the reaction rate kinetic expression obtained from literature into the model equations. The models were integrated numerically using Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method incorporated into a computer simulator (MATLAB 7.7 code). Model predictions are compared with data obtained from the literature under the same operating conditions and a good agreement is obtained with a variation ranging from 0.5% to 2.7%. The simulation results show that the production of dimethyl ether is greatly affected by parameters such as temperature, and feed flow rate with optimum yield of DME at a catalyst bed height of 2-4m at a temperature of 557 to 570K. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by developing model equations that is used in predicting/simulation of functional parameters for optimum yield of DME. Unlike other works which assume isothermal condition, this study assumes an adiabatic condition and could be adopted for simulation of industrial DME plant.
Processing of fruits through radiation, involves exposure to short wave energy to achieve a specific purpose viz. reduced the weight loss and extended the ripening. An experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiation and storage conditions in Alphonso mango on physiological weight loss and ripening. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design withfactorial concept with three repetitions. There were sixteen treatment combinations of irradiation dose (I1 -0.00, I2 -0.20, I3 -0.40 and I4 -0.60 kGy) and storage temperature (S1-Ambient, S2-90C, S3-120C and S4-CA storage (120C, O2 2%, CO2 3%). The fruits were exposed to gamma radiation for different doses from the source of 60Co at Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The data indicated that the fruits irradiated with 0.40 kGy gamma rays (I3) recorded significantly minimum per cent reduction in PLW and extended the ripening. Same pattern noted when fruits kept at 90C storage temperature. In combined effect of 0.40 kGy gamma rays irradiation and 90C storage temperature (I3S2) also recorded maximum reduction in the PLW and ripening per cent throughout the storage period. Contribution/ Originality
In this study we attempted to analyze and estimate the effect of ergonomics on sustainable urban development as a case study done in Guilan province of Iran. This is a survey study and participants were 80 experts of the city in environment field selected randomly using Krejcie& Morgan table. Data were analyzed in SPSS software using statistical tests. According to the results, “using appropriate colours in designing” and “human welfare” had the highest and lowest association with sustainable urban development in this province, respectively. Overall, we concluded that ergonomics or Human factor had significant effect on sustainable urban development and infrastructures. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the management of municipal solid waste in Algeria, moreover, it discussed the useful methods used in developed countries in order to consider those methods as useful experiences that can be used in Algeria.
The place of gravity stations is normally irregularly distributed. Although an ideal arrangement should be locally homogeneous, it is impossible in most cases, due to the availability issues. The surface areas due to more geological benefits and easier availability are more densely sampled which inevitably affects the measurement of the regular network as the interpolation error due to irregular distribution. The gravimetric data are usually presented by the color contour maps and it is required to be interpolated as a regular network. The combined distribution of the gravity stations are used in theoretical studies. It was found that there is an interval of the values for the random distribution of the data which has 2 fractal dimension dependent on Euclidean geometry for the spatial distribution of the data. And a new Bouguer was found using the grid and using anomaly fractal analysis in Esfarayen area gained, based on which a closer analysis of the explored area was conducted. The important anomaly in the region was recreated. Using the related fractal analysis reduces the number of data mined points. Contribution/ Originality
This study investigated the influence of laboratory method on students’ mathematical creativity in junior secondary schools in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State. The study was guided by three research questions and three hypotheses. The Pretest- Postest non-randomise control group design was adopted for the study. A sample of 122 students from two intact classes selected randomly was used for the study. The instruments for data collection were the Mathematics Creativity Test (MCT) and Students Attitude towards Mathematics Questionnaire (SAMQ). The data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation, and the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The result indicated that Laboratory method of teaching significantly enhance students’ creativity in mathematics. The method equally enhanced mathematical creativity of both male and female students. Students’ attitude towards mathematics also influenced mathematical creativity significantly. Among others, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should explore the use of laboratory method in teaching various concepts in Junior Secondary School level. Contribution/ Originality
The study aims at recognizing the problems which gifted students at King Abdullah II Schools for Distinction (KASD) face. The study sample, 240 male and female students, is randomly selected out of the gifted students with a percentage of 50 % of the study society. A forty item questionnaire is prepared to achieve the study objectives. It is distributed into three fields: Problems related to school, to family, and to students. Study results show that problems which KASD students face are rated medium. Problems related to school come first, second those related to students, and finally those related to family. Statistical significant differences are found in the means of study subjects responses according to the gender variable at the two fields of family and school for the males. However, no significant differences are found in the means of the subjects responses according to the school stage variable (basic and secondary). Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature a research conducted about gifted students through three different perspectives; school, family, and students. It uses an estimation methodology provided by the gifted students themselves, their school and their families. The researchers talked to the students before constructing the questionnaire. It also originates new formula in giftedness and distinction. It is among few studies which have investigated gifted students necessary needs and problems. The study contributes the logical mono differential analysis on the study fields and the total instrument. Its primary contribution is finding that the problems gifted students face, are almost the same. Finally, it documents for distinction and gifted students' problems in Jordan and the Arab World.
The aim of this study is focused on the design of ethanol reforming catalyst to produce hydrogen at low-temperature with high ethanol conversion (XEtOH), hydrogen yield (YH2) and low CO distribution. A highly dispersed PtRu/CeO2 catalyst is prepared by impregnation method. Catalytic performance and products distribution toward ethanol reforming reactions is evaluated in a fixed bed reactor. Three processes of ethanol reforming are performed: steam reforming of ethanol (SRE), partial oxidation of ethanol (POE) and oxidative steam reforming of ethanol (OSRE). The results show that the SRE reaction requires high temperature (T > 500 C) to achieve complete ethanol conversion, however, low temperature for both POE and OSRE (T < 300 C) reactions. Analytical results indicate the optimized molar ratios of O2/EtOH and H2O/EtOH are 0.44 and 4.9, respectively. Under this condition, the OSRE reaction over PtRu/CeO2 catalyst is completely converted around 340 C to get 2.3% CO and 4.1 mol H2/mol EtOH. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that a highly active catalyst, PtRu/CeO2, used in the reforming of ethanol is designed and evaluates for POE, SRE and OSRE reactions.
Thermochemical decomposition of Ondo tar-sand was carried out at a temperature of between 190–250°C in a constructed metal retort, and a yield of 66.66 % bitumen was obtained. Some important parameters of coal for blend simulation, such as the rheological and agglomerating properties of coal samples from – Garin Maiganga (GMG), Chikila (CHK), Lamza (LMZ), Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ), Afuzie (AFZ) were determined by Gray-King assay test to assess their suitability for blending in coke making. The results showed that all the coals had poor thermoplastic properties that cannot agglomerate on heating because of their low level of fluidity, even though SKJ had an appreciable coke yield of 82.60 % with coke type C indicating that it was weakly coking. Thereafter, formulation of binary blend of coal-bitumen by weight (10 % bitumen and 90 % pre-heated coal samples at about 150 oC) was carried out. And the feasibility of the blend for industrial coke production was investigated by physico-chemical analysis, which revealed that the coking properties of the blend had been improved: Gieseler fluidity/plastic property in dial division per minute (DDPM) for LMZ = 76; CHK = 15; AFZ = 37; GMG = 18 and SKJ = 390, which might produce metallurgical coke with good chemical and mechanical properties. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the feasibility coal-bitumen blend for production metallurgical coke. It was found that: pyrolysis is a vital tool in processing of tar sand into bitumen; and the bitumen improved the thermo-plastic properties of coal to cokeable level.
The Community based Sample Survey aimed at assessing the Prevalence of Stress experienced by the 1050 women of reproductive age(18-45) years. This study was conducted over a period of two years as Cross-Sectional in Sub-Urban South Chennai. The variables on demography and Stress were collected by Personal Interview method in a pre-structured standardized questionnaire after a pilot study. The main findings showed 856 (81.5%) women had experienced Stress, where 54 (5.1%) had Severe Stress. Women with Abdominal Obesity ≥0.85 [χ2= 11.9(P=0.001)] and from the Nuclear family [χ2= 16.9(P=0.000)] had a significant association with the Stress Outcome. There existed an insignificant difference in the mean Stress scores between the women age less than or above 30 years. The homemakers were equally experiencing stress with their counterpart women who were bound to work outside home. Family History of Couple misunderstanding, Ill Health of family member and Major Mortgage also showed significant difference in their mean stress levels by Student-t-test. The maximum mean difference in stress scores was identified by multiple comparison Post-Hoc Pairwise LSD test between the women who completed 10 and 15years of education (P=0.000). We conclude that the ‘Women with Stress and at Risk of developing further Illness’ should be identified at the earlier age for health assistance for a better life. Contribution/ Originality