Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
2637 E Atlantic Blvd #43110
Pompano Beach, FL 33062

Conference List

A Multidimensional Structure of Shopping Centre Visit Objectives - An European Consumers Perspective

Marcin Gasior


Lukasz Skowron

Marcin Gasior 1 Lukasz Skowron 1 

  1. Faculty of Management, Lublin University of Technology, Poland 1


Nowadays, one can observe significant, and, more importantly, constant shifts in numerous areas of consumer behaviour, especially those related to purchase processes and buyers’ attitudes toward shopping. With the grow of societies’ wealth and development levels, shopping becomes more a part of a lifestyle and a way of spending time, than a means of satisfying vital, elementary needs. Such situation resulted in tangible change in the role and the strategy of retail places and malls, and directly leaded to the concepts like leisure shopping.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possible reasons for visiting shopping centres and malls as well as selected attitudes towards shopping. Such analysis made it possible to assess the significance and relevance of different objectives of the visit as well as to evaluate the existence and the size of the continuum between two approaches towards shopping, defined as: (a) strictly pragmatic, and (b) leisure and social experience. 
The study was conducted on the quota sample of 1375 polish consumers, who had visited a shopping centre in the recent months.
The obtained results clearly show that, contrary to common belief, one cannot assume the existence of the consumers’ inclination towards one of abovementioned approaches, although some correlation with age and gender has been observed. Moreover, the adaptation of clustering methods (expectation-maximisation algorithm) made it possible to prove the existence of different, yet internally coherent groups of consumers, displaying different combinations of the perceived significance of evaluated reasons and objectives of the visit.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated detailed reasons and objectives of visiting shopping centers. Moreover, it presents the differences in the structure of aforementioned objectives in different types of consumers. 



  1. Babin, B.J., W.R. Darden and M. Griffn, 1994. Work and/or fun: Measuring hedonic and utilitarian shopping value. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4): 644-656.
  2. Celeux, G. and G. Govaert, 1992. A classification EM algorithm for clustering and two stochastic versions. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 14(3): 315–332.
  3. Dennis, C.E., 2005. Objects of desire: Consumer behaviour in shopping centre choices. London: Palgrave.
  4. Dittmar, H., 1992. The social psychology of material possessions: To have is to be. New York: St Martin’s Press.
  5. Dixon, T.J., 2005. The role of retailing in urban regeneration. Local Economy, 20(2): 168-182.
  6. Eppli, M.J. and J.D. Shilling, 1996. Changing economic perspectives on the theory of retail location In Banjamin J.D. (ed.) Megatrends in retail real estate., New York: Kulwert Academic Publishers. pp: 65-80.
  7. Grzesiuk, A., 2013. Nowoczesne kana?y dystrybucji jako kreator form sp?dzania czasu wolnego. Handel Wewn?trzny, 59(4A): 238-246.
  8. Himmelfarb, S., 1993. The measurement of attitudes. In: A.H. Eagly & S. Chaiken (Eds.), Psychology of attitudes. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  9. Howard, E., 2007. New shopping centres: Is leisure the answer? International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35(8): 661-672.
  10. Iacobucci, D. and G.A. Churchill, 2009. Marketing research: Methodological foundations. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
  11. Jones, M.A., 1999. Entertaining shopping experiences: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 6(3): 129-139.
  12. Knecht-Tarczewska, M., 2011. Centrum handlowe jako nowoczesny produkt handlowo-us?ugowy. Zeszyty Naukowe: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu, 175(1): 293-304.
  13. MacQueen, J.B., 1967. Some methods for classification and analysis of multivariate observations. Proceedings of 5-th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1: 281-297.
  14. McIachlan, G. and T. Krishnan, 1996. The EM algorithm and extensions. 1st Edn., Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience.
  15. Meoli, J., R.A. Feinberg and L. Westgate, 1991. A reinforcement – affect model of mall patronage. Advances in Consumer Research, 18(1): 441-444.
  16. Rand, W., 1971. Objective criteria for the evaluation of clustering methods. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 66(336): 846-850.
  17. Sit, J., B. Merrilees and D. Birch, 2003. Entertainment-seeking shopping centre patrons: The missing segments. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 31(2): 80-94.
  18. Wedel, M. and W.A. Kamakura, 2000. Market segmentation. Conceptual and methodological fundations. 2nd Edn., Norwell, MA: Kulwert Academic Publishers.
  19. Witten, I.H. and E. Frank, 2000. Data mining. Practical machine learning tools and techniques. New York: Morgan Kaufmann.
  20. Wong, G.K.M., Y. Lu and L.L. Yuan, 2001. SCATTR: An instrument for measuring shopping centre attractiveness. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 29(2): 76 - 86.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) A Multidimensional Structure of Shopping Centre Visit Objectives - An European Consumers Perspective
( 2 ) A Review on Criteria for Green Infrastructure to be Adopted by Local Authorities
( 3 ) Public Infrastructure Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) Approach
( 4 ) Conceptual Framework of Green Infrastructure Performance Evaluation for Local Authority
( 6 ) Milk or Wine: Are Critical Infrastructure Protection Architectures Improving with Age?
( 7 ) The Indirect Impact of Overconfidence on the Performance of Tunisian Firms Through their Financing Structure
( 8 ) Interfaces Between Road Infrastructure and Poverty in Africa: The Case of Malawi, 1994-2013
( 9 ) Rural Roads Infrastructure and Agricultural Products Distribution: A Focus on Akure South Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria
( 10 ) An Investigation into the Causes of Failures in Railway Infrastructure at Transnet Freight Rail - A Case of the Steel and Cement Business Unit
( 11 ) An Investigation of the Impact of Organisational Structure on Organisational Performance
( 12 ) Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization
( 13 ) Does Capital Structure Affect the Profitability of Listed Family and Non-Family Firms? Evidence from Bangladesh
( 14 ) Factors Affecting the Capital Structure of the Textile Industry in Bangladesh: An Inferential Study
( 15 ) Infrastructure Development, Capacity Utilization and Manufacturing Value Added in Nigeria
( 16 ) The Effect of Capital Structure Decisions on Profitability of Quoted Consumer Goods in Nigeria
( 20 ) Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria
( 21 ) An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia
( 23 ) Contemporary Approach to Enhanced Road Transport System in Nigeria Through the Application of It-Based (Online) Bus Ticketing and Payment System
( 24 ) The Technical Efficiency of Collective Irrigation Schemes in South-Eastern of Tunisia
( 25 ) Kashmir Peasant Economy under Dogra’s: A Case Study of Agrarian Produce and Livestock 1885-1925 A.D
( 26 ) Social Sustainability of High-Rise Buildings
( 27 ) Driving Role of Institutional Investors in the Indian Stock Market in Short and Long-Run – An Empirical Study
( 28 ) Exchange Rate Movements, Import And Economic Growth in Nigeria (1986-2010)
( 29 ) Cross-Cultural Leadership Intelligence: Recommendations for Kenya
( 30 ) Long-Run Relationships and Causality Tests Between Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in India
( 31 ) Survey of Students’ Academic Achievement and Mathematics Identity-Formation
( 32 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 33 ) Anti-Corruption Crusade in Nigeria: More Words Than Deeds
( 34 ) Value Creation in the Multi-Project Environment
( 35 ) S-Dimensional Assets Portfolio Evaluation
( 37 ) Structural Breaks and the Long-Run Stability of Demand for Real Broad Money Function in Nigeria: A Gregory-Hansen Approach
( 38 ) Just-In-Time: Review of Empirical Studies
( 39 ) Influence Internship Learning Effect in Business Service Sector: Using Internship Self-Efficacy as the Mediator Variable
( 40 ) Gun Violence in United States of America Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
( 41 ) Beyond Marxist Economism and Entrepreneurial Essentialism: Post-Colonial Politics of Empire in Chinua Achebe’s And Linus Asong’s Writings
( 42 ) Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria
( 43 ) Climate Change Adaptation in Semi-Arid Dodoma: An Experience from Eco-Village
( 44 ) Bancassurance - Growth Guaranteed in India
( 45 ) Emergent Behavior of “Rational” Agents in Some Forgotten N-Person Games
( 46 ) A Mixed-Methods Study to Explore Stage of Readiness and Intention of Micro and Small Enterprises to Adopt Mobile Money in Indonesia
( 47 ) Micro-Credits and Poverty Reduction in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania: A Case Study of Dar-Es-Salaam Commercial Bank
( 48 ) An Empirical Test on Effect of Intra-Product Trade on Regional Income Distribution: The Case of Liaoning, China
( 49 ) Benefit-Cost Analysis of Alternative Insect Pests Management in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 50 ) Stock Market Index Prediction with Neural Network during Financial Crises: A Review on Bist-100
( 51 ) The Life-Time of Tomorrow Party of Japan and Its Negative Impacts on the Anti-Nuclear Movements in Japan’s Politics
( 52 ) An Assessment of the Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) On the Administration of Public Records: A Case Study of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly in the Upper East Region of Ghana-West Africa
( 53 ) Compliance Behaviour in State-Run Fisheries: Situating Lake Chivero in a Policy Perspective
( 54 ) Development, Preference Change, and Inequality in an Integrated Walrasian-General-Equilibrium and Neoclassical-Growth Theory
( 55 ) Agent-Based Simulation of Contribution Games
( 56 ) Determinants of Share Price Movement in Nigeria -The Management Perspective
( 57 ) Various International Experiences in Waste Management - Useful Lessons for Algeria
( 58 ) Rural - Urban Balance as a Measure of Socio-Economic Development with Special Reference to Iran
( 59 ) Measuring the Quality of Islamic Banks Services and Its Impact on Customers Satisfaction A Survey Study on the Islamic Banks Customers in Lattakia-Syria
( 60 ) The Internal Branding Process: Customer Reprofiling and Brand Positioning (Empirical Study on Traditional Snack Food in Bandung-Indonesia)
( 61 ) Determinants of Tax Revenue in Ethiopia (Johansen Co-Integration Approach)
( 62 ) Appointment of Directors and Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Sub Saharan Africa: Do We Need More Executive or Non-Executive Directors?
( 63 ) Corporate Funding and Sustainability of Non- Governmental Organizations in Africa
( 64 ) Development of the National Economies and the Foreign Trade Relations between Ukraine and Bulgaria (In the Period 2005-2014)
( 65 ) The Lead-Lag Relationships between Construction Investment and GDP: Granger Causality Tests and Impulse Responses Using Japanese Data
( 66 ) Forecasting-Based Carry Trade Using Pegged Currency: A Case of Omani Rial
( 67 ) Does the Holiday Effect Differ from Religious to Non-Religious Holidays? Empirical Evidence from Egypt
( 68 ) Rice Farmer and Capital Formation: A Case Study of Rice Farmer's Credit Cooperative in Itoikin, Ikosi-Ejirin LCDA, Lagos State
( 70 ) Effect of Budget Defict on Private Investment in East African Community for the Period 1981-2015: A Panel Data Analysis
( 71 ) Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria
( 72 ) Financial Deepening, Interest Rate Spread and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Sub-Sahara Africa
( 73 ) Internationalization of State Multilatinas: A Multi-Case Study in The Oil Sector
( 74 ) Analyzing Factors Affecting the Success of Social Media Posts for B2b Networks: A Fractional-Factorial Design Approach
( 75 ) The Effect of Work-Life Balance on Accounting Ethics
( 76 ) On the Prediction of the Inflation Crises of South Africa Using Markov-Switching Bayesian Vector Autoregressive and Logistic Regression Models
( 77 ) Military Regimes and Nigeria’s Economic Development, 1966-1999
( 78 ) Social Protection Programmes, Agricultural Production and Youth Employment in Nigeria: Analysis from LSMS-ISA
( 79 ) Participatory Processes in Planning for Self-Help Housing Provision in South Africa: Policies and Challenges
( 80 ) Under-Utilization of Female Capital: A Quantitative Study in Pakistani Perspective
( 81 ) Public-Private Partnership as a Strategy for E-Governance Funding in Africa: The Gains and the Pains
( 83 ) Foreign Capital Inflows and Unemployment in Nigeria: A New Evidence from ARDL-Bounds Testing Approach
( 84 ) The Effect of Internal and External Factors of Companies on Profitability and its Implications on Stock Price Index of State-Owned Banks
( 85 ) Firm-Level Investment Decisions Under Uncertainty and Irreversibility in Zimbabwes Private Firms
( 86 ) Leading Indicators and Financial Crisis: A Multi-Sectoral Approach Using Signal Extraction
( 87 ) Intention to Use E-Recruitment System: Empirical Evidence from Jobseekers in the Advertising Industry in Malaysia
( 88 ) Assessment of Dual Carriageway for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
( 89 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 90 ) External Debt and Economic Growth: Two-Step System GMM Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries
( 91 ) Decision-Making on Working Capital Management, Based on Industry Differences
( 92 ) Investigate Airport Service Quality- A Case Study of Airports in Shanghai
( 93 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 94 ) An Empirical Assessment of the Impact of Access to Credit on Farm Output: A Case Study of Sefwi-Wiawso Municipality Ghana
( 95 ) Analysis of Environmental Factors Affecting Manufacturing Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Kogi State Nigeria
( 96 ) Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis
( 97 ) The Mediating Effect of Financial Self-Efficacy on the Financial Literacy-Behavior Relationship: A Case of Generation Y Professionals
( 98 ) Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State
( 99 ) Rethinking Port Role as Transport Corridor under Symbiosis Theory-Case Study of China-Europe Trade Transportation
( 100 ) Exchange Rate Pass-through to Prices: VAR Evidence for Albania
( 101 ) Can Small-Cap Active Funds Substantially Outperform the Market Over Time?
( 102 ) Consumers’ Behavioural Intention to Adopt Mobile Banking in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa Using an Extension of Technology Acceptance Model: Lessons from Zimbabwe
( 103 ) Seasonal Assessment of Relative Humidity, Ambient Air Temperature and CO2 Concentration Level in School Buildings of Kigali-Rwanda
( 104 ) Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil
( 105 ) How can Female Executives Shape the Effectiveness of Executive Compensation?- A Multi-Dimensional Approach
( 107 ) Innovations Dissemination Approaches among Government Co-Operative Supporting Organisations in Tanzania
( 108 ) Nexus between Non-Oil Sectoral Contribution and Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981-2018
( 109 ) Re-Engineering Nigerian Economy through Human Capital Development: A Case of Manufacturing Firms In Southern Part of Nigeria
( 110 ) Do Derivative Instruments Increase Firm Risk for Indonesia Non-Financial Companies?
( 111 ) Inflation, Oil Revenue, and Monetary Policy Mix in an Oil-Dependent Economy: Empirical Insights from the Case of Nigeria
( 113 ) Analysis of Causal Nexus between Defense Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Toda-Yamamoto Approach
( 114 ) Determinant of Tax Revenue Effort in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
( 115 ) Accountability and Transparency in Nation Building: A COVID-19 Experience in Sub-Saharan Africa
( 116 ) Determinants of Profitability and its Implications on Corporate Values (Studies at Ceramic, Porcelain and Glass Sub Sector Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, 2009 - 2018)
( 117 ) Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Mindset: Towards Societal Re-Engineering
( 118 ) Exchange Rate Volatility and Agricultural Commodity Prices i Nigeria (2000-2018)
( 119 ) Export- Led Growth Hypothesis for Ghana: A TVAR & TVECM Analysis
( 120 ) Non-Linear Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Technological Innovation: Evidence from Emerging and Developing Countries
( 121 ) The Impact of Data Frequency on the Level of Exchange Rate Pass-through to Consumer Prices in Nigeria
( 122 ) Role of Talent Development on Talent Engagement and Self-Efficacy: A Structural Model
( 123 ) Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Hospitals in Kenya: 2012-2016
( 124 ) Contribution of Ready-Made Garments Industry on the Economic Development of Bangladesh: An Empirical Analysis
( 125 ) Some Non-Linear Problems in Accounting and Finance: Can we Apply Regression?
( 126 ) Analyzing the Impact of Eco-Innovation on Carbon Emissions Abatement: Evidence from OECD Countries
( 127 ) Research on the Construction and Application of Chinese Enterprises Overseas Port Investment Confidence Index Based on D-S Evidence Theory
( 128 ) Cross-Time-Frequency Analysis of Volatility Interdependence among Stock and Currency Markets
( 129 ) The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Global Economy: Emphasis on Poverty Alleviation and Economic Growth
( 130 ) The Effects of The Covid-19 Pandemic on Explotative and Explorative Strategies of Pharmaceutical Industries in Brazil
( 131 ) Are the Predictions of the Mundell-Fleming Model Applicable to Mexico?
( 132 ) Employee Motivation in Light Oncial, Non-Financial Rewards and Employee Commitment among Pharmaceutical SMEs of Indonesia
( 133 ) The New Pattern of Online Credit Loan in the Post-Epidemic Era
( 134 ) The Impact of Trade on Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: Do Sources Matter?
( 135 ) The Impact of Fundamental Factors on the Share Price of Micro-Sized Nasdaq Listed Technology Companies
( 136 ) Impacts of the U.S.-China Trade Conflicts News on U.S. and Chinese Stock Returns
( 137 ) Fear of Covid-19 and Intentions towards Adopting E-Health Services: Exploring the Technology Acceptance Model in the Scenario of Pandemic
( 138 ) Does the Mena Countries May Converge in GDP to Southern European One? The Effects of International Trade