Journal of Food Technology Research

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Online ISSN: 2312-3796
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No. 1

Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan

Pages: 55-62
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Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.55.62

Fathia A. Adam , Hago M. Abdel-Magid , Abdelmonem M. Abdellah , Mohamed E. Osman

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Fathia A. Adam , Hago M. Abdel-Magid , Abdelmonem M. Abdellah , Mohamed E. Osman (2016). Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan. Journal of Food Technology Research, 3(1): 55-62. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.55.62
Structural properties of gum Arabic are one of the most important factors affecting the competitive prices in the domestic and overseas markets. Using laboratory standard methods, a number of   methods were used to characterize the main alterations of the components of Acacia Senegal var. Senegal gum Arabic induced by inoculation with some species of fungi and yeast. Results revealed that, depending on the inoculated microbial species, the pH, viscosity, nitrogen and protein were decreased to various levels. The sugars content has noticeably been affected viz. galactose was entirely consumed by Saccharomyces cerevisiaeand Penicilliumnotatum while .rhamanose was drastically decreased by all microbial species under study. Likewise, the number average molecular weight was decreased by all species. Therefore, it may be concluded that the factors encouraging microbial growth must be given due consideration under gum Arabic storage conditions.

Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by drawing the attention to the environmentally safe storage of gum Arabic by using new detection and analytical procedures that are logically acceptable by gum Arabic researchers, producers and retailers. Moreover, this study contributes significantly to the current body of knowledge pertaining to gum Arabic handling after harvest.

Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia

Pages: 48-54
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Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.48.54

Z. A. Syahariza , A.Z. Nuraihan , M.H. Norziah , A. Fazilah

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Z. A. Syahariza , A.Z. Nuraihan , M.H. Norziah , A. Fazilah (2016). Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia. Journal of Food Technology Research, 3(1): 48-54. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.48.54
Dysphagia refers to the term of having difficulty in swallowing or moving foods and liquids from the mouth to the stomach, which will lead to dehydration and malnutrition. Texture modified food is one of common method used in dysphagia management, by altering the rate of food travelling down the pharynx. In this study, texture modified chicken rendang was developed to comply Texture C (fine puree with lump free) as outline by Australian dysphagia standard. Rendang, one of popular traditional dish in Malaysia was selected; aim to introduce high protein diet in patient with dysphagia problem. Texture modification was carried out by adding commercial thickener, and later was compared to formulation with addition of tapioca and sago starch as the thickener. Effect of using different types of food thickener, together with different level of starch addition and serving temperature on the rheological properties of developed food were investigated. Results showed that all thickened samples demonstrated a shear thinning effect throughout the temperature studied, contributed by starch integrity loss due to heating. Both storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") values of samples containing starch decreases as temperature increases, indicating a weak gel like properties associated with each sample. The addition of 5% of starch was found to be optimal for the sample to remain stable even at 85°C. Tapioca starch could potentially use as cheaper thickener alternative due to its stable structure upon oscillation frequency and temperature increment during rheological analysis, when to compared to sago starch. Introduction of chicken rendang puree, thickened with starch potentially help to provide safer food for patients with dysphagia.

Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of texture modified food for patients with dysphagia. This study investigates the possibility of using tapioca and sago starch as the source of food thickener, to replace the use of commercial thickener, which normally marketed at a higher price.

Nutrient Composition, Amylose Content and Pasting Characteristics of Some Elite Accessions of Nerica Rice

Pages: 36-47
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Nutrient Composition, Amylose Content and Pasting Characteristics of Some Elite Accessions of Nerica Rice

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.36.47

Anuonye, J.C. , Chinma. C.E. , Olukayode, J. , Suleiman, A.

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Anuonye, J.C. , Chinma. C.E. , Olukayode, J. , Suleiman, A. (2016). Nutrient Composition, Amylose Content and Pasting Characteristics of Some Elite Accessions of Nerica Rice. Journal of Food Technology Research, 3(1): 36-47. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.36.47
Eighteen elite lines of Nerica rice were assessed for proximate, amino acid composition, amylose content and pasting viscosity. The aim was to nominate the lines for further multilocational yield trails and eventual release as varieties. The lines were parboiled by soaking in hot water (75oC) for 9-20hrs and then steamed for 40-45minutes at75oC in a steamer. Raw and parboiled samples were dehusked and polished and used in subsequent evaluations. The results indicated that protein varied from7.47+0.21to 11.73+0.15% parboiled samples and from 6.87+ 1.01to 11.65+ 0.51% for the unparboiled or raw samples. Fat also varied from 5.57+ 4.22- 6.00+ 0.54 the parboiled samples and from 5.33 to 6.33+ 0.5% for the unparboiled samples. The amino acid profile showed that both parboiled and unparboiled samples met the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) requirements for infants, adolescent and adults for histidine, threonine, valine and isoleucine and leucine. Both samples and the check were however deficient in lysine (4.01-4.60). Parboiling did not significantly (p<0.5) improve the proximate and amino acids composition of samples. The unparboiled milled samples had higher amylose content (23.84 – 50.85%) compared to(12.85 – 31.81%) of the parboiled samples. The amylose content of the parboiled samples placed them in the intermediate amylose category. The pasting properties showed that raw samples exhibited conventional non-waxy cereal pasting characteristics while the parboiled samples indicated destructuring in the pasting profile. The results were indicative that the NERICA LINES would have high cooking qualities.

Contribution/ Originality
This paper discusses the nutrient composition of NERICA accessions been bred for eventual release as varieties. This work show that the NERICA lines are not superior in both chemical and nutritional composition to released local varieties. However they will exhibit better cooking qualities.

Protective Effects of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis L.) The Induction of Micronuclei Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes

Pages: 28-35
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Protective Effects of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis L.) The Induction of Micronuclei Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.28.35

Citation: 3

Ekhlas Mohammed. F. Al -Taai

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Ekhlas Mohammed. F. Al -Taai (2016). Protective Effects of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis L.) The Induction of Micronuclei Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes. Journal of Food Technology Research, 3(1): 28-35. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.28.35
Recycling of fruit waste is one of the most important ways of utilizing it in a number of novel products , as well as in medicine, so came this research to verify the protective role of the extracts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peels against genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide on human peripheral lymphocytes using the micronucleus and chromosomal aberration tests. Conducted overlap between Aqueous and alcohol extracts orange peel with the drug, through three types of transactions (before, after, with treatment). In order to test the effectiveness of the extracts, three concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 µg / ml where tested the prevention or minimization the effect of the drug (80 µg / ml) on human blood lymph . The extracts of the orange peel has antimutagenic potential induced by cyclophosphamide this may prevent the mutagenic effect of various genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, and thus utilization of fruit waste and products for therapeutic purpose.

Contribution/ Originality
 This study is one of very few studies which have investigated of antimutagenic effect of fruit waste such as orange peel against cytotoxic effect of cyclophosphamide , The paper's primary contribution is its finding that these fruit waste can be used to prevent the mutagenic effect of various genotoxic or carcinogenic agents . These findings contribute to the understanding of the health benefits of fruit waste. This study originates new formula  to recycling of  fruit waste and benefit  from it  in the therapeutic purpose.

The Particle Size and Thermal Properties of Flour from three Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars Grown in Nigeria

Pages: 23-27
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The Particle Size and Thermal Properties of Flour from three Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars Grown in Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.23.27

Kiin-Kabari David Barine , Njoku Victor

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Kiin-Kabari David Barine , Njoku Victor (2016). The Particle Size and Thermal Properties of Flour from three Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars Grown in Nigeria. Journal of Food Technology Research, 3(1): 23-27. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.23.27
Flour from three plantain cultivars (Agbagba, Cadaba and French horn) commonly grown in Nigeria were investigated for their particle size, bulk density and thermal properties. The results showed that Agbagba cultivar had the least particle size (10.04%) at 125µm sieve size and significantly increased to 29.45% at 180µm sieve size. Cadaba and French horn plantain cultivars showed a particle size of 56.54% and 36.20% at 125µm sieve size, respectively and decreased significantly with increase in sieve sizes. The bulk density ranged from 28.62% to 30.50% and showed no significant differences between the cultivars. The moisture content ranged from 7.65% (French horn) to 8.7% for (Cadaba) and showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) observed in specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity between the cultivars studied. The data thus obtained showed that chemical composition of the cultivars may influence thermal properties and this will serve as a useful engineering tool for the design and development of sieves and dryers for plantain flour.

Contribution/ Originality
This study provides necessary information that can be used in the design of dryers for plantain flour. This study also showed that proximate composition rather than differences in cultivars influenced thermal properties.

“Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”

Pages: 12-22
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“Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.12.22

Citation: 1

Subbarayan Bothi Gopalakrishnan , Thangaraj Kalaiarasi , Shanmugam Gnanendra

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Subbarayan Bothi Gopalakrishnan , Thangaraj Kalaiarasi , Shanmugam Gnanendra (2016). “Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”. Journal of Food Technology Research, 3(1): 12-22. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.12.22
Cucumis sativus Linn.(Fam. Cucubitaceae) is commonly known as “Vellari” in Tamil, “Cucumber” in English and “Sakusa” in Sanskrit. Cucumis sativus fruit is shown to possess various activities such as ameliorative, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, carminative and ameliorative and antacid properties. It is used in Cosmetics as treatment for skin-inflammation and skin protectant. Pulp of the fruit is useful in   dysentery, diarrhea, dropsy, piles and leprosy. It is also used as a liver tonic. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a metabolic disorder which is emerging as a severe problem and is a disease involving liver disorder. In the present study, six phytochemical constituents isolated and identified from the ethanol extract of the fruits of Cucumis sativus Linn. by GC-MS analysis have been screened for inhibitory activity against Hepatitis B X and Heme oxygenase I using molecular docking studies. The binding affinities of the Phytochemical constituents were compared with that of the known hepato protective agent, silymarin. The ACD/Chemsketch tool was used to generate 3D structures of ligands. A molecular file format converter tool has been used to convert the generated data to the protein Data Bank (PDB) and has been used for docking studies. The active site of the target protein was identified using Q-site finder tool. The energy values for docking interactions between the active site and the phytochemical constituents have been studied by using Flex X tool. Out of all inhibitors, silymarin, followed by 2-(2-methyleyclohexylidene)-hydrazine carboxamide possess the highest energy value indicating them as efficient inhibitors with the target proteins to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. The effective properties may be due to the presence of carbonyl and alholic OH groups present in the ligand molecules.

Contribution/ Originality
Cucumis sativus Linn. fruit has a number medicinal uses. The fruit is traditionally used by medical practitioners for curing liver disorder. The present study is a new original contribution. Six phytochemical constituents isolated and identified by GC-MS analysis by our group has been subjected to molecular docking studies for the first time with two novel hepato carcinoma receptors, Hepatitis B X and Hemo Oxygenase I whose 3D structures were retrieved from PDB database.  Flex X docking program has been used to specify binding surface of the receptors and phytochemical constituents in SDF format. The present study gives an additional theoretical proof that the phytochemical constituents of the ethanol extract of Cucumis sativus can be used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma which has already been proved pharmacologically by our group.

Effect of Sodium Alginate Coating with Ascorbic Acid on Shelf Life of Raw Pork Meat

Pages: 1-11
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Effect of Sodium Alginate Coating with Ascorbic Acid on Shelf Life of Raw Pork Meat

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.1.11

Citation: 1

D. Gammariello , A. L. Incoronato , A. Conte , M. A. Del Nobile

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D. Gammariello , A. L. Incoronato , A. Conte , M. A. Del Nobile (2016). Effect of Sodium Alginate Coating with Ascorbic Acid on Shelf Life of Raw Pork Meat. Journal of Food Technology Research, 3(1): 1-11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.1/58.1.1.11
The focus of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium alginate coating loaded with ascorbic acid on shelf life of raw pork meat slices, used to prepare skewers. To the aim, the meat samples were first dipped in the sodium lactate solution (40% w/w) and then divided into 3 treatment groups: (i) control samples (dipped meat), (ii) coated meat, (iii) coated meat containing ascorbic acid (i.e. 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm). All samples were packaged under modified atmosphere packaging (50%O2/30%CO2/20%N2) and stored at 4±2°C. The samples were analysed for sensory and microbiological characteristics. The combination of dipping, active coating and MAP improved the sensory quality of packaged skewers. In contrast active coating does not considerable effect in slowing down the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Sample coated with 1500 ppm ascorbic acid displayed the longest shelf life, equal to 8.9 days, which was about 60% longer than the control.

Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that edible active coatings can improve the meat quality by retarding sensorial and microbiological deterioration and functioning as carriers of active compounds. The results suggest that combined the dipping and the active coating with modified atmosphere packaging the freshness of meat is comparatively prolonged.