Journal of Challenges

Published by: Conscientia Beam
Online ISSN: 2410-6569
Print ISSN: 2412-3471
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No. 1

Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria

Pages: 14-29
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Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.85/2015.2.1/85.1.14.29

Edame, Greg Ekpung , Celina Chinyere Udude , Bassey, Samuel Etim

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Edame, Greg Ekpung , Celina Chinyere Udude , Bassey, Samuel Etim (2015). Rural Saving Mobilizations and Economic Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State - Nigeria. Journal of Challenges, 2(1): 14-29. DOI: 10.18488/journal.85/2015.2.1/85.1.14.29
This study presents an analysis of “Rural Saving Mobilizations and economic development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State Nigeria”.   The data available shows that savings mobilization plays an important role in rural development and in rural Economy like Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State Nigeria.  The major objectives of the study are to examine the mobilization of rural savings in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State and the factors militating against the mobilization of savings in the area. The study also assesses the roles and contributions of the formal and informal financial sectors in the mobilization of savings from the rural area.  Primary and secondary data were collected from the rural households and the two major financial institutions in the area then (the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, and the peoples Bank of Nigeria). The analysis shows that 80% of Awi- the Cross River State College of education Community indicated a greater percentage of their awareness to save their money in the bank.  It was also  discovered that  out of 351 workers of the State college of Education, Akamkpa, 243 or 69.23% save with the Union Bank of Nigeria, Akamkpa Branch under the salary payroll Accounts.  While 108 or 30.77% save with the people Bank of Nigeria, Akamkpa branch respectively.  The study also reveals that the higher the rate of interest, the greater the inducement to Savers to increase their savings and supply more funds. policy implications of the study are that the government or the monetary authority should maintain the equality of saving and investment where the market rate of interest equal to the natural rate.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few empirical studies which have been conducted in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State Nigeria; on rural saving mobilizations and economic development in the area. The study’s primary contribution is in the area of existing empirical literature on rural saving mobilization in Nigeria. 

Gun Violence in United States of America Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

Pages: 1-13
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Gun Violence in United States of America Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.85/2015.2.1/85.1.1.13

Olusola O. Karimu

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Olusola O. Karimu (2015). Gun Violence in United States of America Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Journal of Challenges, 2(1): 1-13. DOI: 10.18488/journal.85/2015.2.1/85.1.1.13
The present study conducted systematic reviews and meta-analyses of relevant literature and data relating to gun violence in United States of America and found that the current concern about gun violence arises from a growing understanding of the adverse economic, physical, mental, and behavioral health effects that result from community exposure to high rates of gun violence. Therefore, it is noted that gun violence has become a major socio-economic and public health issues in United States of America due to the fact that it has eroded the quality of life of majority of the citizens. The study therefore established that interventions and strategies to address the problem of gun violence should address the intransigent causes of American gun violence - dying cities, inequality, deteriorating family structure, and the all-pervasive economic and social consequences of a history of slavery and racism that provides a generally acceptable strategy for reducing incidents of gun violence.
Contribution/ Originality
The purpose of this study is to enhance an understanding of the concerns that gun violence pose to contemporary United States of America society. The current study may have implications for policy makers and administrators seeking strategies to address the problem. Therefore, this study contributes to existing literature by seeking to provide a better understanding of the widespread incidents of gun violence in the United States of America.