Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Journal of Challenges

March 2015, Volume 2, 1, pp 1-13

Gun Violence in United States of America Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

Olusola O. Karimu

Olusola O. Karimu 1

  1. Center for Juvenile and Family Studies, New York, USA 1

on Google Scholar
on PubMed

Pages: 1-13

DOI: 10.18488/journal.85/2015.2.1/

Share :


The present study conducted systematic reviews and meta-analyses of relevant literature and data relating to gun violence in United States of America and found that the current concern about gun violence arises from a growing understanding of the adverse economic, physical, mental, and behavioral health effects that result from community exposure to high rates of gun violence. Therefore, it is noted that gun violence has become a major socio-economic and public health issues in United States of America due to the fact that it has eroded the quality of life of majority of the citizens. The study therefore established that interventions and strategies to address the problem of gun violence should address the intransigent causes of American gun violence - dying cities, inequality, deteriorating family structure, and the all-pervasive economic and social consequences of a history of slavery and racism that provides a generally acceptable strategy for reducing incidents of gun violence.
Contribution/ Originality
The purpose of this study is to enhance an understanding of the concerns that gun violence pose to contemporary United States of America society. The current study may have implications for policy makers and administrators seeking strategies to address the problem. Therefore, this study contributes to existing literature by seeking to provide a better understanding of the widespread incidents of gun violence in the United States of America.



  1. Anderson, A.I., D. Compton and T. Mason, 2004. Managing in a dangerous world: The national incident management system. Engineering Management Journal, 16(4): 29-64.
  2. Atwood, J.E. and W. Brueggemann, 2008. America and its guns: A theological expose. Eugene Oregon, U.S.A: Cascade Books.
  3. Barkin, S., G. Ryan and L. Gelberg, 1999. What pediatricians can do to further youth violence prevention- a qualitative study. Injury Prevention, 5(1): 53-58.
  4. Carlson, K.T., 2006. Poverty and youth violence exposure: Experiences in rural communities. Children & Schools, 28(2): 87-96. DOI 10.1093/cs/28.2.87.
  5. Cerdá, M., S.F. Messner, M. Tracy, D. Vlahov, E. Goldmann, K.J. Tardiff and S. Galea, 2010. Investigating the effect of social changes on age-specific gun-related homicide rates in New York city during the 1990s. American Journal of Public Health. [PubMed: 20395590], 1000(6): 1107–1115.
  6. Chermak, S. and E. McGarrell, 2004. Problem-solving approaches to homicide: An evaluation of the Indianapolis violence reduction partnership. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 15(2): 161-192.
  7. Cook, P. and J. Ludwig, 1996. Guns in America: Results of a comprehensive survey of gun ownership and use. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
  8. Cook, P. and J. Ludwig, 2000. Gun violence: The real costs. New York: Oxford Press.
  9. Cook, P. and J. Ludwig, 2002. Firearms. In W. Kip Viscusi(Eds). Regulations through litigation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
  10. Cook, P. and J. Ludwig, 2003. Pragmatic gun policy. In Jens Ludwig and Phillip J. Cook, (Eds). Evaluating gun policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. pp: 74-120.
  11. Cooper, A. and E. Smith, 2011. Homicide trends in the United States, 1980-2008. Available from
  12. Davies, P., 1999. What is evidence-based education? British Journal of Educational Studies, 47(2): 108-121.
  13. Eck, J.E. and E. Maguire, 2000. Have changes in policing reduced violent crime? In A. Blumstein & J. Wallman (Eds.), The crime drop in America. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp: 207–265.
  14. Eysenck, H.J., 1994. Systematic reviews: Meta-analysis and its problems. British Medical Journal, 309: 789-792.
  15. Fritsch, E.J., T.J. Caeti and R.W. Taylor, 1999. Gang suppression through saturation patrol, aggressive curfew and truancy enforcement: A quasi-experimental test of the dallas anti-gang initiative. Crime & Delinquency, 45(1): 122-139. DOI 10.1177/0011128799045001007.
  16. Garbarino, J., 1999. Lost boys: Why our sons turn violent and how we can save them. New York: Free Press.
  17. Hochester, A. and H. Copes, 2008. Where I’m from: Criminal predators and their environments. In M, DeLisi and P, Conis (Eds.). MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
  18. Hoskin, A.W., 2001. Armed Americans: The impact of firearm availability on national homicide rates. Justice Quarterly, 18(3): 569-592. DOI 10.1080/07418820100095021.
  19. International Association of Chiefs of Police, 2001. Brady center to prevent gun violence. Available from
  20. Kahn, D.J., M.M. Kazimi and M.N. Mulvihill, 2001. Attitudes of New York city high school students regarding firearm violence. Pediatrics, 107(5): 1125-1132. Available from
  21. Kirsten, A., 2008. Citizens, guns and the state: The changing relationship between civil society and the state on reducing armed violence. South African Review of Sociology, 39(2): 201-217. Available from
  22. Kleck, G., 1997. Point blank: Guns and violence. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
  23. Kraska, P.B., 2004. Theorizing criminal justice: Eight essential orientations. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
  24. Krug, E.G., K.E. Powell and L.L. Dahlberg, 1998. Firearm-related deaths in the United States and 35 other high and upper middle-income countries. Int. J. Epidemiol, 27(2): 214-221. Available from http;//
  25. Lewin, N.L., J.S. Vernick, P.L. Beilenson, J.S. Mair, M.M. Lindamood, S.P. Terret and D.W. Webster, 2005. The baltimore youth ammunition initiative: A model application of local public health authority in preventing gun violence. Am J Public Health, 95(5): 762-765. DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2003.037028.
  26. Lizotte, J., J. Howard, D. Krohn and P. Thornberry, 1996. Patterns of illegal gun carrying among young urban males. Valparaiso University Law Review, 31: 375-393.
  27. Logue, J., 2008. Violent death in American schools in the 21st century: Reflections following the 2006 Amish school shootings. Journal of School Health, 78(1): 51-60.
  28. McDonald, J.M., 2002. The effectiveness of community policing in reducing urban violence. Crime & Delinquency, 48(4): 592-618. DOI 10.1177/001112802237131.
  29. Mercy, J.A. and W.R. Hammond, 1998. Combining action and analysis to prevent homicide: A public health perspective. In M. D. Smith & M. A. Zahn (Eds.). Homicide: A sourcebook of social research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp: 297-310.
  30. Miller, T.R. and M.A. Cohen, 1997. Costs of gunshot and cut/stab wounds in the United States, with some Canadian comparisons. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29(3): 329-341. Available from http:/
  31. National Institute of Justice, 2013. Nonfatal firearm violence, 1993-2011.Bureau of justice statistics' national crime victimization survey. Available from
  32. Nutley, S.M., T.O.D. Huw and N. Tilley, 2000. Editorial: Getting research into practice. Public Money and Management, 20(4): 3-6.
  33. O'Shea, T.O., 2007. Getting the deterrence message out: The project safe neighborhoods public-private partnership. Police Quarterly, 10(3): 288–230.
  34. Pai, M., 2014. Introduction to system review and analysis. Available from
  35. Petrosino, A. and J. Lavenberg, 2007. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: Best evidence on what works for criminal justice decision makers. Western Criminology Review, 8(1): 1–15.
  36. Phillips, S. and M.O. Maume, 2007. Have gun will shoot: Weapon instrumentality, intent, and the violent escalation of conflict. Homicide Studies, 11(4): 272-294. Available from
  37. Piquero, A.R., 2009. Do gun laws affect crime the way steroids affect homeruns in baseball? Am J Crim Just, 34: 3-8. Available from
  38. Popay, J., A. Rogers and G. Williams, 1998. Rationale and standards for the systematic review of qualitative literature in health services research. Qualitative Health Research, 8(3): 329-340.
  39. Potter, W.J., 2003. The 11 myths of media violence. California, CA: Sage.
  40. Pridemore, W., 2003. Recognizing homicide as a public health threat. Homicide Studies, 7(2): 182-2005.
  41. Reich, K., P.L. Culross and R.E. Behrman, 2002. Children, youth and gun violence: Analysis and recommendations. Future Children, 12(2): 5-23. Available from
  42. Reiss, J.A.J. and J.A. Roth, 1993. Understanding and preventing violence. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  43. Ruddell, R. and S.H. Decker, 2005. Kids and assault weapons: Social problem or social construction? Criminal Justice Review, 30(1): 45-63. DOI 10.1177/0734016805275679.
  44. Ryan, A.M., M.H. Gheen and C. Midgley, 1998. Why do some students avoid asking for help? An examination of the interplay among students’ academic efficacy, teacher’s social- emotional role, and the classroom goal structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(3): 528-535.
  45. Shaw, J.W., 1993. Community policing to take guns off the street. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 11(4): 361-374.
  46. Sheley, J. and J. Wright, 1998. High school youths, weapons, and violence: A national survey. Washington, DC: Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. Available from:
  47. Stretesky, P. and M. Pogrebin, 2007. Gang-related gun violence, socialization, identity, and self. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 36(1): 85-114.
  48. Tardiff, K., P. Mrzuk, A. Leon, C. Hirsch, M. Stajic, L. Portera and N. Hartwell, 1995. A profile of homicides on the streets and in the homes of New York city. Public Health Reports, 110(1): 13-17.
  49. Vernick, J.S., J.G.J. Hodge and D. Webster, 2007. The ethics of restrictive licensing for handguns: Comparing the United States and Canadian approaches to handgun regulation. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: 668-678. Available from
  50. Violence Policy Center, 2000. Unsafe in any hands: Why America needs to ban handguns. Available from
  51. Wilkinson, D.L. and J. Fagan, 2002. What do we know about gun use among adolescents? Center for the study and prevention of violence. Available from
  52. Wilkinson, D.L., M.S. McBryde, B. Williams, S. Bloom and K. Bell, 2009. Peers and gun use among urban adolescents males: An examination of social embeddedness. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 25(1): 20-43. Available from
  53. Wolfe, D.A., L. Zak, S. Wilson and P. Jaffe, 1986. Child witnesses to violence between parents. Critical issues in behavior and social adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14(1): 95-104.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article