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Listing 22 - 20 of 2141 results.

Influence of the Entrepreneur and Enterprise Characteristics on Success of Cage Fish Farming In the Asuogyaman and South Dayi Districts, Ghana

Research Article
Author(s): Anaglo J. N., Freeman C. K., Kumah W. K., Boateng S. D, Manteaw S. A.
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Aquaculture is becoming a very important source of income to many people as well as a source of protein in their diets. This study examined the influence of the entrepreneur and enterprise characteristics on small-scale cage fish enterprises in the Asuogyaman and South Dayi Districts. The research employed a descriptive-correlation survey design, which used quantitative method to collect data from 105 owners and managers of small-scale cage fish enterprises. The findings revealed that age of entrepreneurs influenced customer satisfaction as entrepreneurs experience also influenced growth in sales. It was observed that technical know-how, attitude towards work, and managerial skills, had a significant relationship with profitability, and customer satisfaction. Finally, age of the enterprise was found to have a significant relationship with growth in sales. In conclusion, all the variables had positive relationships with enterprise success, but not all the relationships were significant. It is recommended that cage fish farmers should be encouraged to invest more in technical education, which will help improve on the success of their enterprises. Furthermore, farmers should take precautions to reduce the risk of failure to increase their chances of success and survival.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to existing literature to emphasize the relevance of human resource development in the areas of technical education and entrepreneurs’ attitude towards work to the success of cage fish farming. Therefore investment in human resource of entrepreneurs is necessary for the success of cage fish farmers’ enterprises.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 8

Earnings Management and Stock Market Returns

Research Article
Author(s): Felicia Y. Amadi, Confidence W. Amadi
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This paper investigates the variability of real business activities in the form of discretionary expenditures (accounts receivable, selling, general and administrative expenses, and net change in accruals), and the firm’s stock price performance in relation to the frequency of meeting or beating analysts’ earnings forecast.  In addition, the study investigated the relationship between the firm’s stock price performance, and the variability of these financial statement accounts.  The objective was to examine if these selected financial statement of accounts could be used by management to manipulate earnings in order to meet and/or beat analysts’ earnings forecasts so as to enhance the firm’s stock performance.  The study found that there is a significant difference between the variance of SG&A, NCA and stock returns of the firms that meet and/or beat the analysts’ forecast and those that do not.  It was also found that there is a significant difference in stock returns based on meeting and/or beating the analysts’ estimate. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study adds to the literature by demonstrating another avenue for earnings management that does not rely on the Jones’ model.  It also shows how the variance of financial statement accounts can be used to detect earnings management.  Finally, this paper shows that the change in stock price as a result of earnings announcement is temporary.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Coping in Silence: Challenges Faced By Pregnant-Students at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Research Article
Author(s): Kobina Esia-Donkoh, Kweku Esia-Donkoh, Hagar Asare
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Post Beijing Conference has seen tremendous efforts by governments especially in developing countries such as Ghana to improve access to education at all levels and most critically to females. Over the last two decades, Ghana has put in place various interventions tailored to increasing female school enrolment and reducing the gender gap in education. Commendable results have been achieved. For instance, there is gender parity at the basic education and an increasing enrolment figures at the tertiary level. What has over the years been overlooked is how female students cope on campus as a result of combining academic work with other roles. The study is situated within this context, and using the seven roles framework and the bio-psychosocial model, it assesses the challenges pregnant-students face and how they cope at University of Cape Coast campus. A combination of accidental and snowball sampling techniques were employed to contact 62 respondents as well as conduct 12 in-depth interviews. More than 90 percent of the respondents were married. Common among the roles played include individual, occupational, and conjugal roles. These contributed to various challenges including psychological, socio-economic and academic-related challenges. Emotion-based coping strategies were mostly adopted to deal with the challenges. In the short term, the University must develop interventions to assist pregnant-students to cope effectively on campus, while in the long term, develop a policy to that effect.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Career/Vocational Guidance/Counselling: A Tool for Functional Education and Graduate Employability

Research Article
Author(s): Ali, Hassana Oseiwu
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study was undertaken to ascertain the extent to which career guidance/counselling can serve as a tool for functional education and graduate employability. The study was conducted in Kogi State University, Anyigba.  A sample size of 500 was selected using stratified and simple random sample techniques, across the faculties of the final year students. The data collected from the sample were analyzed using simple percentage and mean. The results obtained among others were as follows; that the level of guidance and counselling services among the students in the university was not significantly high. There was significant influence in academic performance of students who had received guidance and counselling services as against those who had not. That guidance services serves as motivation for acquisition of skills. It was recommended that guidance and counselling services should be improved upon, and that guidance/counsellors should be employed by university authority. Priority should be focused on the attitude of students toward guidance service and that guidance/counselling services should be given at the point of entry and should be guided to point of graduation. A functional guidance counselling units should be established in all tertiary institution in Nigeria. Fund should be raised by the federal/state governments to maintain guidance units in all our university campuses. By so doing, students focus on their course of studies and those who need change of course to suite their career choice could be assisted through follow up, on graduation they could easily be employed and become functional and useful to themselves and society at large.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Application of PBL Method in Beverage Technology Teaching

Research Article
Author(s): Youwei Yu , Jincai Zhou
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The characteristics of Beverage Technology were analyzed, and PBL method was applied in Beverage Technology teaching. Application procedure consisted of four processes: selecting cases and constructing situation, solving problem and promoting student to acquire knowledge, forming cognitive structure through learning transfer, and popularizing application and consolidating teaching effect. Implementation of PBL method could animate classroom, enhance experimental teaching, increase student technological innovation, and help students obtain employment. PBL method is quite effective in Beverage Technology teaching.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that implementation of PBL method in beverage technology teaching could animate classroom, enhance experimental teaching, increase student technological innovation, and help students obtain employment.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

On The Features of the Negative Temperature Coefficient Phenomenon in Combustion of N-Pentane-Air Mixtures

Research Article
Author(s): N.M. Rubtsov, A.A. Borisov, G. I. Skachkov, K. Ya. Troshin
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
The ignition of n-pentane-air mixture at low temperatures is experimentally studied in a rapid mixture injection static reactor. The ignition process was monitored using a high speed color video camera. It is shown that introduction of platinum wire into the reactor eliminates the phenomenon of negative temperature coefficient; however Pt wire has no effect on the ignition delay time of thermal ignition of stoichiometric n-pentane-air mixture at lower temperatures.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 6

Nutritive Value of Some Agro–Industrial By–Products as Supplement to Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) By Sokoto Gudali Calf

Research Article
Author(s): Funmilayo O. Bamigboye, A. J. Igbekoyi, O. J. Babayemi
Journal: Journal of Nutrients

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Abstract
Supplementation value of some agro–industrial by–products was assessed by 12 Sokoto Gudali calves in a Completely Randomized Design. Four test diets were formulated: Palm Kernel Cake (PKC), Brewer’s Dried Grain (BDG), Wheat Offal (WO) and combinations of PKC + BDG + WO based diets while Guinea grass was fed as the basal diet. Diet A (33.25 % PKC), diet B (33.25 % BDG), diet C (33.25 % WO) and diet D (11.08 % PKC + 11.08 % BDG + 11.08 % WO) were included in the formulated diets. The proximate composition of the diets and performance characteristics of calves on these diets were assessed using standard procedures. Diet D was observed to have the highest CP, CF and ether extract (28.3, 34.0 and 20.0 % respectively) while diet C followed a direct inverse trend of this in terms of DM, CP and CF (55.8, 22.6 and 23.0 % respectively). Results also showed that there were not significant differences among the treatments in final weight, weight gain, daily weight gain and the feed conversion ratio but diet A was significantly different (P < 0.05) from other treatments in feed intake. It is concluded that brewer’s dried grains and wheat offal can be interchangeably used as well as combinations of the two in addition to the palm kernel cake as supplement to grass by Sokoto Gudali cattle for production and management.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effects of combining industrial-by products on the performance of cattle. Also, the study was able to identify the by-products that can be interchangeably used in rearing Sokoto gudali calves. 
Medical Sciences » Journal of Nutrients » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Space Technology to Monitor the Tornado That Hit Brahmanbaria Dist. of Bangladesh in 2013 and Damaged A Lot

Research Article
Author(s): Suraiya Begum, Mehrun Nessa, Md. Shah Alam, Md. Saheb Ali
Journal: Journal of Future Internet

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Abstract
Bangladesh faces meteorological events like cyclone, depression , nor’easter’s, tornado  etc. almost every year. Nor’wester’s and Tornadoes are the special type of storm which cause lot of destructions  and hampers the sustainable development of the country. Nor’westers come mainly from the north westerly direction (and hence the name) and are land based. They are  very common phenomenon in Bangladesh during late month of Chaitra and Baishak . They are known as Kalbaishaki in Bengali.  The physical cause of such disasters is embodied in law of science and hence proper scientific research is necessary to deal with them. A massive tornado attacked Brahmanbaria dist. in 2013. In this paper , the role of Remote Sensing and GIS technology for  monitoring the tornado and its impact  have been described. 
Contribution/ Originality
SPARRSO, has been engaged with monitoring of different natural disasters using remote sensing technology since early seventies’. This type dealing is necessary to study the nature of the events useful for awareness and preparedness towards disaster management. 
Computer Sciences » Journal of Future Internet » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Comparison of Surface Energy of Bcc Alkali Metals and Transition Metals Using Maeam

Research Article
Author(s): Akpata Erhieyovwe, Enaibe. A. Edison, S.E. Iyayi
Journal: Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications

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Abstract
The surface energies of the low index (100), (110) and (111) planes of some bcc alkali metals (Li,Na,K,Rb,Cs) and for the bcc transition metals (Fe,W,Mo,Cr,Ta,Nb and V) have been calculated  using the Modified Analytical Embedded Atom Method (MAEAM).The surface energy of each (hkl) plane in alkali metals was found to be much more lower than those of the transition metals. The experimental values of surface energies are not tied to specific surfaces and are obtained for polycrystalline materials. They do not correlate with computed values published for any of these surfaces. This is expected since experiments give direct results. For all bcc metals the order of the surface energy is such that Es(110) < Es(100) < Es(111) which is in agreement with the results obtained except for (111) surface. Our calculated result shows that Es(111) < Es(110) < Es(100).  This is not in agreement with the result of  MAEAM.[1]
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of the surface energy of transition metals and alkali metals at low index level.
Engineering » Review of Advances in Physics Theories and Applications » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Micro Level Geo-Resistivity Survey through V.E.S. Test for Groundwater Feasibility Study and Selection of Bore Well Sites in Pipili Block of Puri

Research Article
Author(s): Tarun Kumar Lohani, Parikshit Barik, Bankim Chand Patnaik, Sanjay Kumar Mansingh
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
The geo-resistivity was conducted in an area near Jamukoli of Pipili block under Puri district of Odisha to study the groundwater feasibility and selection of site for installation of bore wells. The reason for choosing this area is due to the poor and backward inhabitants residing in the locality. Vertical Electrical Sounding Test most commonly known as Schlumberger Test was conducted at five locations to get a confirmation regarding groundwater occurrences and their feasibility to tap water from deep bore wells. It is surprising to note that during course of investigation there is a huge variation in groundwater occurrences within a span of a couple of meters. This is probably a fault zone which might have been extending in the SE to NW direction. Though the subsurface lithology shows a vertical dissemination of laterite and sandstone but aquifer has been recorded in the region where the lithology is either weathered or fractured. Groundwater exists at a depth of 70m – 90m and an expected 3000 l/hr. can be discharged comfortably in few locations.
Contribution/ Originality
The research work undertaken is a state of art and is an innovation to this particular field. As per the actual result bore logs are the best way to find the existence of the aquifer, but it costs too much if a tracer fails to reveal groundwater existence in that area. To avoid the effective cost sounding method has been executed in five locations at least to find the subsurface occurrence of groundwater. In this regard, resistivity meter of make Geoenviron has been used to find the result of subsurface litho units of the area. Though a huge area is not considered for the research work, but confined work done in a patch of 52 acres of land is enough to depict the presence of aquifer and its discharge per hour.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

The Role of Led’s In Meeting China’s Building Code Requirement of 50% Improved Energy Efficiency

Research Article
Author(s): Craig Seidelson
Journal: Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research

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Abstract
China economic development continues to be marred by power shortages, extensive air pollution, and a strained water supply.   These problems trace back to China’s dependence on coal for power.  At present coal consumption levels China stands in the way of maintaining global temperature increase from greenhouse gases below the 2°C target.  Amid reports one-third of global energy end use takes place within buildings, China’s National Energy Commission (NEC) has responded by requiring new buildings are at least 50% more energy efficient than those built in 2005.  This research found LED’s reduced overall building power use by approximately 19%.   Payback was less than 2 years.  In China the legally enforceable, mandatory standard for visual comfort (300 lux) and power density (11 watts/m2) are defined in GB5034-2004.  However, since LED’s experienced 28% more lumen decay over useful life than fluorescents, the lighting change resulted in savings only if local government officials permitted tasks lighting at reduced intensity. 
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Improved Analytical Approach of Vibration Behavior Destined To Ball Bearings in The Case of Angular Contact

Research Article
Author(s): El Had Khalid, Hachim Abdelilah, Chouairi Asmaa, EL Ghorba Mohamed
Journal: Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research

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Abstract
In recent years many developments have been made in the area of the vibration behavior of the supported by bearings or journal bearings rotating shafts. The results, if they are generally acceptable for common-use in terms of operating conditions, are far from meeting the aircraft industry, where the machining at high speeds is an undeniable need.This research therefore is aimed to provide an analytical simulation based on theoretical developments of the vibration response of a ball bearing. The generation of vibration by a point in a rolling element bearing is modeled as a function of the rotation of the bearing, the distribution of the load in the bearing, the transfer function between the bearing, transducer and elasticity of the bearing structure.The essence of this work is to present an analytical model of a specific type single of row effect balls (SKF 6004). This study is a first step dedicated to define the geometric characteristics, and in second time to determine the equations governing the distribution of responsibilities within the ball bearing.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Ranking Iranian Accredited Laboratories with Proficiency Tests Using Promethee Method

Research Article
Author(s): Mousa Amini, Alireza Alinezhad, Hamid Najafabadiha
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
The rapid pace of changing technology is leading to high rate of import and export between different countries. In outsourcing governmental organizations duties to private sectors, it is a need to control sectors and they should be under assessment policy. This research has been developed to show how the accredited laboratories of Iranian standard (ISIRI) can be assessed for their technical servicing using the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) in combination with proficiency testing inter- laboratories comparison, in order to rank them for an urgent or crucial need of testing any kind of goods or products under compulsory regulation or national standard for their quality or safety aspect. The proposed approach, therefore, allows a decision to be made with confidence that the alternative (laboratory) chosen has best performance for conformity assessment.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that implementation of a hybrid integration of PROMETHEE I, II with Proficiency Testing inter-groups comparison, provide a successful tool for ranking of those candidates.
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Internship Effectiveness in It Industry: A Structural Equation Modeling

Research Article
Author(s): Chou, Chun-Mei , Shen, Chien-Hua, Hsiao, Hsi-Chi , Chen, Su-Chang
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
This study examines 324 tertiary students’ entrepreneurial internship effectiveness and its influencing factors in IT industry to serve as a school reference for the development of entrepreneurial internship education measures. The results show that students” “entrepreneurial intention (EI)” has a significant direct effect on “entrepreneurial internship effectiveness (EIE)”, and “internship satisfaction (IS) “has a significant effect on “entrepreneurial internship effectiveness” through “internship satisfaction.” The influence pattern and empirical data of “internship satisfaction” and “entrepreneurial intention” on “entrepreneurial internship effectiveness” has a good fit.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature that students’ internship experiences of entrepreneurial intention and internship satisfaction have provided them with chances to learn entrepreneurial competence and attitude, which may be helpful for their future entrepreneurs.
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Antilisterial Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves and Seeds of Moringa Oleifera

Research Article
Author(s): Eruteya, O.C., Badon, B.
Journal: The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology

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Abstract
The in vitro antilisterial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera were evaluated using the agar diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar. Listeria monocytogenes PCM 2191 serovar 01/2 and the four other L. monocytogenes strains were inhibited by the aqueous extracts at the concentrations of 200 and 250mg/ml of the leaves and 150, 200 and 250mg/ml of the seeds whereas, no inhibitory effects were observed with the ethanolic extracts of both the leaves and seeds. The result of this study has demonstrated the potential application of moringa aqueous extract in the control of L. monocytogenes.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, a further confirmation of moringa’s bio-activity.The study is one of very few studies which have investigated the antilisterial effect of moringa.The papers primary contribution is finding that moringa has a potential application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes.
Biological Sciences » The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

On Statistical Definition of Free and Fair Election: Bivariate Normal Distribution Model

Research Article
Author(s): Ronald Wesonga, Fabian Nabugoomu, Abraham Owino, Leonard Atuhaire, Agnes Ssekiboobo, Xavier Mugisha, James Ntozi, Tom Makumbi, Peter Jehopio , Bruno Ocaya
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
The coining of the expression free and fair was a good way towards evaluating elections, but fell short of qualifying its real quantification to guide an informed judgment; this paper provides guidance for such a definition.Data from the Uganda National Baseline Survey were used to assess the dynamics of the determinants for a free and fair election. All determinants were statistically significant (p<0.01) for the two multinomial models (free and fair election models). The predicted probabilities for free and fair were each used as inputs to form probability distribution function could  jointly define the expression free and fair using a bivariate normal distribution. A strong positive correlation was identified between an election being free and fair (ρ=0.9693,p<0.01) implying the reliability of the statistical models in jointly considering free and fair.  The study recommends development of central statistical computational system to inform electoral bodies and judges in passing scientifically backed ruling on whether an election is free and fair. A threshold percentage for any election to be referred to as free and fair could be developed either deterministically or stochastically and provisions of which passed under electoral law.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of a national governance household baseline survey data and consequently proposes a framework for defining free and fair election. Given that free and fair is considered jointly, the paper recommends a definition based on joint bivariate probability distribution function. 
Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 5

Smart Concretes: Review

Research Article
Author(s): A. Khitab, M. Alam, H. Riaz, S. Rauf
Journal: International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology

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Abstract
Concrete is a versatile and the most widely used material in the world. According to a recent survey, its annual production is one cubic meter per person. Historically, it is an old material, which has evolved tremendously during the passage of time. This paper envisages the most recent smart developments in this wonderful material. The smart concretes discussed in this paper include Engineering Cementitious Composites, Self cleaning concrete, self heating concretes and ultra high performance powder reactive concretes. Through modern technology, the strength of concrete has been enhanced from a few hundred pounds per square inch to more than 30000 pounds per square inch. In the same way, the utility of concrete has been tremendously broadened in many fields. Here, primarily, a brief introduction of all important recent developments is discussed.  Next, the composition of these materials is narrated, followed by their applications and utilities. The main theme of this paper is to understand the importance of these concretes and to introduce it to academia and construction industry of Pakistan. It is demonstrated that the introduction of these materials will solve many problems of construction, which are not possible to solve with conventional means. Moreover, these developments could solve many energy problems and some are even quite suitable for earthquake zones of Pakistan. 
Contribution/ Originality


Physical Sciences » International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 2

Meteorological and Hydrological Disasters Bangladesh Experiences Every Year Monitored Through Space Technology

Research Article
Author(s): Suraiya Begum, Md. Shah Alam, Mehrun Nessa, Md. Shajahan Ali, Md. Firoz Molla
Journal: Journal of Future Internet

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Abstract
The physical cause of this disaster is embodied in law of science and hence proper scientific research is necessary to deal with them. Bangladesh is one of the disaster  prone country faces   Cyclones, Floods, draught, Norwesters/Tornadoes, Earthquake etc. almost every year. The Role of Remote Sensing in the monitoring such natural disasters has been described in this paper. 
Contribution/ Originality
 SPARRSO, has been engaged with monitoring of different natural disasters using remote sensing technology since early seventies’. This type dealing is necessary to study the nature of the events useful for awareness and   disaster management towards sustainable development of the country. 
Computer Sciences » Journal of Future Internet » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

The Recruitment of Migrant Workers in the Food Service Industry in Malaysia. A Study of Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam

Research Article
Author(s): Yeo Sing Yee , Joyce Leu Fong Yuen
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
In the recent decades, the process of globalization has increased the mobility of labor and spurred rapid international migration across borders. As one of the major labor importers in Asia, the government of Malaysia is committed to reduce the number of migrant labors to 1.5 million by 2015. Though many researches have been conducted to study the employment effects of migrant workers towards the local labor economy, this research aims to examine the factors which lead to the recruitment of migrant workers in the café segment of food service industry in Malaysia, specifically Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam (Café) in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Four main factors are being studied in this research, namely the lower wages; acceptability of workers towards poor employment conditions; flexibility of employees at work and better work ethics of foreign labors. The recruitment of migrant workers is said to be motivated by three main factors: lower wages, acceptability of workers towards employment conditions and better work ethics of the foreign workforce. In addition, the flexibility of workers is proven to have no significant relationship with the recruitment of migrant workers in this sector.
Contribution/ Originality
This study explores the recruitment issues of migrant workers in the cafe industry, which has been neglected in Malaysia. Café industry is one of the industries which has huge number of migrant workers. This study gives an in-depth knowledge of employer-employee relationships in Old Town White Coffee and Pappa Rich Kopitiam (café).
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10

Effect of Selected Metal Ions on the Mycelial Growth of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolated From Soybean Field in Rongai, Kenya

Research Article
Author(s): Erastus S.K. Mwangi, Erastus G. Gatebe, Mary W. Ndung’u
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
White mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum attacks a wide host range of broad-leafed plants which includes soybeans. The effect of twelve metal ions (Hg+2, Co+3, Ag+1, La+3, Cd+2, Cr+3, Cu+2, Zn+2, Mo+5, Sr+2, Sn+4 and Ba+2) on the growth of pathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum was studied.  The fungus was isolated from infected soybean plant collected at Rongai, Kenya. The isolate was tested for the tolerance to metal ions at concentrations of 50.0, 100.0, 250.0 and 500.0 ppm amended into the C: N (35:1) glucose peptone prepared using 1.5% (3.75g) agar culture medium. All the investigated metal ions exhibited concentration dependent mycelial growth using disc diffusion test. Of 12 metal cations tested, only copper and zinc stimulated mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum mycelial in relatively higher concentrations. Higher concentrations of Hg+2, Ag+1, La+3 and Cd+2 inhibited growth of fungi causing an opaque halo in the medium. FT-IR spectral analysis of culture filtrate reviewed oxalic acid secreted precipitated primarily as oxalate at the periphery of the fungal colony. This work suggests that strong pollution of soil by some heavy metals could be a restrictive factor of development and pathogenicty of S. sclerotiorum fungi in the environment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature that secretion of oxalic acid is the primary cause for proliferation of S. sclerotiorum. From this work fabrication of metal based fungicide looks an attractive strategy towards management of the oxalic acid secreted by the fungi during its colonization or growth. Furthermore, the results demonstrates the potential utilization of S. sclerotiorum in bioremediation.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10