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Vulnerability of the water resources is a continuation of such trends. The first step in management of the groundwater resources is a determination of the vulnerable areas. The objective of this research was determining the vulnerability assessment of the central plain of Gilan using DRASTIC model. Principles of the model are based on overlaying of seven thematic maps of depth to water table, net recharges, aquifer media, soil media, topography, vados zone and hydraulic conductivity by considering appropriate weights and rates. The database was constructed by introducing the mentioned maps. Index of DRASTIC model for aquifer vulnerability of the central plain Gilan was ranged in 82-182. In this plain, there was not very much and very low vulnerability classes. The final map of DRASTIC model showed that %¬48.64 of the area has high vulnerability and %¬50.55 has medium vulnerability and only a small area of plain (%0.81) has low vulnerability. The statistical summary of the DRASTIC model elements shows that the element of depth to groundwater table has the greatest impact on DRASTIC model. Also based on the map remove and single element sensitivity, depth to groundwater table is identified as the effective element in the central plain of Gilan. The results of the correlation between the elements of DRASTIC model and nitrate concentrations showed that there is the highest correlation between nitrate and depth to groundwater table. The average concentration of nitrates is 8.92 mg/lit in the wells studied at the Central Plains Gilan. In all wells studied, nitrate concentration was lower than the recommended level by US Environmental Protection Agency (45 mg/lit). Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated via DRASTIC index for sensitivity analysis of effective parameters which was validated by using of two methods for the map remove and single element in amount of nitrate pollution.
For México, the base projection shows that the demand for this meat grows at rates faster than the production, reason why an increase in the imports in the long term is expected. The base projection shows that purchases abroad will reach a level close to 390 thousand tons in 2018.In Mexico, the deficit in the milk market is complemented by imports. For 2009, an import of 1.0 billion liters is estimated and in 2018 these are hoped to fall to 946 million liters . According to these projections makes it necessary to analyze the pressure for increased food production of animal origin, leading to review technologies applied in the rest of the world to carry out such an increase, a technology is the application of mechatronics to animal production, which is also known as livestock farming precision. Being the objective of the present article the revision of the state of the art in the world and in Mexico of this technology. In Mexico it is possible to increase the productivity of Livestock Farming, if the decision to guide and formed human capital and training are taken at all three levels ; Bachelor , Masters and Ph D , to the research and application of livestock mechatronics, results in developed countries so it evidence Mexico cannot be left behind in this regard , besides that is the only way to increase food production, applying mechatronics in animal production .So previously treated the perspectives for the precision animal production in the country are very big. Contribution/ Originality
The Precision livestock farming is important in the social and economic environments of Mexican animal production and has been Kept in oblivion for many years . Being that at present, as verified by the mentioned references is the only way to alleviate the needs of animal food in the country. This paper provides the first overview of the Precision Livestock Farming and the application of mechatronics to animal production in Mexico.
This study compared the food security status for small grains and long grains smallholder farmers and analysed the factors that affect food security status for smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted in Masvingo Province of Zimbabwe and the respondents were stratified into small grains cultivators and long grains cultivators. Data used in the analysis of food security was collected through a researcher administered structured questionnaire. The results established that the adoption of small grains is widespread within the province. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics had an effect on the dependence of either small grains or long grains farming. The results of the study revealed that both small grains and long grains smallholder farmers had at least attained primary education which reveals that all farmers are functionally literate. Results of the Household Dietary Diversity Score HDDS revealed that on average 76 percent of small grains smallholder farmers were measured to be food secure whilst only 41 percent of long grains farmers were food secure. The (HDDS) reflected the dietary diversity consumed by members of the household in the previous 24 hours Similar trends were observed from the descriptive statistics which showed that small grains smallholder farmers consumed relatively greater percentage of nutritious food groups than long grains smallholder farmers. Results of the Binary logit regression model indicated that the significant factors which explain food security status for smallholder sampled households are farming activity, education, number of livestock, remittances, income and access to credit. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have compared the contribution of small grains and long grains cultivation to food security of smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe. The paper contributes to existing literature on food security for smallholder farmers in developing countries.
The field study was conducted on at the experimental field of SALU – Khairpur during, 2016. Two hundred eggs were kept for each replication on cotton plants grown in large pots. When eggs hatched, the life table parameters such as; apparent mortality, survival fraction, mortality survivor ratio, indispensable mortality and k-value were studied. Natural enemies such as; Chrysoperla carneae, lady bird beetles, Spiders and Anasius bambawallae were found active on the potted and surrounding cotton plants in the field conditions. The total mortality in egg stage went to 19.00%. The mortality percentages of 1st instars due to natural enemies recorded was (18.73%) while, in 2nd instars (13.13%) mortality was recorded. The total combined mortality in 1st and 2nd instars was recorded (26.34%) and (15.64%), respectively. However, the mortality of 3rd instars and pupae due to parasitoids were recorded (7.28%) with the total mortality (10.26%) and the total mortality (54.83%) in cotton potted plants was recorded. Consequently, (45.17%) of adults survived with male and female ratio as ♂1:6.52♀, respectively. The highest apparent mortality was (26.34%), indispensable mortality (96.89) and k-value (0.13) recorded in 1st instar. The maximum survival fraction was recorded (0.90) in third instars/pupae with the total k-value generations (0.35). The study revealed that the predators and parasitoids should be encouraged in cotton field when mealybugs appear, because predators are highly voracious feeder of 1st and 2nd instars whereas; the parasitoid, A. bambawallae is known as main controlling natural enemy of cotton mealybug. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents over the biological parameters of cotton mealybug to check its, egg laying, mortality, survivor ratio, total life span, fecundity, fertility, different life stages, predators activity and aboitic factors with the different equations about this vigorous pest under cotton field conditions.
Abiotic stresses limit crop growth at different growth stages resulting low yield of rice. Molecular characterization of parental materials gives precise information on the extent of genetic diversity exists between them. A set of 60 SSRs randomly distributed over 12 chromosomes were used to analyze eight cultivars intend to be used as parent in breeding programs to address cold and drought tolerance, and nutritional quality of rice. A total of 300 alleles were detected across the cultivars for 51 polymophic markers with 5.88 alleles per loci. On average 30.6% of the genotypes shared a common allele at any given locus. UPGMA cluster analysis showed that 67% common alleles were shared by the cultivars. The cultivars were clearly grouped into two distinct clusters at 67.0% genetic similarity. Hbj. BVI showing high tolerance to cold stress at seedling stage differed from cold susceptible BR1, BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan29 by 33% alleles while BR18 that showed moderately cold tolerance differed by 29.0 - 29.9% alleles which indicated that only 3-4% alleles difference caused higher cold tolerance in Hbj. BVI. The moderate genetic distance between cold tolerant Hbj. BVI and high yielding BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan29 indicated that there is higher possibility of obtaining high yielding cold tolerant segregants from the crosses between them. On the other hand, Kalobokri, which had 31.7 mg zinc a kilogram of polished rice differed by 33.0% alleles from the drought tolerant rainfed low varieties BRRI dhan56 and BRRI dhan57 having moderate level of zinc (~20 mg/kg), which also indicated that crosses between them might produce progenies with higher nutritional quality under drought environment. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the genetic distance between the parental lines that are intended to be used in the breeding program to address abiotic stresses, like drought and cold tolerance with high yield potential and enhanced nutritional quality, particularly zinc content in rice.
This paper was carried to investigate the effect of used motor oil contamination on geotechnical properties of Clay soil in UYO-AKWA IBOM. In view of this, evaluating possible changes caused by waste motor oil spills in the environment and determining the suitability of some engineering construction materials in the area of study were made possible. The contaminated soil was prepared by adding different percentages of waste motor oil; 4%, 8%, 12% and 16%. The particle size distribution test (sieve analysis), compaction test, Atterberg limit test and California Bearing Ration (CBR) test were determined in both contaminated and uncontaminated sandy and clay soils. The result showed an increase in particle size distribution of soil after carrying out the analysis: reduction in optimum moisture content and maximum dry density for compaction test, reduction in liquid limit, and also a reduction in CBR value due to waste motor oil contamination. These show that the presence of waste motor oil has a remarkable effect on geotechnical properties of clay soils. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the effect of oil spill on the geotechnical properties of clay soils. The increase in used motor oil content reduces the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) and Maximum Dry Density (MDD) of the soil. It affects the Atterberg limits of the soil. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of the soil also reduces with it. The work will assist Civil and Structural engineers in choosing materials for foundation structure and construction when working on such soils.
Over the period of thirty four years, between 1981 and 2015, the East African Community economies have witnessed inconsistent and downward trend on the level of private investments as percentage of GDP. Several studies have been done regarding the determinants of private investment at country level while others have focused on budget/fiscal deficit, regional integration and economic growth but the findings are inconsistent. However, from the empirical literature review, most of the studies ignore effect of budget deficit on private investment. It is against this background that this study was carried out to investigate the effect of budget deficit on private investment in EAC using panel data over the period 1981-2015. The study adopted the Modified Flexible Accelerator model. Using Levin et al. (2002) to test the unit root, the study found the variable to be non-stationary at level. Co-integration test error correction model were carried to analyze the long-term and short-term dynamic of the selected macroeconomic variables on budget deficit account. The study results showed that fiscal deficit had a negative effect on private investment in the region. Debt reduction and government expenditure scaling down strategies should also be adopted in the region so as to improve the fiscal deficit hence boosting private investment and faster real GDP growth in the long run. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature in the field of public finance. This study uses new panel estimation methodology. This study originates new formula of controlling budget deficit. This study is one of very few studies which have used panel data. The paper contributes the first logical analysis that increasing budget deficit discourages investment. The paper's primary contribution is finding that fiscal deficit negates investment. This study documents controlling budget deficit.
Uranium ore has been mine for decades before it was abandoned in Mika village of Yorro LGA of Taraba state. Uranium mining poses high risk of radiation exposure to members of the public and local community. Despite the high risk associated with uranium ore deposit and mining in the area, the local community have continued to live in the surroundings of the abandoned mine sites and engaging in their day to day socio-economic activities. No attempt has been made to investigate the characteristics and current condition of the abandoned uranium mine site in the area and its potential impacts on the socio-economic life of the people. This study examined the potential environmental impact that could arise from the abandoned uranium mine site and associated past activities. Data was generated through desk review of existing data sources, including literatures, field observation and measurements of abandoned uranium mine pits and related features. Measuring tape and Garmin 12 X GPS (Global Positioning System) was used in the measurements. Interview of key informants was also carried out. Findings from the study show that the uranium ore is found on hill top (425metre above sea level). The mine wastes and overburden were deposited around the mine pits. Most of the overburden materials have been washed away. Findings from the study revealed that scooping of uranium ore samples have been ongoing in Mika area before independence in 1960. The uranium mineral samples collected from the site were taking to France and subsequently to Iran. Despite the risk posed by the abandoned uranium mine pit, the local communities insist that they did not observe any strange sickness or effects associated with the mining activities. Many of them depend on the water collected in the abandoned uranium mine pit for domestic consumption. Based on the findings, the study recommends periodic monitoring of water and agricultural crop to ascertain the possible effects of radioactivity associated with the uranium ore deposits in the area and enlightenment of the local communities on the potential impact of the abandoned uranium mines on their land, soil, air and water in the area. Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of the few studies that have investigated the characteristics and current condition of abandoned uranium mine site in the study area and its potential impacts on the socio-economic life of the people.
This work deals with the synthesis and cytotoxicity of some heterocyclic compounds starting from 2-acetylfuran. The title compound was used for the synthesis of thiophene derivative 3 through its reaction with elemental sulfur and ethyl cyanoacetate. Compound 3 was used for the synthesis of thiophene, thieno[2,3-c]pyrazole, thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine and pyridine derivatives through its reaction with different reagents. The newly synthesized compounds were screened through three cancer cell lines. Compound 13b showed the highest potency among the synthesized compounds. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature that thiophene
derivatives can be produced from simple commercially available starting
materials. The reactions of the produced thiophene derivative with
different reagents gave both pyrazole and pyridine derivatives. The
cytotoxicity of the produced products gave that some compounds with high
potency. Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1
Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coub-Douglas, Real Business Cycle, and Keynsian Growth Models in Determining Economic Growth in Nigeria
Chimaobi Valentine Okolo, Nicholas Attamah
Choosing the most suited growth theory in determining output in Nigeria has been a problem for researchers and policy maker. They have been faced with the question of what drive growth of the Nigerian economy: output derived from supply of capital (savings), or output derived from aggregate demand (spending) or due to shock to technology? This study empirically examined the relative effectiveness of the Cobb-Douglas Production function, the Real Business Cycle model and the Keynesian model to determine growth drivers of the Nigerian economy. Error correction model and vector error correction model was used to examine the relative effectiveness of the three growth models in determining output in Nigeria. The result of the study showed that only the coefficient of technology significantly determined economic growth in Nigeria using the Cobb-Douglas production function. Capital and labour significantly determined gross domestic product in Nigeria in the third year, adopting the vector error correction for the Real Business Cycle model. The Keynesian model proved most significant as all explanatory variables, such a consumption expenditure, investment, government spending and balance of payment were significant determinants of Nigerian economic growth. The explanatory variables jointly contributed the most (58.43%) to the variation in the gross domestic product of Nigeria. Real gross domestic product had positive autonomous growth in the Keynesian model but negative autonomous growth using the other two models. Technology input in production should be boosted by increasing government expenditure in education/ enhanced skill acquisition and the employment of more graduates in the productive sectors of the economy. Researchers and policy makers should henceforth adopt the Keynesian growth model as the most suited for the Nigerian economy. Contribution/ Originality
The study originates new formula for estimating technological input in production by estimating its input in labour and capital.
The study examined the perception of farmers on the change in climate condition on cassava production in Ido Local Government area of Oyo State. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire which were administered to 76 respondents. Descriptive and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the result of this study. Results showed that 85.8% of the respondents are male and 14.7% were female, 29.2% were between 31-40years, 70.7% of the respondents received information on climate change through neighbours and friends, 100% of the respondents relied on rainfall as a source of water to the farm, 92% made use of manual planting method, while 61.3% of the respondents perceived that climate change does not have absolute effect on cassava production, also majority 50.7% agreed that extension worker do not enhance productivity, major sources of climate change awareness are through radio and television. Regression result showed that labour used was negative and statistically significant at 1%, extension agents visit has a negative coefficient and significant at 5% while source of farm land and farm size has a positive relationship to cassava output in the study. Therefore, extension agent visit or contact should be improved in order to enhance or assist the farmer on how to militate against climatic change and also to help in the adoption of new technology by the farmers in the study area. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that the cassava farmers labour used could be capital intensive since majority of them used hired labour also decision to have a regular or consistence contact with extension agent could enhance the farmers to acquire basic training, awareness and knowledge intervention in climate change in the study.
Diffusion processes governed by Stochastic Diffusion Equations (SDEs) are a well known tool for modeling continuous-time data. Consequently, there is widely interest in efficiently estimate diffusion parameters from discretely observed data. Likelihood based inference can be problematic, as the transition densities are rarely available in closed form. One widely used solution proposed by Pedersen (1995) involved the introduction of latent data points between every pair of observations to allow an Euler-Maruyama approximation of the true transition densities to become accurate. Marko Chain Monte Carlo methods are therefore be using to sample the posterior distribution of the latent data and model parameters .We apply the so called method to epidemic data which are discretely observed, that undergo stochastic transition rate. In this case, we introduced a new innovation scheme approach that would explore efficient MCMC schemes that are afflicted by degeneracy problem. The method that capable of sampling efficient estimate of diffusion parameters from discrete observed epidemic data with measurement error. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing work of Golightly and Wilkinson (2008). Here, we make use of Bayesian argumentation approach on high frequency discretely observed diffusion times. The primary goal, is on the Modified innovation scheme apply to care for sampling degenerating when imputed time is very large.
Introduction: Around half of world blindness and fifth of visual impairment are caused by cataract. Treatment of cataract and refractive errors correction improve 73.6% of blindness. Preservation of the Anterior chamber and corneal endothelium are very important aims during cataract surgery. Methodology: This prospective, observational study was done at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFUH), Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia. After getting the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, the study was initiated at KFUH between April 2016 and August 2016. After getting the patients' informed consents, a thorough assessment was done to each patient prior to surgery. All eyes enrolled in the study have undergone phacoemulsification surgery procedure. For each patient, one month after the phacoemulsification surgery , specular microscopy was performed. The phacodynamic parameters and surgery time were compared with the degree of endothelial cells loss, hexagonality and central corneal thickness. Results: The phacodynamic parameters used during phacoemulsification, namely, power (AVG %), ultrasound time, and elliptical motion showed a strong correlation with the change of endothelial cell density (all P< .001). The length of surgery also showed a positive correlation with the amount of endothelial cell loss ( P < .001). All of these parameters did not significantly affect corneal endothelial hexagonality except elliptical motion. Change in central corneal thickness was very minimal. Conclusion: Endothelial loss was significantly associated with phacoemulsification power, ultrasound time, elliptical motion and length of surgery. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of phacoemulsification cataract surgery on density and shape of corneal endothelial cells.
Climate change threat has got a pronounced impact throughout the world. This study assessed the manifestations and extent of climate change in Merti district, Arsi zone, Oromia Regional state, Ethiopia. The study examined the indicators and perceptions of climate change by local farmers, and climate trend of the area. The study was based on key informant interviews, focus group discussions, household survey questionnaire and time series meteorological temperature and rainfall climate data. Respondents confirmed the variability in rainfall frequent delay, showing irregular patter both at the start and end of the rainy season which usually begin latter or end up earlier , unreliable distribution, erratic a general decreasing trend of rainfall was observed and an increasing warming trend with respect to temperature and abnormal conditions like occurrence of unseasonal, unusual and extreme high and low rain, occurrence of extreme hot and cold temperature, and frequent happening of drought and flood, forest and vegetation cover destruction and diminishing formerly existing wild animals, crop cultivation and livestock production decline are indicators of climate change and variability and burning issues for all the communities in the study area. The recorded time series meteorological temperature and rainfall climate data (1990–2014) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. Contribution/ Originality
This research will give baseline information for other researchers, practitioners, development actors, and research organizations by assessing and assembling existing information about the manifestations and climate change in Merti and determinants factors in undertaking possible climate change response mechanisms at the smallholder farming household level.
As the sixth largest exporter of crude oil, Nigeria heavily depends on oil earnings to fund economic activities. The country also rely heavily on imports of consumables, both oil and non oil consumables. Nigeria’s vulnerability to crude oil price shock at the international oil market exposes the nation to certain unfavourable results. The study investigated the influence of crude oil price volatility on parallel exchange rate and their influence on the cost of living and doing business in Nigeria. Two stage least square, generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity, vector error correction, impulse response and variance decomposition was employed to measure the influence of crude oil price on parallel exchange rate and their influence on cost of living in Nigeria. Crude oil price volatility negatively and significantly influenced parallel exchange rate fluctuation and consumer price index in Nigeria. Parallel exchange rate positively and significantly influenced consumer price index in Nigeria. Declining crude oil prices implies decreasing income for the Nigerian economy and in turn per capita income. Rising cost of living with declining per capita income further impoverishes Nigerians. Therefore Nigeria should effectively take control of the production of crude oil, increase her refining capacity and increase production and export of other products with comparative advantages. Contribution/ Originality
The study contributed to the existing literature on crude oil price, parallel exchange rate and cost of living in Nigeria. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that volatility of crude oil price negatively influenced parallel exchange rate which in turn positively impacted on the cost of living in Nigeria.
Most of researchers presented a model to solve combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem in a precise formulation, but in reality data cannot be reported or collected preciously due to several reasons. The impreciseness of the mathematical model is occurring due to environmental fluctuations or instabilities in the global market which leads to the rapid fluctuations of prices. Therefore, in many cases, the various parameters of CEED model cannot be considered in a precise manner. So, in this paper, a new methodology is presented to solve imprecise CEED problem. In this methodology, we propose a chaos based enriched swarm optimization algorithm that relies on chaos in order to enhance its global search ability. The enriched swarm optimization algorithm combining two heuristic optimization techniques, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) to integrate the merits of both them. Also, to improve the search engine visibility of the proposed approach, PSO has been enriched with a new evolution scheme; where a chaotic constriction factor is used to control the velocity of each particle in the swarm. Furthermore, local search (LS) technique is applied to improve the results quality; where it intends to scan the less-crowded region and obtain more nondominated solutions. Finally, the new methodology is carried out on the standard IEEE 30-bus 6-generator test system. From the results it is quite evident that our approach gives comparable minimum fuel cost and comparable minimum emission or better than those generated by other evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Also using the imprecise model enables us to predict the best cost and emission for any price fluctuation without solving the problem again. Contribution/ Originality
This study presents a new methodology for solving imprecise combined economic emission dispatch using a chaos based enriched swarm optimization algorithm; where it integrates the main features of particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm. The tests demonstrated that the proposed approach has a satisfactory performance compared to previous studies.
The consciousness and philosophy of the security of a nation assumed a different dimension after World War 11. Defense of a nation has been employed to justify military incursion into politics by many African States. In Nigeria, the emergence of military regimes is always seen as measure to guard or defend National Security which is panacea for sustaining dictate of law, justice and democracy. In the years gone by, national security have been threatened and traumatized with internal crisis like the civil war, ethnic rivalry, religious uprisings, and currently, activities of other sect such as Boko Haram. The unprecedented rise of insurgence in many parts of Nigeria has constituted a challenge to sustainable democracy. The unconventional methods of warfare, adopted by these sect, in addition with the seeming inability of the Nigeria security drives to incapacitate their operational tactics, questions the willingness of our national defense to sustain democracy. This ugly development portrays negative signal on the security of our nation and democratization with its consequences on political stability. Against this backdrop, this paper looks at the challenges insurgence has posed on the security of Nigeria and its democracy. It argues that if the Nigeria State does not decisively debilitate the sects that are posing security challenges, the possibility of achieving sustainable democracy will be a mirage. This is because, by then the Bush - fire - effects of the killer groups may have done great damage to the democratic structure in the country. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the relationship between national security and sustainenace of democracy in Nigeria. It is hoped to sensitize the public on national security issues and inculcates in them that democracy and national development does not thrive in an atmosphere of chaos and insecurity.
Fruits and vegetables are important part of human diet but are prone to rapid deterioration. Osmotic dehydration (OD) is a method capable of retaining nutrient and organoleptic qualities of preserved food and aid drying at reduced energy requirement for minimally processed food. The study is aimed at analysing and comparing OD of fruits and vegetables using mango (Mangifera indica L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L) as case samples. The effects of sucrose concentration, residence time and temperature of OD media were investigated for water loss (WL) and solute gain (SG) regression. Optimal transport models established for maximum WL and minimum SG at 40-60 oBx, 30-50 oC and 0-180min using Modified Distance Design of the response surface methodology Design Expert 6.0 achieved 46.87% WL and 7.33% SG for mango and 36% WL and 5% SG for carrot. At the optimized conditions of in a semi-continuous process it was observed that high SC did not favour WL in mango while in carrot, increased SC resulted in a consistent increase in WL. The analysis of variance revealed R2 of 72.95% for carrot and 98.44% for mango at (P<0.05) thus showing the effects of the plant morphology on OD process effectiveness in determining the order of processing fruits and vegetables in a semi-continuous process. Contribution/ Originality
This study investigated the effect of mentoring and gender on the achievement of low- performing students in Biology. Its main purpose was to measure the response rate of each gender to mentoring approach of science teaching. It is believed that this will assist in developing individual potentials to becoming better science learners. The study employed the non-randomized pre-test, post-test, control quasi-experimental design. The population of the study was all senior secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The sample comprised 180 Biology students (consisting of 70 males and 110 females) selected from six secondary schools through random and purposive sampling techniques. The instruments used to collect the relevant data for the study was a Biology Concept Test (BCT) which was administered as both pre-test and post-test. The instrument was validated by experts in science education and tests and measurement respectively. Its reliability was ascertained using test-retest method and a reliability coefficient of 0.72 was obtained. The experimental group was treated with a mentoring package involving Classroom Adjunct Instruction Learning Model (CAILM). Data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA). It was discovered from the study that mentoring enhanced the achievement of low-performing students and that female students performed better than their male counterparts in mentoring relationship. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended (among others) that mentoring should be used by teachers as an adjunct to normal classroom teaching for bringing up slow and poor students to improved level of performance. Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is that, low-performing students can improve their achievement in Biology if they can be well mentored.
In this research, the Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh Syncline (north of Chenaran) with the thickness of 412 m in north flank and 251 m in south flank is studied. The Tirgan Formation in Ghorogh sectionsis included limestones, marlylimestones, shales and sandstones in lower parts of the formation. In these sections, there are impressions of echinoderms toxasteridae family, many of foraminifera from orbitolinidae family and also lots of calcareous algae that create facies variation along with other nonskeletal allochems. The study of sediment facies led to the recognition of four facies belts and six microscopic standard facies in the Tirgan Formation and shows the oscillation of sea level but totally it can be concluded that the basin was shallow and formed in the ramp platform. According to the evidence, the oolithic limestones and intercalated shales of the Tirgan Formation in south flank, Ghorogh Syncline are slided on the red sandstone of Shurijeh Formation as transition slides because of lubrication. These landslides are distinguished and formed (7times) because of the stresses which are done from the northern syncline to the south of Ghorogh valley and formed the current morphotectonic for the area. This phenomenon could name as decollement. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding real thickness of Tirgan Formation in south flank Ghorogh Syncline. Morphotectonic studies show transitional slides of Tirgan Formation in Chenaran map (1:100000) wrongly named Shurijeh Formation while this research led to the corrected and these transitional slides named Tirgan Formation.