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Listing 102 - 20 of 2141 results.

Multivariate Analysis in Formulation of the Benefit-Cost Index Related to the Sugarcane Production System in the Quirinopolis Municipality Productive Center, Goias, Brazil

Research Article
Author(s): Jean Marc Nacife, Frederico Antonio Loureiro Soares
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Food and bioenergy agriculture are growing demands of the global population. The problem of rural production facilities resides in gross revenue and not in issues related to production scale, since the price is determined by the market. The performance measure indicators, whether financial or not, have helped managers to focus their actions on long-term perspectives of sustainable socioeconomic production in rural production facilities. It is proposed to validate an equation model composed of social and economic indicators as a parameter for monitoring the development of sugarcane production in agricultural production facilities by means of multivariate analysis techniques and to characterize the socioeconomic factors different profiles in rural production facilities studied. The methodological approach was quantitative, applying techniques of inferential statistics and multivariate analysis by test for normality, test of the Friedman hypothesis, Categorical Principal Components Analysis, adjustment of multiple linear regression model and profile segmentation. The statistical tests showed statistical significance (P<0.05), CATPCA presented 2 dimensions with Cronbach's alpha adequate and a linear regression model was adjusted with adequate R2 of 0.90. The results by profile show that the IBCcane was the best of the smallholdings with 24.39 ha-1, (100% of the lessors). The IBCcane by establishments profile was: 424.39 (smallholding); 174.66 (small); 827.34 (medium); and 2,765.96 (large). The multivariate analysis determined the equation validity for the proposed indicators, it was proven that the smallholdings have the best benefit-cost index and the benefit-cost by profile showed that the large ones have a greater financial gain due to the productive scale.
Contribution/ Originality
Q1.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 07-2019 Issue: 6

The Potential Use of Social Media on Malaysian Primary Students to Improve Writing

Research Article
Author(s): Melor Md Yunus, Sakinah Zakaria, Ashairi Suliman
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
English has always been the second language taught in both primary and secondary schools in Malaysia. Students need to master English for communication, job requirements, advancement in science and technology and many other reasons. One of the most difficult components to master is the writing skill. As it requires knowledge in grammar, spelling, punctuation and vocabulary to produce a good piece of writing, students must be fully equipped with all the essential abilities. Henceforth, this study aims to investigate the potential use of social media in improving the writing skill among primary students. The respondents of this research comprised of 47 ESL primary school students from a rural area in one of the states in Malaysia. The students’ perceptions were measured through a questionnaire comprising a survey and open-ended questions. The finding of this study indicated that most respondents have access to social media and that they perceived social media as beneficial for the ESL educators to incorporate ICT into their teaching repertoire. It is concluded that incorporating social media in the classroom breaks the barriers in learning and converts it into a constructive learning environment.
Contribution/ Originality
The study has investigated the use of social media in improving the writing skill. Much has been said about its potential but limited studies have examined the perspective of young students at the age of ten in a rural area. Therefore, this adds to the current existing literature on this issue.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2019 Issue: 4

A Case Study in Teaching: The Factors Determining of Assessmenting the Competence of Technology-Based

Research Article
Author(s): Thanh Chi Phan, Tien Minh Phan, Thanh Tu Ngo, Ninh Toan Van Duong
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
Assessment and measurement of learning outcomes are an important part of the teaching process. In addition to supporting content learning, technology-based assessments are more advantageous than traditional assessments, as it can help reduce time as well as provide more access to student needs and preferences, allowing educators to personalize learning. Nowadays, more and more different types and assessment tools are applied to assess according to competence, helping teachers to get the most accurate, objective and reliable results about the learners' competencies. Advances in technology will extend the use of student competence assessments aimed at improving the efficiency of the learning process in education. The goal of competence-based education is to focus on the output of the teaching and learning process, which emphasizes the competence and level of competence that learners need to achieve after the end of a training program, thus the development of technology, technology, socio-economy and politics from education has been identified as a key task in teaching towards developing competence for learners. This paper researches and identifies the factors in competence-based assessment with technology-assisted, contributing to identifying ways of assessing learners in the direction of competence development, aiming to diversify methods of student assessment in teaching and online teaching.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature and additional about theory of the competence technology-based assessment, with a research method that combines educational practices to identify the determinants of learners' competence based on the technology driven environment aimed at diversifying student assessment methods in teaching.
Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Evaluation of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Varieties against Faba Bean Gall Disease in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Wulita Wondwosen, Mashilla Dejene, Negussie Tadesse, Seid Ahmed
Journal: Review of Plant Studies

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Abstract
Faba bean gall disease is a newly emerging and devastating disease of faba bean that threaten its production and productivity in Ethiopia. Thus, this study was conducted with the objective to evaluate the reactions of faba bean varieties against faba bean gall disease. A field experiment was conducted at Basona Werana and Ankober Districts, in 2014. Sixteen faba bean varieties along with local check were tested in RCBD design with three replications. Faba bean varieties varied significantly (p<0.05) for both disease and yield parameters. The lowest disease severity, AUDPC and infection rates were recorded from variety Gachena (Lay Gorebela) and Gora and Gachena (Mush). Moreover, the highest (2737 and 3374%-days) AUDPC values were recorded from the variety local and Selale at Mush and Lay Gorebela. The highest yield was obtained from varieties Gora, Gebelcho, Degaga, Gachena and Walki (Mush) and from varieties Gora and Gachena (Lay Gorebela). Also, yield of faba bean correlated negatively and significantly with AUDPC and final severity at both locations, whereas, AUDPC and severity associated positively and significantly from each other. From this study it can be concluded that relatively resistant and high yielder varieties can be used in combination with other control measures. Therefore, in the future, researches on integration of resistance and high yielder varieties with other management options should be conducted.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies in Ethiopia which have investigated the response of Faba bean varieties for the newely emerged gall disease. The study assessed seventeen varieties by scientifically comparing them with very important agronomic and disease resistance related attribute and come up with valid conclusion.
Agricultural Sciences » Review of Plant Studies » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 1

Impact of Subclinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Animals

Research Article
Author(s): Muhammad Waseem Ghani, Liu Bin, Muhammad Waseem Birmani, Aamir Nawab, Lang Guan Cun, Li Ye, Xiao Mei
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
According to the international dairy federation, the dairy sector provides up to one billion livelihoods around the globe. Albeit, it faces many challenges including the two potentially threatening diseases which are mastitis and infertility. Both are complex multifactorial diseases, and mastitis is associated with causing infertility. Mastitis is an intramammary infection (IMI) and it occurs in two forms, clinical and subclinical. Mastitis being the infection of mammary glands, directly affects milk production to reduce its quality and quantity and indirectly hinders the reproductive performance of dairy animals. It negatively affects the reproduction parameters of dairy animals including, an increase in days open, a decrease in pregnancy rates, and increases chances of early embryonic losses and abortion. The chronic cases of mastitis lead toward the infertility of dairy animals and both of these diseases are responsible for increasing the culling rate and decreasing the profitability of a dairy farm. The objective of this study is to illustrate the influence of subclinical mastitis on reproduction parameters of dairy animals including, days open, days to the first service after calving, pregnancy rates, abortion, and embryonic losses. The relation between mastitis and infertility will be explained mechanistically.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the literature related to the field of animal science and particularly it discusses the issues related to subclinical mastitis in dairy animals. The primary purpose of this study is to bring this issue under the attention of animal science researchers and veterinarians to understand the gravity of situation and to work for treatment and cure of intramammary infections.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Intensive Patient Monitoring Using LabVIEW

Research Article
Author(s): Manivasagam Rajendran
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
In modern years, numerous telemedicine applications have been effectively implemented over wired communication technologies like POTS (Plain Old Telephone Systems) and ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network). However, nowadays, modern wireless telecommunication means, such as the GSM (Global System for Mobile communication), GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), the forthcoming UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems) mobile telephony standards, and satellite communications, allow the operation of wireless telemedicine systems, freeing the medical personnel and/or the subject monitored from being bound to fixed locations . To offer a comparably dependable and easy way of monitoring for those people using newly available telecommunication technologies, we have proposed an Intensive Patient Monitoring System with database trailing ability. It will observe the results of simulation and its Hardware implementation can coincide up to its maximum accuracy. The investigational results prove the continuous monitoring of vital signs and be corroborate to be successful as per the required conditions. Intensive Monitoring System for various parameters monitoring with database tracking capability promises to be a powerful aid in monitoring multiple patients concurrently.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated a new modular concept of patient monitoring system with multiple parameter monitoring and database tracking by exploiting the recent telecommunication technology. The Prototype of the proposed monitoring service was built-up and tested under various normal and abnormal conditions.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Sources of Resistance to Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Improved Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum l.) Varieties of Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Mequanint Andualem Mekonnen, Merkuz Abera Admasu, Netsanet Bacha Hei
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Stem rust disease caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Eriks and E. Henn) possess the greatest threat to global wheat production due to continuously producing new races that can attack previously resistant varieties. This investigation was therefore conducted under greenhouse and field conditions by evaluating durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) cultivars along with a susceptible check for their resistance to stem rust during the 2017 main cropping season. Greenhouse evaluation was conducted at Ambo for race TTTTF. The field experiment was undertaken at Adet and Debre-Tabor in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The spreader row Morocco was inoculated with a virulent race (TTTTF) at stem elongation. Field resistance at the adult plant stage was assessed through final disease severity (FRS), coefficient of infection (CI), and area under disease progressive curve (AUDPC). Durum wheat cultivars Mettaya and Oda were found to be resistant both at the seedling and post seedling stages suggesting resistance confer by a major gene. Whereas Bakalcha, Lelisso, Ilani and Yerer showed low disease severities ?30 with lower AUDPC values (?500) and CI (?20) and were identified to have a good level of field resistance for stem rust population present at Adet and Debre-Tabor. High correlation coefficients were observed between stem rust resistance parameters. Among the cultivars having a good level of resistance Lelisso, Bichena and Bakalcha produce high yields with heavy kernel weight in both locations. The resistance cultivars identified from the present study can be used for further wheat improvement programs.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the sources of resistance to stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in improved durum wheat (Triticum turgidum l.) varieties of Ethiopia.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Obidiebube E .A, Eruotor P .G, Akparaobi S .O, Okolie, H, Obasi, C. C
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the adaptability of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc) varieties to rainforest agro-ecological zone of Delta State using selected varieties. The varieties used were: EXMF1, EXMF2, EXMF3, EXMF4, IITA355, IITA182, IITA165, IITA1480, IITA1132, ENZK1 and ENZK2. The aim of this experiment was to identify the varieties of Bambara groundnut that were most suitable in this agro-ecological zone. The design used in this experiment was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. The parameters collected were: plant height, petiole length, number of leaves, total leaf area, number of pods per plant, pod and seed weights per plant(g), and seed yield (kg/ha). The result showed that varieties EXMF1, EXMF4, IITA165 and ENZK2 performed better than others for growth (plant height, number of leaves and total leaf area) and seed yield. Variety EXMF4 was outstanding in yield with the mean value of 5267kg/ha followed by ENZK2 with the mean value of 5000kg/ha. The least in yield was IITA182 followed by ENZK1 with the values of 2445 and 2600kg/ha respectively.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that some varieties of Bamabra groundnut not only thrived but compete with the yield found elsewhere.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2020 Issue: 1

Characterization of Regolith Types and its Impact on Gold Anomaly in Highly Weathered Terrains Using Multiple Dataset

Research Article
Author(s): Clement Ntori, Emmanuel Arhin, Ibrahim Abdul Sulemana, D. Y. Antwi Boateng
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Deposition of post mineralization materials and incessant evolution of regolith materials have resulted in many complex geological environments. These often produce subtle geochemical responses and make geochemical anomaly delineation very difficult. To mitigate the challenge of following ‘false’ anomaly emanating from the regolithic effect, the study mapped the regolith types and used it to explain the geochemical behavior of gold. Multiple dataset such as Aster, radiometric, GDEM were combined with ground truthing and evaluated to characterize the regolith into FRED. This was done alongside the collection of 3252 soil samples. The samples were analyzed for gold using BLEG with AAS finishing. The geochemical data were however interpreted accounting for the regolith. Multiple thresholds were chosen for each regolith using q-q plots. The results showed 24.3% to be depositional regolith and 75.7% was a residual environment consisting of 46% Ferruginous, 40% relict and 4% erosional. Both ferruginous and depositional regimes had capabilities of impacting negatively on gold anomaly. The result further showed that each regolith regime had capabilities of hosting mineralization and recommends that equal weight of importance should be accorded to all regimes. It further proposed that the regolith map should be fully integrated into geochemical data to avoid following ‘false’ anomalies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that regolith environments have huge influence on surface gold expressions and anomaly definition. Regolith-based geochemical interpretation is effective to account for each regolithic effect. Each regolith type has equal tendency of hosting realistic anomaly when equal weight of importance is accorded to them.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 04-2019 Issue: 4

How can Female Executives Shape the Effectiveness of Executive Compensation?- A Multi-Dimensional Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Changzheng Zhang, Dan Yang
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This paper attempts to build and analyze a conceptual model to systematically study the impact mechanism of female executives on the following dimensions of executive compensation including pay-performance sensitivity, executive pay level, executive pay component and pay gap from multiple theoretical perspectives of managerial power, principal-agent and employee discrimination theory, etc. The paper concludes as follows: (1) seven specific impact mechanisms of female executives on executive pay-performance sensitivity have been identified including enhancing monitoring role, lowering insider trading, increasing remuneration disclosure and adopting more balanced setting rules; (2) six specific impact mechanisms of female executives on executive pay level have been clarified such as reducing corporate tax avoidance, mitigating unethical earnings manipulation behavior or accounting fraud behavior and choosing lower level of leverage ratio?(3) it is found that female executives would enhance executive pay components diversity by adding additional pay components to compensation package, mainly including social responsibility-based pay, environmental performance-based pay, innovation performance-based pay and reducing extra unethical pay due to financial statement fraud or earnings manipulation and (4) female executives would enlarge executive-employee compensation pay gap, moderate the gender compensation gap among employees and narrow executive compensation gap due to the female executives’ need for affiliation, etc. Taking 499 Chinese A-share listed companies selected in the corporate social responsibility rating report issued by Rankings CSR Ratings from 2012-2016 as the research sample, we examine the above theoretical propositions by adopting the multiple regression method based on OLS.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is finding seven specific impact mechanisms of female executives on executive pay-performance sensitivity, six specific impact mechanisms of female executives on executive pay level and female executives would enhance executive pay components diversity.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Determinant Analysis of Productivity on Rice Management in Indonesia

Research Article
Author(s): M. Noor Salim, Darwati Susilastuti, Henita Fajar Oktavia
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Farming management is done because management is the ability of farmers to plan, organize and control the factors of production that they control as well as they are and can provide the expected agricultural production. The measure of management success is the productivity of each factor as well as the productivity of his effort. The problem of the research is how the simultaneous and partial impact of labor variables, land area, farmer competency, the experience of farming, the role of government and farmer institutions to rice farming and how its performance through productivity analysis and R/C ratio. Primary data analysis using OLS multiple regression. The results of the analysis were obtained simultaneously that labor variables, land area, farmer competency, the experience of farming, the role of government and farmer institutions significant effect on productivity with a coefficient of determination of 56,9%. The farmer competency variable is the dominant factor that affecting productivity with a Beta value of 56,9%. R/C ratio value 1,90, it means that farming is done efficiently by farmers. Optimum productivity is achieved in farming with an area of more than 1 hectare. The research finding of this study is that farmer competency is a determinant of productivity in the management of rice farming.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature is to be a reference for further researchers who want to deepen or re-examine the management of rice farming and are expected to later be able to make additional contributions to the government. In addition to strengthening institutional management that supports the management of farmer's rice farming to minimize losses on farmer's farming. It is hoped that rice farming can help farmers in obtaining a steady income for themselves and their families, having sufficient competence and skills in conducting efficient and productive farming.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 07-2019 Issue: 6

The Feasibility and Expediency of Gamification Activities in Higher Education

Research Article
Author(s): Mikhail V. Vinichenko, Taridi K. Ridho, Peter Karacsony, N. P. Li, Gundeea S. Narrainen, Oхana L. Сhulanova
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study aimed to identify the feasibility and expediency of gamifying activities in higher education institutions, for which an original methodology was used. However, gamification is complex and carries a high degree of risk in achieving organizational efficiency. It is therefore advisable to adopt a fragmented approach and selectively gamify individual processes and features, focusing on educational and research activities. When introducing gamification, top management should provide conceptual and regulatory support and HR specialists coordination. Using a distribution model of managerial functions for gaming activities and determining priorities, taking the use of artificial intelligence into account, is shown to be expedient.
Contribution/ Originality
For the first time, this study is investigates the adoption of modern gamification technologies to increase the effectiveness of educational organizations. In particular, the most suitable areas of activity and management levels for gamification in higher education institutions are proposed.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2019 Issue: 4

The Effect of Student Cultural Enculturation on Student Art Appreciation

Research Article
Author(s): Edwita ., Desy Safitri, Arifin Maksum, Haswan Yunaz, Arita Marini, Iskandar Muda
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This research investigates how student cultural enculturation affects student art appreciation. In this research, a model was proposed. Through this model, students’ art appreciation can be improved by encouraging the cultural acquisition, cultural merging, and cultural internalization of the students. Data were collected from 585 students representing grades four to six from five elementary schools in the DKI Jakarta province. The students answered cultural enculturation and art appreciation questionnaires. In this research, the structural equation model (SEM) was tested. The results was that student cultural enculturation, through student cultural acquisition, student cultural merging, and student cultural internalization, had predictive effects on student art appreciation described by the variables for The Student Aesthetic Pleasure, The Student Emotional Appreciation, The Student Cognitive Appreciation, The Student Aesthetic Fascination and The Student Art Awareness.
Contribution/ Originality
The results of this study indicated that elementary schools need to focus on enhancing student cultural enculturation in order to improve student art appreciation.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2019 Issue: 4

The Influence of Government Policy, Principle Leadership, and Participation of Parents on Strengthening Teacher Organizations (KKG/MGMP) and Development of Problem Solving in Students: Indonesia Case

Research Article
Author(s): Lucia H Winingsih, Iskandar Agung, Agus Amin Sulistiono
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study aims to determine the effect of government policy, school principal leadership, and parental participation on the strengthening of KKG/MGMP teacher organizations and developing students' problem solving abilities. This paper is part of a field study on KKG (elementary school) and MGMP (Junior/senior high school) in DKI Jakarta, Indonesia, with a total sample of 120 teachers. Data collection was carried out using questionnaire techniques, interviews, and conducting focus group discussions (FGD). The distribution of questionnaires to test the relationship between variables was analyzed with the help of the LISREL 8.80 program. The results showed that the three exogenous latent variables had a positive influence on the endogenous latent variables in the strengthening of the KKG/MGMP teacher organization, reinforcing that the teacher organization had a positive influence in developing students' problem solving ability. The influence of parental participation had a considerable effect and it made an important contribution in supporting teachers to participate in KKG/MGMP activities. It is recommended that the government revoke the regulations on prohibiting schools from collecting funding from parents, in order to let the school design school improvement programs with strict supervision and control to prevent deviations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the influence of KKG/MGMP empowerment, so that action can be taken to improve teacher competence and its impact on student learning outcomes, especially in building creative power, critical thinking, collaborative, and conveying thought in an effort to improve problem solving skills.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2019 Issue: 4

Sustainability in Supply Chain Management: The Role of Partner Collaboration and Power

Research Article
Author(s): Listowel Owusu Appiah
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Sustainability issues in supply chain management have been at the front of research and practice owing to concerns about natural resources exhaustion, pollution levels etc. emanating from business activities. Pressures from external entities like government agencies, consumer movements, and NGOs, are driving firms to implement sustainable practices internally and across their supply chains. This study sought to assess how sustainability performance in supply chains can be enhanced through collaboration and power. A total of 104 construction and Manufacturing firms drawn from the Ashanti and Greater Accra regions of Ghana were used in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from top management members in the respondent organizations. Regression models were employed to test the relationship among the variables. The findings reveal that the quest to avoid sanctions from regulatory bodies, bad publicity in the media and conflict with local communities are the main drivers of sustainability among the firms in the study population. Other external pressures such as NGOs and consumer movements were found to have little effect on the firms in the study. Also, external pressures have significant effect on collaboration and sustainability performance, and that collaboration mediates the relationship between external pressures and sustainability performance. The author calls for a rise in consumer movements to increase the pressure on firms to adopt sustainable practices. Also, regulators must adopt a supply chain approach to enforcing environmental and social laws on firms by charging the powerful, visible firms to take charge of their supply chains.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper provides a new perspective to the issue of sustainability in global supply chain operations. The study explores the interaction between power and collaboration for achieving sustainability in supply chains. This provides insight to powerful firms in supply chains on how to carry across sustainability initiatives.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 04-2019 Issue: 4

Does External Borrowing Affect Economic Growth? A Revisit of the Age-Long Debate for Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Yakubu Dauda Ademola, Wasiu Akintunde Yusuf, Kenneth Onyeka Diyoke
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
Given the recent phenomenon of government at all levels in Nigeria resorting to external loans to finance their annual budget deficits, the study then examined the implications of the external borrowing on the economic growth in Nigeria, using an Autoregressive Distributed Lag co-integration (ARDL) approach. Times series data spanning from 1987 to 2018 were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria and Debt Management Office. Corroborating some existing empirical evidence, the study finds a significant and positive effect of external debt stock on the economic growth in Nigeria, which is represented by gross domestic product growth rate (GDPRATE), and debt servicing impacts negatively on the economic growth both at the short run and the long run. The value of ECM-1 is -0.32281 indicating that the speed of adjustment from the short-run to the long run takes 32.28% and this is significant at 1%. The governments should channel these external loans in the value added sectors of the economy in order to boost employment, output, sustainable and collective growth of the economy. It therefore advises various organs of the government in charge of fiscal policy and policy implementation to beam their searchlights and oversights on the proper utilization of these loans to avoid diversion, misappropriation and non-implementation of vital projects.
Contribution/ Originality
This is one of the few studies that actually adopted the scholarly evidences in the model of debt overhang in the theory of Krugman (1988); Sachs (1988); Elbadawi et al. (1997) and Chowdhury (2001); however, only a few scholars have used ARDL technique despite its robustness in ascertaining the long run and short-run of its estimated parameters (Pesaran and Shin, 1999; Pesaran et al., 2001).
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Growth and Yield Response of Shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) Varieties to Intra-Row Spacing in Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): K. Esuyawukal-Moges, Z. Biruk-Masrie
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Shallot is an important crop as a condiment as well as a source of income for smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. However, the yield of the crop is constrained by a number of factors among which inappropriate plant spacing and lack of improved varieties are the bottlenecks of its productivity in the study area. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted at Densa, Eastern Amhara, and Ethiopia to evaluate the growth and yield response of shallot varieties to intra-row spacing. The treatments consisted of four intra-row spacings (5, 10, 15 and 20 cm) and three shallot varieties (Dz-sht-157-1B, Dz-sht-91-2B, and Yheras). These were laid out in randomized complete block design replicated three times. Data on growth and yield parameters were recorded and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results indicated that varying intra-row spacings from 5 to 20 cm increased significantly (P <0.01) all yield characters assessed in all the traits except cured bulb yield (t ha-1) which decreased as a result of increasing intra-row spacing from 5 to 20 cm. Highest total bulb yield (26.20 t ha-1) and marketable bulb yields (25.24 t ha-1) were recorded at the closest intra-row spacing (5 cm). Dz-sht-157-1B variety was superior in terms of leaf number per plant (35.82), average bulb weight (69.08 g), marketable yield (24.46 t ha-1) and total bulb yield (25.17 t ha-1). Hence, based on the result, Dz-sht-91-2B grown at 10 cm intra-row spacing should be adopted by farmers in study area. However, further investigations on multiplications and over years should be made to come up with complete recommendations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by conducting a field experiment at Densa, Eastern Amhara, and Ethiopia to evaluate the growth and yield response of shallot varieties to intra-row spacing.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Vegetable Farmers Knowledge and Safety Practices towards Pesticides: Results from Field Observation in Southeastern DR Congo

Research Article
Author(s): Arsene Mushagalusa Balasha, Joseph Seveno Houndehin, Maurice Kesonga Nsele, Nathan Kasanda Mukendi, Jules Nkulu Mwine Fyama, Diakalia Son
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Plant protection products can cause serious health issues especially for farmers who are exposed to all steps of their use. We used field observation to assess farmers’ knowledge of pesticides as well as their behavior while preparing mixtures, spraying and rinsing equipment used. Results showed that most of the farmers (97.6%) used pesticides (organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides) and reported having both positive and negative perception of pesticides apprehended respectively in terms of benefits (improve crop quality) and hazards (source of diseases, poison for human). Farmers’ knowledge of meteorological parameters and personal protective equipment for successful and safe use of pesticides was still limited. Farmers observed (98%) did not wear personal protective equipment (gloves, mask, coverall) during all steps of pesticide use (mixing, spraying, rinsing equipment). Hygienic practices were also very poor since 100% of farmers monitored could not change the clothes worn during the crop treatment. Furthermore, 88% of the farmers observed did not wash hands, feet and legs immediately after pesticide application whereas those parts of the body were particularly exposed during the treatment. This study provides reliable evidence related to the hazardous use of pesticides in Lubumbashi. A program of awareness and information will help to relieve farmers from pesticides health risks.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the misuse of pesticides in Lubumbashi. Results highlighted poor handling practices of pesticides by farmers and limited knowledge of protective equipment and weather conditions while using plant protection products.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

What are the Contextual Influences of Bank Criminality in Osun East Senatorial District?

Research Article
Author(s): Taofik, Olatunji Bankole
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
The threats posed by bank criminality to nation building are such that an emerging nation such as Nigeria must not overlook. In spite of its negative implications, previous studies addressing the menace have either adopted the descriptive approach or focused majorly on reoccurrence of armed robbery during the festive periods. Also, there is a dearth of studies that employed the mix-methods approach and adopted the tripartite analysis technique to examine the causal effect association between bank criminality and its predictors. This study addresses these limitations by asking this question; what are the contextual influences of the various forms of bank criminality in Osun East Senatorial District? The outcome variable of the study was bank criminality, and the explanatory variables were contextual influences and broadly categorised into security mechanisms and human induced factors. Stata version 14 was employed in quantitative data analysis while the qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. Results showed that security mechanisms (X2=17.502; p<0.001; X2=8.467; p<0.037; X2=11.09; p<0.004; X2=7.876; p<0.049; X2=16.233 p<0.001; X2=10.954; p<0.01) and human induced factors(ß = -0.226; t= -4.44; p<0.000; ß = 0.173; t=2.52; p<0.015; ß = 0.147; t=3.87; p<0.007; ß = -0.136; t= -2.56; p<0.013; ß = -0.206; t= -3.53; p<0.001) were predictors of bank criminality The study conclude that bank human induced factors, that is, bank employees’ efficiency and security mechanism functionality are indispensable to curtailing various forms of bank criminalities.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by investigating the contextual predictors of bank criminality beyond the conventional approach; it documents the influences of human induced factors and security mechanisms on bank criminality, as such document provides insights to preventing banks and their customers from losing funds and vital information to criminals.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Determinant of MSMEs Performance and its Impact on Province GRDP in Indonesia

Research Article
Author(s): M. Noor Salim, Darwati Susilastuti, Imas Wildan Rafiqah
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine (1) the simultaneous and partial influence of soybean price, consumption of tofu tempeh, the exchange rate of the rupiah against the US dollar, and interest rates factors on MSMEs income, (2) dominant factors on tofu tempeh MSMEs income and (3) the effect of tofu tempeh MSMEs income on the Province GRDP. This research is a quantitative study with a purposive method of determining research areas and a quarterly time series secondary data analysis method from 2009-2019 using OLS Multiple Regression. The analysis shows that all variables simultaneously have a significant effect on MSME income. Partially, the variables that have a significant positive effect on the income of tofu tempeh MSME are soybean prices, consumption of tofu tempeh and the exchange rate, while interest rates have a negative effect. The coefficient of determination of 96% with the magnitude of the determinant partially from the largest in the sequence is the consumption of tofu tempeh, soybean prices, exchange rates, and interest rates, there is no dominant factor. MSMEs income proxy with recursive income has a significant positive effect on Provincial GRDP with a determinant coefficient of 55%. The research findings are that MSMEs are resistant to fluctuations in exchange rates and contribute greatly to the GDRP.
Contribution/ Originality
The papers primary contribution is finding that MSMEs are resistant to macroeconomic determinants of fluctuations.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 01-2020 Issue: 1