Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Journal of Social Economics Research

September 2014, Volume 1, 9, pp 214-233

Beyond Marxist Economism and Entrepreneurial Essentialism: Post-Colonial Politics of Empire in Chinua Achebe’s And Linus Asong’s Writings

Alfred Ndi

Alfred Ndi 1

  1. University of Bamenda, Cameroon 1

on Google Scholar
on PubMed


This paper on political economy of entrepreneurship draws insights from creative writings of Chinua Achebe and Linus Asong to argue that, contrary to Marxist optimisms and idealisms, the business of political entrepreneurship is so complicated because it intersects with multiple conflicting narratives. These narratives of empire take new different and often times contradictory directions such as neo-pariarchalism, the popularity of anarchism, limitations of the intelligentsia class. religion as substitution, issues of feminist labour power and  social class questions.
Contribution/ Originality
Business entrepreneurship scholarship divides knowledge into studies on individual attributes of entrepreneurs and events like risk-taking (Kihlstrom and Laffont, 1979) and achievement (McClelland, 1961) and studies on economic environment (Tushman and Anderson, 1986). This study contributes to the field of business entrepreneurship by amalgamating both approaches into one which recognizes its economic base and  political events.



  1. Afolayan, S., 2011. A marxist interpretation of the dystopian society in the African novel. Kemanusiaan, 18(2): 1–18.
  2. Althusser, L., 1971. Lenin and philosophy and other essays (B. Brewster, Trans.). New York: Monthly Review Books.
  3. Bayari, C., 1998. Foucault, marx and the critical tools of the enlightenment. In M. Alexander, S. Harding, P. Harrison, G. Kendall, Z. Skrbis, J. Western, (Eds.). Refashioning sociology. Responses to a new world order. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology. pp: 121-128.
  4. Bevir, M., 1999. Foucault and critique. Deploying agency against autonomy. Political Theory, 27(1): 65-84.
  5. Bowles, S. and H. Gintis, 1976. Schooling in capitalist America: Educational reform and the contradictions of economic life. New York: Basic Books.
  6. Brown, B. and M. Cousins, 1986. The nouvelle philosophie and foucault. In M. Gane, (Eds). Towards a critique of foucault. London: Routledge Kegan Paul. pp: 61-105.
  7. Burkett, P., 2006. Ecological marxism. Calasanti. Toni M. and Kathleen F. Slevin eds., Age Matters. Realigning feminist thinking. New York: Routledge.
  8. Callinicos, A., 1989. Against postmodernism. Oxford: Polity Press.
  9. Cantillon, R., 1755/1964. Essai sur la nature du commerce en general, edited by Henry Higgs. NewYork: Augustus M. Kelley.
  10. Chennells, A.J., 1993. Marxist and Pan-Africanist literary theories and a sociology of Zimbabwean literature. Zambezia, 20(2): 109-120.
  11. Cooper, D., 1994. Productive, relational and everywhere? Conceptualising power and resistance within foucauldian feminism. Sociology, 28(2): 435-454.
  12. Dalla Costa, M. and G.F. Dalla Costa, 1999. Women, development and labor of reproduction. Struggles and movements. Trenton. NJ: Africa World Press.
  13. Dews, P., 1987. Logics of disintegration. London: Verso.
  14. Draper, H., 1978. Karl marx’s theory of revolution; the politics of social classes. NY: Monthly Review Press, 2.
  15. Engels, F., 18921980. The condition of the working class in England. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1980.
  16. Federici, S., 1999. Reproduction and feminist struggle in the new international division of labor. In Dalla Costa M., Dalla Costa F. (Eds.), Women, development and labor reproduction. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press. pp: 47-82.
  17. Federici, S., 2004. Caliban and the witch. Women, the body and primitive accumulation. Brooklyn (NY): Autonomedia.
  18. Foucault, M., 1970. The order of things. London: Tavistock.
  19. Foucault, M., 1973. Madness and civilization. New York: Vintage.
  20. Foucault, M., 1972. The archaeology of knowledge. New York: Pantheon.
  21. Foucault, M., 1977a. Nietzche, genealogy, history. In D. F. Bouchard, (Ed.). Language, counter-memory, practice: Selected essays and interviews, Ithaca. New York: Cornell University Press. pp:139-164.
  22. Foucault, M., 1977b. Discipline and punish. London: Pantheon.
  23. Foucault, M., 1980. Prison talk. In G. Gordon (ed.). Power/knowledge. NewYork: Pantheon. pp: 55-62.
  24. Foucault, M., 1984a. What is enlightenment?' In P. Rabinow, ed. The foucault reader. Harmondsworth: Penguin. pp: 32-50.
  25. Foucault, M., 1984b. The ethic of care for the self as a practice of freedom: An interview with Michel Foucault on January 20, 1984, in the final foucault, edited by J. Bernauer and D. Rasmussen. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. pp: 1-20.
  26. Gramsci, A., 1971. Selections from the prison notebooks,(Q. Hoare & G. N. Smith, trans.). New York: International Publishers.
  27. Grassie, W., 1997. Postmodernism: What one needs to know. Zygon, 32(1): 83-94.
  28. Gugelberger, G.M., 1986. Marxism and African literature. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
  29. Habermas, J., 1987. Philosophical discourse of modernity: Twelve lectures. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  30. Hardt, M. and A. Negri, 2004. Multitude. War and democracy in the age of empire. New York: Penguin.
  31. Kihlstrom, R. and J. Laffont, 1979. A general equilibrium entrepreneurial theory of firm formation based on risk aversion. Journal of Political Economy, 87: 719-748.
  32. Knight, F., 2005. Risk, uncertainty and profit. New York: Cosmos Classics, Inc.
  33. Marx, K., 1968. Preface to a contribution to the critique of political economy. In Karl Marx & Frederick Engels: Selected works. New York: International Publishers. pp: 181-185.
  34. Marx, K., 1990. Capital. London: Penguin Books, 1.
  35. McClelland, D.C., 1961. The achieving society. New York: Free Press.
  36. O'Connor, J., 1984. Accumulation crisis. New York and Oxford: Basil Blackwell, and O'Connor, J, 1987, The meaning of crisis: A theoretical introduction. New York and Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  37. Poster, M., 1982. Foucault and history. Social Research, 49(1): 116-142.
  38. Price, W., 2007. The abolition of the state: Anarchist and marxist perspectives. Bloomington IN: Author House.
  39. Price, W., 2010. Anarchism and socialism: Reformism or revolution? , Edmonton, Alberta: Thoughtcrime Ink.
  40. Rasmussen, 1988. The final foucault. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp: 1-20.
  41. Schumpeter, J., 1934/, 1983. The theory of economic development: An inquiry into profits, capital, credit, interest, and the business cycle. trans. by R. Opie. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
  42. Schumpeter, J., 1994/1942. Capitalism, socialism and democracy. London: Routledge.
  43. Sibley, D., 1995. Geographies of sxclusion: Society and difference in the West. London: Routledge.
  44. Tushman, M.L. and P. Anderson, 1986. Technological discontinuties and organizational environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31: 439-465.
  45. Van Der Walt, L. and M. Schmidt, 2009. Black flame: The revolutionary class politics of anarchism and syndicalism; counterpower. Oakland CA: AK Press, 1.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article