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Listing 31 - 20 of 1962 results.

Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Cyphostemma Digitatum on Serum Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes in Hyperlipidemic Subjects

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammed A. Al-Duais, Qais A. Nogaim, Yahya S. Al-Awthan, Aisha Al-Dherasi
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Aims: To examine the effects of the administration of CD on lipid metabolism and liver enzymes in hyperlipidemic subjects. Study design:  20 subjects were divided into two groups, each containing ten subjects. Each subject in the 1st group ingested 1g, while the subject in the 2nd group ingested 2g of CD powder as a broth suspension in a single daily dose before lunch during the follow up period of one month. Patients kept their individual diet relatively constant. Methodology: We included 20 hyperlipidemic volunteers (men; age range 20-50 years) of a total of 80 subjects. Blood samples were taken and analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), atherogenic index (AI), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Results: The results of the present study show a significant decrease in the levels of TC, LDL-C and TG in 1g and 2g of CD administration groups by 12.6, 24.1, 17.1% and 19.9, 25.5 23.4% respectively while the level of HDL-C was significantly increased by 45.6 and 32.5% in 1g and 2g respectively.  The atherogenic index (AI) was significantly decreased in 1g and 2g groups by and 47.4% and 45.5% respectively. Our results also show that, CD administration in 1g and 2g subjects causes a significant decrease in ALT and AST by 39.2, 32% and 48.5, 33.3% respectively while the level of ALP was non-significantly decreased. Conclusion: dietary supplementation with CD administration decreased serum lipid profile and liver enzymes in hyperlipidemic subjects. Therefore, it may be regarded as a useful therapy for hyperlipidemia and liver disease. However, further studies are required to compare it with other medicinal plants and with lipid lowering drugs.Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Ibb University, Yemen, between February to June 2012.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Cyphostemma Digitatum on Serum Lipid Profile and Liver Enzymes in Hyperlipidemic Subjects (human) and we found that, dietary supplementation with CD administration decreased serum lipid profile and liver enzymes in hyperlipidemic subjects.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 01-2015 Issue: 1

Ethanolic Extract of Ginger on the Histology of the Pancrease in Adult Wistar Rats

Research Article
Author(s): Kebe, E. Obeten, Patrick O. Ede, Victoria N. Isaac, Patricia P. Obasee
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
 Zingerber offinale (ginger) is an underground stem or rhizome which is known to have originated from Asia and have been reported to have a number of medicinal properties which is used in the treatment of many ailments such as arthritis, painful menstrual periods, nausea etc. It is also used as a common specie in food and bakery industries. Due to the availability and medicinal uses of ginger, the effect of the ethanolic extract on the histology of the pancreas of adult wistar rats was investigated. Twenty five (25) adult Wistar rats weighing 125-200g were divided into five groups (A, B, C, D and E) each with five rats. The animals in group A and B served as control groups and received distilled water and olive oil respectively, the animals in groups C, D and E served as experimental groups, and received 100mg/kg, 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg body weight of the ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale respectively. The animals received the extract for 14 days and were sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration and routinely processed histologically. The study shows that there is disintegration of the islet cells of Langerhans (IL) with pyknotic nuclei, but no visible change or alteration in the serous acini (SA) of the pancreas. It is observed that extract of ginger has adverse effect on the integrity of the islet cells of Langerhans.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 2

A Study of the Effectiveness of the Expository Teaching Model in Relation To Student’s Personality

Research Article
Author(s): Satish Kumar Kalhotra
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
The present study was carried out to compare the effects of Expository Teaching in English criterion test performance of Extrovert and Introvert type of students. Eighty (80) students from 12th class of higher secondary school & college students of Jammu District were taken consideration. The present study was modeled on single group pre-test, post-test experimental design. For statistical treatment of data, t-test was used for ascertaining the effects of extroversion and introversion on performance as measured through criterion-test. The results of our study with respect to main variable of personality show that extrovert and introvert group of students seem to be equally benefitted from the teaching in English through expository teaching model at 0.01 level of significance, whereas it is significant at 0.05 levels.
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Distured Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Haemolymph and Fat Bodies of Schistocerca Gregaria (Forskal) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) By Extracts of Pomegranate Punica Granatum Linn. And Toothpick Weed Ammi Visnaga L.

Research Article
Author(s): Karem Ghoneim
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Punica granatum peel extracts and Ammi visnaga fruit extracts on the Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in haemolymph and fat bodies of last instar nymphs and newly emerged adult females of Schistocerca gregaria. The extracts of both P. granatum peel and A. visnaga fruit predominantly enhanced the enzyme activity in haemolymph of nymphs and adults with few exceptions. The disturbance induced due to P. granatum peel extracts on AChE activity in fat bodies depended on both nymphal age and developmental stage. Where, although remarkable increase in AChE activity was detected in the mid- and late-aged nymphs, serious decrease was noticed in early-aged nymphs and adults. A. visnaga fruit extracts prohibited the early-aged nymphs to attain the normal enzyme activity in their fat bodies but promoted the nymphs of other ages to gain high activity. In fat bodies of adults, n-butanol extract of A. visnaga caused a pronounced inhibition of the enzyme activity but other extracts promoted for considerable increasing activity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the probable candidates for the development of biopesticides, as alternative to the hazardous synthetic insecticides, from extracts of Punica granatum peel and Ammi visnaga seeds for controlling the dangerous desert locust Schistocerca gregaria by the disturbance of acetylcholinesterase activity and all physiological process depending it.
Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Analysis of Determinants of Demand and Supply of Maize in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Kindie Tesfaye, Girma Mamo, Solomon Tamiru
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
This study on the analysis of determinants of demand and supply of maize was conducted in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State with particular emphasis on some selected villages in the Local Government. The study covered forty maize producers randomly selected from eight villages from randomly selected two clans in the study area. Frequencies, means percentages and chi-square statistics were employed in the determining the data obtained. Chi-square statistics was used to ascertain whether socio-economic factors are significant determinants of demand and supply of maize in the study area. The result shows that the value of C hi-square calculated (2.45) < chi-square critical value (14.1) at five percent level of significance with degree of freedom of seven as was conducted. This implies that socio-economic characteristics were not significant determinants of demand and supply of maize. The result agrees with the null hypothesis which says that socio-economic characteristics are not significant determinants of demand and supply of maize in the study area. Hence it was accepted. 
Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the determinate of demand and supply of maize in Aniocha South Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Analysis of Fresh Fish Marketing in Ngaski Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Baba, M. D, I. D. Sanchi, T. A. Manga
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The study examined the marketing of fresh fish in Ngaski Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. With the aid of a sampling frame, proportionate random sampling technique was used to select fish marketers. Thus, a total of one hundred and ten (110) fish marketers constitute the sample size for the study. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data for the respondents. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, marketing efficiency, marketing margin and T-test statistics. Result of the study revealed that about 26% of fresh fish marketers in the study area were within the age range of 20 to 30 years, fresh fish marketing in the study area is dominated by males (71.9%). Furthermore, about 83% of fresh fish marketers in the study area were married; majority (85.4%) of fresh fish marketers in the study area were literate. About 72% of fresh fish marketers in the study area had their monthly income ranging from N2, 000 to N20, 000. Also revealed from the result, 38.1% of fresh fish marketers in the study area had fresh fish marketing experience of 6 to 10 years. Result further showed that marketing margin of an average fresh fish marketer was N190 and the percentage marketing margin was 30%. The marketing efficiency of fresh fish in the study area was 0.582 and percentage marketing efficiency was 58%. Majority (63.64%) of fresh fish marketers buy fish directly from the fishermen and retailed it to consumers. On the problems faced by fresh fish marketers in the study area, 58.2% reported that fish spoilage was the major problem of fresh fish marketing. There was significant difference between the retail price and the river bank price of fresh fish in the study area. It could be concluded that fresh fish marketing in the study area was profitable and that fresh fish marketing in the study area was inefficient. It is therefore recommended that research institute such as national centre for agricultural mechanization should develop simple, affordable and easily adoptable equipment for fresh fish storage and preservation to avoid spoilage and loss.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature in fish marketing and will provide empirical information to policy makers in the formulation of appropriate policies. It will also serve as a guide to practicing and prospective fish marketers and to researchers who may investigate further into the subject matter.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Assessment of Human Capital Attributes Influencing Occupational Diversification among Rural Women in Anambra State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Ajani, E.N, Igbokwe, E.M
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The study was carried out in Anambra State, Nigeria to assess the influence of human capital attributes on occupational diversification among rural women. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting 462 respondents for the study. Data was collected using questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as percentage mean scores, standard deviation; factor analysis and correlation were used for data analysis. Results show that the respondents were mostly influenced by certain human capital attributes namely; possession of entrepreneurial skills (59.5%), number of dependants in the household (55.4%), access to information on changing demand patterns (52.6%) 52.4% and perceived health status (52.4%). They were also highly constrained by lack of women empowerment training programmes in rural areas (M= 3.5), poor skill training (M= 3.5), inadequate training opportunities (M= 3.4), poor educational attainment (M= 3.3), among others. Developing skills in rural women are keys to improving rural productivity, employability and income-earning opportunities, enhancing food security and promoting environmentally sustainable rural development and livelihoods. It was recommended that adult literacy programmes should be introduced by government and non-governmental organizations in order to help the rural women to acquire necessary education that will help them in occupational diversification. It highlights the development of human capital among rural women in order to equip them with the necessary skills to work in various occupations gainfully employed for higher returns.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated human capital attributes influencing rural women in occupational diversification. The economic planning assumption is that all rural people are involved in agricultural production, but social changes show that rural women are also involved in non-farm occupations and are highly influenced by human capital attributes.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Effect of Fungi and Manure on Cadmium Content and Biomass of Maize Grown In Cadmium Contaminated Tailing from Bangka Indonesia

Research Article
Author(s): Nofalia Nurfitriani, Reginawanti Hindersah
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) contamination form tailings disposal that occur in tin mining in Bangka cause a serious  soil health problem. One of the ways to reduce Cd concentration in soil is bioremediation. The research was conducted to determine the influence of fungi and cattle manure on dry weight and Cd content of  maize  as well as  fungi  population in the rhizosphere of maize grown in tailing collected from tin mining area in  Bangka. Green house research was set up in Factorial Randomized Block Design. Maize hybrid P21 was grown  for six weeks in tailing  contaminated by CdCl2.0,5H2O up to 8 mg kg-1 and inoculated with  Humicola sp. or Fusarium sp. without and with several dose of cattle manure. Interaction effect between fungi and cattle manure clearly affect the rhizosphere fungal population, however did not give any significant effect to dry weight and Cd content. Application of Fusarium sp. 107 spores mL-1 with manure of 22 g pot-1 lead to increased fungal population. There was an independent effect of cattle manure to decrease Cd content and increase dry weight of maize. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study contibutes in developing the soil microbiology and soil bioremediation studies in Indonesia. This study also as a reference and an information about what kind of fungi and the right dose of cattle manure to improve soil quality and productivity in tailing at Bangka Island. 
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Exploring the Link between Governance and Institutions: Theoretical and Empirical Evidence from Tanzania

Research Article
Author(s): Boniface E.S. Mgonja, Alphonce W. Dossa
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The potential link between governance and institutions is increasingly becoming a central concern in social science. In political science, the approach taken to explore this link involves examining the role structure plays in determining political behaviours, the overall patterns of governance, and the outcomes of political processes. Therefore, the quality of institutions has long been recognized as an important component of a well-functioning system of governance.  This paper investigates and reflects on the relationship between institutions and governance in local political settings and analyzes the impacts of institutional factors on good governance. Very specifically, the paper explores different theoretical and empirical debates about governance in general and good governance in particular. Drawing upon “historical institutionalism”, the paper offers a satisfactory analytical framework for studying the ability of the institutions of governance in Tanzania, from their inception through their development over time, to meet the needs of the local community.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper has primarily indicated that analyzing local governance in Tanzania and other developing nations brings strongly into focus the nature of the relationship between institutions and the quality of service provision at the local level. This analytical approach not only helps to provide objectives and meaning for good governance, but also offers a path to understanding the fundamental shortcomings of the institutions of governance. The paper concludes by arguing that, the problems of governance in Tanzania and likely in other developing nations of Africa is not a lack of sound development policies, but rather the institutional mechanisms necessary to implement or translate those policies into desirable results.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

The Biodiesel Market in Brazil and the Prospects for the Sector

Research Article
Author(s): Evandro Luis Verdi, Rosecler Maschio Gilioli, Maria Emilia Camargo, Gabriela Zanandrea, Marta Elisete Ventura da Motta, Uiliam Hahn Biegelmeyer
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This article aimed to study the biodiesel market in the country and the future prospects for the sector. Thus it was held a bibliographical research on the subject, addressing the concept of biodiesel, the main raw materials used for their production and a brief history of biodiesel in Brazil. The methodology applied in this article was qualitative and exploratory research. Still, in the qualitative phase, was used the strategy of bibliographical research, which according to Marconi and Lakatos (2006), includes bibliography ever published in relation to the subject of study. Data were obtained concerning the advantages and benefits generated by the implementation of the program of biodiesel in Brazil; growth potential of the Brazilian consumer market; future demand based on prospects for national and international economic growth and development and evolution of the biodiesel industry in different regions of the country. At the end one concludes the immediate need of the increase in the percentage of biodiesel in the diesel oil by the Government to keep the industry’s progress.
Contribution/ Originality
The results of this paper showed the need to establish immediate policies to increase the percentage of biodiesel in the diesel oil. The originality of the work developed is the identification of advantages and benefits generated by the implementation of the program of biodiesel in Brazil and growth potential of the Brazilian consumer market.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

Challenges and Survival Strategies for Women in Small Scale Catering Business: A Case Study of Siyaso Magaba, Mbare

Research Article
Author(s): Alice Z Zinyemba, Tatenda Changamire
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Small businesses in the informal sector are increasingly being recognized as generating meaningful and sustainable employment opportunities for women in Zimbabwe. However, women operating small business face many challenges that negatively impact on the viability of those businesses. In order to mitigate those challenges women in small catering business at Siyaso Magaba home industrial area in Mbare Township in Harare (simply known as Siyaso), employ a number of strategies that enable them to survive and continue operating. This paper presents findings from a research carried out at Siyaso to identify those challenges and survival strategies. The challenges include lack of funding, lack of business management skills, stiff competition, stringent requirements for registering a business, defaulting customers and difficulties in balancing work and domestic commitments. These are the challenges that informal business operators have to grapple with in Zimbabwe in general. Over and above these challenges women at Siyaso also face specific challenges that include poor infrastructure in the business area, unaffordable rentals and lack of basic amenities.  In order for the women operating catering business at Siyaso to survive they apply a number of strategies which include borrowing money from relatives at no interest being charged, taking turns to give each member an agreed amount of money every month, purchasing s applies on a daily basis instead of buying in bulk, purchasing food items on credit, borrowing from loan sharks and serving extras to clients as a way of luring them from competition. The study concludes by suggesting that in order for the businesses to improve their performance the women should form themselves into a cooperative and register it. They should continue offering a wide variety of meals to customers so as to compete better. The Harare City Council should establish more premises which can be rented at affordable rates from which women can conduct their catering businesses. The city council should also improve amenities at Siyaso Magaba home industrial area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the challenges that women running small businesses in Zimbabwe face. It documents those challenges and the strategies that the women use in order for them to survive in the harsh economic environment as they try to empower themselves.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

Relationship between Self-Efficacy Belief and Academic Achievement of Distance Learners in National Teachers Institute (NTI) Adamawa State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Yusufu Gana Balami
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study assessed relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement of National Teachers Institute (NTI) Nigeria Certificate in Education distance learners in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The study tested one hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between self efficacy belief and academic achievement of learners. All NCE learners of Adamawa State NTI distance learning centres for 2011/2012 academic session with a total of seven hundred and sixty eight (768) students were used as the population while 636 distance learners who returned their questionnaire formed the sample for the study. Two types of instruments were used for data collection in this study. They were the Learners Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (LSQ) and Achievement Data Format (ACDF). The ACDF contains Grade Points of each candidate for the end of semester examinations. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used for testing the hypothesis. The study revealed that there was no significant relationship between learners’ self-efficacy and academic achievement. 
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 2

Teaching of Mathematics and Physics in Secondary School through Research and Study Paths

Research Article
Author(s): Maria Paz Gazzola, Maria Rita Otero, Viviana Carolina Llanos
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
In this paper we present a proposal for teaching based on the Research and Study Paths (RSP) involving Mathematics and Physics together at the Secondary School. We adopt the ideas of the Anthropological Theory of didactic (ATD). The Research and Study Path (RSP) and the Praxeological Model of Reference (PMR) are described and analyzed. We carried out an implementation with N=68 students of 5th year at the secondary school. Some results obtained in this experience are described.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the implementation of Research and Study Paths (RSP) in usual courses of secondary school. This teaching by research requires of the joint study of physical and mathematical notions, in the math classes, and in this sense also this is one contribution.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 2

Beyond Marxist Economism and Entrepreneurial Essentialism: Post-Colonial Politics of Empire in Chinua Achebe’s And Linus Asong’s Writings

Research Article
Author(s): Alfred Ndi
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This paper on political economy of entrepreneurship draws insights from creative writings of Chinua Achebe and Linus Asong to argue that, contrary to Marxist optimisms and idealisms, the business of political entrepreneurship is so complicated because it intersects with multiple conflicting narratives. These narratives of empire take new different and often times contradictory directions such as neo-pariarchalism, the popularity of anarchism, limitations of the intelligentsia class. religion as substitution, issues of feminist labour power and  social class questions.
Contribution/ Originality
Business entrepreneurship scholarship divides knowledge into studies on individual attributes of entrepreneurs and events like risk-taking (Kihlstrom and Laffont, 1979) and achievement (McClelland, 1961) and studies on economic environment (Tushman and Anderson, 1986). This study contributes to the field of business entrepreneurship by amalgamating both approaches into one which recognizes its economic base and  political events.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Incorporating User Participation in Heritage Institutions: Approaching Institutional Strategies in Relation To New Social Media and Audience Needs

Research Article
Author(s): Federica Mancini
Journal: Journal of New Media and Mass Communication

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Abstract
The gradual inclusion of the participation of the public in museums through social networks and other tools that enhance the user’s leadership in the management of information and in the knowledge production seems to have led to an evolution in the cultural experience of the public. However, we do not know yet whether the possibility to intervene and manipulate the content really optimize the communication between visitors widening their possibilities of action turning them into a concerned and active audience.  In this study, we have analyzed practices and motivations of on line audience, detecting some guidelines that should be considered when incorporating user participation in heritage institutions. The analysis of when a participatory environment can encourage the dissemination of the contents of the museum and engage audiences in an ongoing and repeated relationship that encompasses even the attendance realm, was performed using a qualitative methodological perspective though supported by some quantitative data related to the profiles of the recipients of cultural activities and their practices in the network. The suggestions proposed, by virtue of being the result of an evaluation process of public preferences, would highlight the real needs of on line visitors and reduce the dissociation between the way that museums seek to use their pages and effective practices of their users. Looking at these results, this research (based on the analysis of four case studies) represents an attempt to approach the strategies adopted by the institutional sphere in relation to the new social media and to the current needs of the public.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the digital strategies used by museums of art and design to communicate with their audiences. The paper’s primary contribution is finding those that elicit a positive response from the general public and the factors that are linked implicitly to their success.
Social Sciences » Journal of New Media and Mass Communication » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Effectiveness of Treatment of Water Surface with Ferric Chloride and Aluminium Sulphate

Research Article
Author(s): N. Zouhri, M. El Amrani, M. Taky, M. Hafsi, A. Elmidaoui
Journal: Review of Catalysts

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Abstract
The municipality of M’rirt located in the eastern part of central Morocco, in response to the scarcity of water resources in food, the national Office of Drinking Water has used the coagulation-flocculation for water treatment of Oum Errabia River, process of removing the most delicate phase in suspension by the addition of a body chemical called coagulant. The application of coagulation flocculation process for the treatment of surface water is an interesting alternative as the treatment is fast, cheap and allows obtaining perfectly clear water can fill the deficit in water. In the case of our study, we chose the coagulation-flocculation with aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride in order to compare their effectiveness in the elimination or reduction of turbidity on the one hand, and On the other hand see the effectiveness of aluminum sulfate in an acid pH range. The tests are performed in the laboratory and were conducted using a jar test. Ferric chloride showed an effective reduction of the turbidity of water from the aluminum sulfate at low concentrations. The reduction in turbidity of the water by the aluminum sulphate is higher in acid pH (pH 5.5) according to the results obtained from the tests.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Review of Catalysts » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Performance Evaluation and Adaptation of Lentil Varieties in Lemu, Gumur and Damot Gale Districts of Southern Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Yasin Goa
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
This study was conducted on stations and on farm in three districts of South region, Ethiopia, to evaluate the lentil varieties for yield and adaptation, assess farmer’s preferences during 2004/05 Meher Season. Data on plant height, hundred seed weight, pod per plant, days to flowering, days to maturity and grain yield were collected. Six lentil varieties which included five released and one local check of respective locations were planted on 3.2m2 plots at spacing of 20cm* 2cm.  The plots consisted of four rows which were four meters long for on-centre and on farm trials. The trials were laid in randomized complete block design with four replications. Twelve farmers from three districts of four farmers at each village were participated in executing on farm trials. Each farmer was a replicate for on farm component. There were significant differences among varieties for grain yield and some of traits. The results for the on-centre and on farm trials indicated that there were significant yield differences between the local check and the released varieties at two stations and three districts. The varieties Teshale and Alemaya were superior yielded overall to the local check across three villages ’and on stations. Thus, Alemaya and Teshale out yielded other varieties and had average yields of 1239.1 kg/ha and 1193.8 kg/ha at on station and 1165.1 kg/ha and 1202kg/ha at on farm trials, respectively. Combined statistical analysis and farmers assessments identified two genotypes (Teshale and Alemaya) as potential varieties for production in south Ethiopia. Therefore, based on researchers and farmers’ preference, varieties Teshale and Alemaya are recommended for production in Lemu, Gumur and Damot Gale districts and similar agro ecologies of south Ethiopia.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Germination Effects of Purposive Bruchid Screening of African Ebony (Dalbergia Melanoxylon) Seeds In the Arid and Semi-Arid Region of South Eastern Kenya

Research Article
Author(s): Nahashon Musimba, Josphert N. Kimatu, Benard Mweu, MWK Mburu, Simon Nguluu
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The African ebony (Dalbergia melanoxylon) is a tree that is crucial in making of high value wooden traditional artifacts, however its slow growth in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), poor germination and low seedling growth rate, seed pest predation coupled with overharvesting pause a great threat for the future availability of the species. Unscreened natural methods of seed germination might not sustainably solve the problem of low germination. Overharvesting for wood carving, and low natural regenerative ability of the species and lack of the local and national conservation efforts present a serious threat its availability to the future availability of Dalbergia melanoxylon. Availability of viable seed plays a crucial role the establishment of African ebony. There is need for immediate methods for multiple seedling production for propagation of D. melanoxylon. Our studies showed 2% germination without screening but increased to 40% after screening (p< 0.001). Careful moisture monitoring of the seedling seemed to increase the growth rate in the ASAL region. Therefore, selected propagation methods of this species can rescue it from the current extinction trend which is caused by its low regenerative ability when natural methods are used and over exploitation. There is need to support on farm cultivation of the tree to sustain the carving industry. 
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Edame, Greg Ekpung, Celina Chinyere Udude, Bassey, Samuel Etim
Journal: Journal of Challenges

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Abstract
This study presents an analysis of “Rural Saving Mobilizations and economic development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State Nigeria”.   The data available shows that savings mobilization plays an important role in rural development and in rural Economy like Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State Nigeria.  The major objectives of the study are to examine the mobilization of rural savings in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State and the factors militating against the mobilization of savings in the area. The study also assesses the roles and contributions of the formal and informal financial sectors in the mobilization of savings from the rural area.  Primary and secondary data were collected from the rural households and the two major financial institutions in the area then (the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, and the peoples Bank of Nigeria). The analysis shows that 80% of Awi- the Cross River State College of education Community indicated a greater percentage of their awareness to save their money in the bank.  It was also  discovered that  out of 351 workers of the State college of Education, Akamkpa, 243 or 69.23% save with the Union Bank of Nigeria, Akamkpa Branch under the salary payroll Accounts.  While 108 or 30.77% save with the people Bank of Nigeria, Akamkpa branch respectively.  The study also reveals that the higher the rate of interest, the greater the inducement to Savers to increase their savings and supply more funds. policy implications of the study are that the government or the monetary authority should maintain the equality of saving and investment where the market rate of interest equal to the natural rate.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few empirical studies which have been conducted in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State Nigeria; on rural saving mobilizations and economic development in the area. The study’s primary contribution is in the area of existing empirical literature on rural saving mobilization in Nigeria. 
Economics » Journal of Challenges » Month: 03-2015 Issue: 1

Survey on Economical Important Fungal Diseases of Tomato in Sub-Zoba Hamemalo of Eritrea

Research Article
Author(s): Syed Danish Yaseen Naqvi, Awet Tesfalem, Bereket Tesfazghi, Gezae Asfeha, Ruta Mangesteab
Journal: Review of Plant Studies

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Abstract
Hamelmalo region. Through the survey, 4 diseases namely, early blight, late blight, powdery mildew and wilt and 2 insects: Helicoverpa armigera and Tuta absoluta were recorded. The main objective of the study was to undertake survey for the incidence of early blight and powdery mildew of tomato caused by Alternaria solani and Oidium neolycopersici respectively. The maximum disease incidence due to early blight was 56.28% in F5 and minimum was 19.05% in seven days interval during survey whereas in case of powdery mildew the maximum and minimum was 38.96% in F2 and 13.43% in F5 respectively. Overall average for higher leaf infection in early blight and powdery mildew of tomato were recorded 41.85% and 34.63%, respectively. The average of disease complex incidence of 71.6% and 62.60% was recorded in F6 and F4, respectively.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes about incidence and severity of tomato diseases in Sub zoba Hamelmalo of Eritrea. Research conducted about the insect pest and diseases occurrence in tomato in this area. This study can be used for further reference for future research work in particular area.
Agricultural Sciences » Review of Plant Studies » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2