K. D. B. Dijkstra and R. Lewington, "Field guide to the dragonflies of Britain and Europe," British Wildlife Publishing, vol. 3, pp. 22-29, 2006.
S. Asahina, "The development of odontology in the far East," Odonatologicae, vol. 3, pp. 5-12, 1974.
I. Hardwicke, Put a little dragonfly in your life today letter to editor, Letter to Editor. New York, USA: New York Times, 1990.
D. J. Thompson and P. C. Watts, The structure of the coenagrion mercuriale populations in the new forest. Southern England: In Cordero-Rivera, Forests and Dragonflies, 2006.
A. Ahmad, "Taxonomic studies on anisoptera of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan," MSc Thesis, Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, PAkistan, 1994.
P. S. Corbet, "Dragonflies," Behavior and Ecology of Odonata, vol. 7, pp. 23-33, 2004.
A. Mitra, Dragonfly (Odonata:Insecta) fauna of trashigang Dzongkhag, Eastern Bhutan. In: Environmental and life support systems of the Bhutan Himalaya. (Gyestshen, T. and Sadrudin, A. Eds) vol. I. Kanglung, Bhutan: Sherubtse College, 2002.
F. Perveen, A. Khan, and S. A. Rauf, "Check list of first recorded dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan," Arthropods, vol. 3, pp. 120-126, 2014a.
F. Perveen, A. Khan, and Sikandar, "Characteristics of butterfly (Lepidoptera) fauna from Kabal, Swat, Pakistan," Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, vol. 2, pp. 56-69, 2014b.
F. Perveen, A. Ahmad, and N. Yasmin, "Characterization of butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan," Pakistan Journal of Entomology Karachi, vol. 27, pp. 15-26, 2012.
F. Perveen and A. Ahmad, "Check list of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan," Arthropods, vol. 1, pp. 112-117, 2012a.
F. Perveen and A. Ahmad, "Exploring butterfly fauna (Lepidoptera) of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan," Signpost Open Access Journal (SOAJ) of Entomological Studies, vol. 1, pp. 94-107, 2012b.
F. Perveen and F. Fazal, "Biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara university, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan," Special Issue on Entomology Research: Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS), vol. 3, pp. 28-36, 2013a.
F. Perveen and F. Fazal, "Key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Hazara university, garden campus, Mansehra, Pakistan," International Journal of Agricultural Innovation Research, vol. 1, pp. 156-161, 2013b.
F. Perveen and F. Fazal, "Checklist of butterfly fauna of Hazara university, garden campus, Mansehra, Pakistan," Signpost Open Access Journal (SOAJ) of Entomological Studies, vol. 2, pp. 26-33, 2013c.
F. C. Fraser, The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma vol. 5. New Dehli: Today and Tomorrow‘s Printers and Publishers, 1933-1934.
M. T. Chaudhry, "Systematics of dragonflies (Anisoptera: Odonata) of Pakistan," PhD, Thesis, Department of Entomology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 2010.
F. Perveen and A. Khan, "Checklist of butterfly fauna from Kabal, Swat, Pakistan," Journal of Advances in Biology, vol. 02, pp. 115-121, 2013.
F. Perveen and Z. Hussain, "Use of statistical techniques in analysis of biological data," Basic Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Review, vol. 1, pp. 01-10, 2012.
F. Perveen, Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Agricultural Science Research Journal, vol. 2, pp. 539- 549, 2012.
F. C. Fraser, "New and rare Indian Odonata in the pusa collection," Memories Department of Agriculture India (Ent.Ser.), vol. 7, pp. 1-77, 1922.
M. Yousaf, "Taxonomic studies of anisoptera (Odonata) of Pakistan," PhD Thesis, Department of Entomology, WPAU, Layalpur, Pakistan, 1972.
A. Kumar and M. Parsad, "Field ecology, zoogeography and taxonomy of the Odonata of Western Himalaya, India," Zoological Survey in India, India, vol. 20, pp. 1-118, 1981.
Z. L. Kanth, "Odonata of Azad Jammu and Kashmir," MSc Thesis, Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, 1985.
E. Riservato, J. P. Boudot, S. Ferreira, M. Jovi?, V. J. Kalkman, W. Schneider, B. Samraoui, and A. Cuttelod, The status and distribution of dragonflies of the mediterranean basin. Gland, Switzerland and Malaga, Spain: IUCN, 2009.
A. Khaliq, "Taxonomic studies on Zygoptera (Odonata) of Pakistan," PhD Thesis, Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, 1990.
A. Khaliq, A. Hayat, and A. Hussain, "Some dragonflies of district Mansehra (NWFP)," Pakistan Journal of Forestry, vol. 42, pp. 74-77, 1992.
A. Khaliq, M. L. Abbasi, and K. F. Ahmad, "Odonata from Murree hills of Pakistan," Pakistan Journal of Entomology Karachi, vol. 8, pp. 37-40, 1993.
A. Ahmad and M. Yousuf, "New records of anisoptera (Odonata) from NWFP," Pakistan Journal of Entomology, Karachi, vol. 16, pp. 83-84, 1994.
M. Arshad, "Taxonomic studies on Anisoptera of Baluchistan," MSc Thesis, Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, 1994.
A. Khaliq, M. Ayub, M. A. Nafees, and F. Maula, "A collection of odonata from Gilgit and Baltistan, Kashmir, with three new species for Pakistan," Notulae Odonatologicae, vol. 4, pp. 68-69, 1994.
A. Rehman, "Taxonomic studies of Anisoptera of Punjab," MSc Thesis, Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, 1994.
U. N. Ullah, "Taxonomic studies on anisoptera of Sindh," MSc Thesis, Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, 1994.
No any video found for this article.
Farzana Perveen , Anzela Khan , Sayed Abdul Rauf (2014). Key for First Recorded Dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) Fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Research Journal of Insect Sciences, 1(2): 26-35. DOI:
Dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) are beautiful insects with high species diversity worldwide. These insects are indicators of environmental pollution and are predators of important insect vectors of human pathogens and parasites, especially mosquitoes. The present research was the first record of 318 specimens of dragonflies from district Lower Dir (LD), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan collected during May-July 2011. Among the specimens collected there were 11 species, 7 genera and 3 families. The number of specimens collected in each family were 17 Cordulegasteridae (5.3%), 18 Gomphidae (5.7%), and 283 Libellulidae (89.0%). All cordulegastrids were the golden ringed, Cordulegaster brevistigmata brevistigmata Selys. All gomphids were Clubtails, Onychogomphus bistrigatus Selys. Libellulids species were: blue or black percher, Diplacodes lefebvrei (Rambur); ground skimmer, D. trivialis Rambur; black tailed skimmer, Orthetrum cancellatum (L); common red skimmer, O. pruinosum neglectum (Rambur); slender skimmer, O. sabina (Drury); triangle skimmer, O. triangulare triangulare (Selys); wandering glider or global skimmer, Pantala flavescens (Fabricius); spine legged redbolt, Rhodthemis rufa (Rambur) and common skimmer, Sympetrum decoloratum Selys. A dichotomous key based on external morphology, coloration and wing venation was prepared to facilitate the identification of the dragonfly fauna of the LD and aid conservation efforts of dragonflies in Pakistan.
Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.)
T. I. Ofuya, Biology ecology and control of insect pests of stored legumes in Nigeria In: Pests of stored cereals and pulses in Nigeria, biology ecology and control. Nigeria: Dove Collins Publications, 2001.
S. R. Singh, R. A. Luse, K. Leuschner, and D. Nangju, "Groundnut oil treatments for the control of callosobruchus maculatus (F.) during cowpea storage," Journal of Stored Product Research, vol. 14, pp. 1998-7780, 1998.
O. O. Longe, "Investigation into fumigant effect of commertially produced eucalyptus oil and eugenia aromatic dust against callosobruchus maculatus (Fabritious)," presented at the International Conference on Biology, Environment and Chemistry, 2011.
T. I. Ofuya, Beans insect and man an Inaugural lecture series 35. Nigeria: The Federal University Akure, 2003.
R. F. Ogunleye, M. O. Ogunkoya, and F. O. Abulude, "Effect of the seed oilof three botanicals, jatropa curcas (L.) helianthus annus (L.) and cocos nucifera (L.) on the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots.)," Plant Product Research Journal, vol. 14, pp. 14-18, 2010.
Z. Dauda, Y. T. Maina, and B. I. Richard, "Insecticidal activity of garlic (Alium sativum (L.)) oil on callosobruchus maculatus (F.) In post-harvest cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)," Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, vol. 2, pp. 28-35, 2012a.
Y. T. Maina, Z. Dauda, and D. M. Mailafiya, "Efficacy of aging stored neem seed oil and varietal resistance for the management of C. maculatus (F.) infesting stored cowp (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp," In Storage International Journal of Crop Science, vol. 4, pp. 79-83, 2012.
Z. Dauda, J. W. Wabekwa, and M. M. Degri, "Efficacy of sesame (Sesamum Indicum (L.) seed oil in the management of callosobruchus maculatus (F.) infesting stored cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp," International Journal of Crop Science, vol. 4, pp. 21-26, 2012b.
C. O. Okunola and T. I. Ofuya, "Effect of some essential plant oils on insect infestation of stored maize," African Crop Science Proceedings, vol. 8, pp. 1003-1007, 2007.
Y. T. Maina, "Evaluating the efficacy of three insecticidal spice oils for the control of callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea in Maiduguri, Nigeria," Journal of Arid Agriculture, vol. 16, pp. 43-47, 2006.
Y. T. Maina and N. E. S. Lale, "Influence of duration of storage of insecticidal plant oil after extraction and oil-treated seeds prior to infestation on the efficacy of nee (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss) seed oil in controlling callosobruchus maculatus (F.)," Infesting stored cowpeas. Nigerian Journal of Entomology, vol. 22, pp. 54-63, 2005.
N. E. S. Lale and A. Mustapha, "Potential of combining neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss) seed oil with varietal resistance for the management of the cowpea bruchid callosobruchus maculatus (F.)," Journal of Stored Product Research, vol. 36, pp. 215-222, 2000.
N. E. S. Lale, "An over view of the use of plant products in the management of stored product coleoptera in the tropics," Post Harvest News and Information, vol. 6, p. 69N75N, 1995.
M. Ranasinghe and C. Dharmasena, "Effect of three vegetable oils on oviposition and egg hatchability of cowpea bruchid callosobruchus maculates," Srilanka Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 24, pp. 42-48, 1987.
I. O. Udo, "Protectant effect of plant oils against cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus Maculatus) on stored cowpea," ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, vol. 6, pp. 58-61, 2011.
M. Ramzan, "Efficacy of edible oils agains pulse beetle, callosobruchus maculatus," Journal of Insect Science, vol. 7, pp. 37-39, 1994.
No any video found for this article.
Z. Dauda , D. M. Mailafiya , L. D. Simon (2014). Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.). International Research Journal of Insect Sciences, 1(2): 20-25. DOI:
Protection of grains against infestation and damage by diverse storage insect pests is an age long practice, as it ensures availability of agricultural produce and guarantees food security. This study assessed the protective bioactivity of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed oil (MSO) against infestation by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). Ten gram grains of three cowpea varieties (Borno brown, Gwalam and Banjara) were treated with four doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml) of MSO in three replicates, along with un-treated check. Data obtained on the number of eggs laid, adults emerged (F1) and severity of damage were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean separation at 5% probability level was performed using the Least Significant Difference (LSD). Results indicated statistical significance (P<0.05) in the mean number of eggs laid on un-treated grains compared to grains treated with higher doses from each of the varieties. Similarly, mean number of adults emerged and severity of damage from un-treated grains were statistically significant (P<0.05) relative to the treated grains with all doses of each variety. Statistical differences in the mean number of eggs laid, adult emergence and severity of damage indicated the good potential of MSO in conferring protection to stored cowpea grains. The protective effect of MSO against C. maculatus seemed to be achieved principally through oviposition suppression and reduced or complete inhibition of adult emergence, consequently reducing or eradicating infestation risk, damage and loss of cowpea grains in storage. While the use of plant essential oils against storage insect pests is being advocated, the availability, affordability and the tendency of tainting protected grains need to be considered.
This study contributes in the existing literature, as the results of the study concur with reports of several authors, where plant essential oils was effective as a protectant against the cowpea bruchid infestation; consequently reducing or eradicating the damaging effect of the beetle.