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Listing 108 - 20 of 2271 results.

State and Evolution of Public and Private Research and Development in Bulgarian Agriculture

Research Article
Author(s): Hrabrin Bachev
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Despite the great theoretical and practical significance, in Bulgaria there are no comprehensive analysis of the state and evolution of agrarian research and development (ARD) activities in public and private sectors. The goal of this paper is to analyze the state and evolution of ARD in Bulgaria during the period after country’s EU accession in 2007, identify major trends in that area, make a comparison with other EU states, specify main problems, and suggest conclusions for improvement of policies during next programing period. The analysis has found out that in years of EU membership the expenditures for ARD significantly decreased absolutely and relatively as a share in the total expenditures for R&D, which indicates diminishing importance, and deteriorating financial, personnel and material potential of agrarian knowledge and innovation sector. The most important sector for ARD in the country is the government in which more than 80% of overall expenditures for ARD are invested, as distribution of expenditures and organization of R&D in major sectors differ considerably from other EU member states. ARD in the country mainly are funded by the state budget, and the importance of budget financing relatedly increases during the period, unlike trends in other EU countries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the state and evolution of agrarian research and development activities in public and private sector in Bulgaria during country’s membership in the European Union and compare it with other member states.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 03-2020 Issue: 1

Analysis of Social Media Utilization by Students in Higher Education: A Critical Literature Review of Ghana

Research Article
Author(s): John Demuyakor
Journal: Journal of New Media and Mass Communication

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Abstract
Social media has drastically changed the communication perspective of the world through different aspects, both positively and negatively. The existence of social media has made it easy for scholars and non-scholars to pass information in the form of communication as well as has boosted businesses through online advertising and selling. Social media is enhanced by different aspects and forms of technology hence it is safe to say the two go hand in hand in depicting a social and now our academic world. Social media and Institutions of Higher Education work together to explore different skills including critical thinking, collaborations, and knowledge construction. This means that students, lecturers, and professors benefit differently from social media. For instance, in certain countries, social media is accepted as a tool for teaching and learning. Ideally, through social media, one is able to attend online classes without necessarily appearing physically at the lecture hall. In a country like Ghana, social media has paved ways to very many teachers and students in higher educational institutions who have benefited differently. This paper focuses on a literature review of social media utilization by students in higher educational institutions in Ghana. Other concepts of social media will also be explored including the positive and negative effects of social media on students and professors in tertiary education.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by logically analyzing the utilization of the social media by students in the higher education institutions in Ghana. Therefore, it documents how the social media tools can be used to promote teaching and learning as a well as its effects on education across the globe.
Social Sciences » Journal of New Media and Mass Communication » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

An Eleven Years Analysis of the Seasonal Dynamics of Urban Heat Island (UHI) Intensity (2004-2014)

Research Article
Author(s): Jatau, Sarah, Mmaduka Louis, Obidike Emeka Esae
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Urban heat island (UHI) intensity is the characteristic warmth of both the atmosphere and lithosphere in urban areas compared to its rural surrounding areas. This study observed the seasonal dynamics of UHI in Coventry city. ArcGIS was used to collect the land surface temperature (LST) of different seasons; summer, autumn, spring and fall using the peak month to represent each season. These data was collected during the night times to avoid cloud cover and limit other impeding factors for accurate data collection and results. The data was collected for a period of 11years that is 2004-2014. The study revealed that there was no regular pattern of UHI across the four seasons, however, it was discovered that there was a marginal increase in temperature in some regions during the seasons. To mitigate UHI effects this study recommends the planting of trees to moderate the microclimate as well as the use of green roofs to absorb more of CO² thereby modifying and regulating the climate.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on urban heat Island Intensity. Using ArcGIS and land surface temperature, the study observed the seasonal dynamics of UHI intensity in Coventry City with a marginal increase in temperature in some seasons; it therefore recommends the planting of trees to moderate the climate.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 01-2020 Issue: 1

Developing Strategy Use and Language Performance through Implicit Strategy Training

Research Article
Author(s): Muhammad Sukirlan, Patuan Raja, Ag. Bambang Setiyadi, Fitri Agustine
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
More studies advocate explicit strategy training and a few studies agree that training strategies should be integrated in language learning. The present study reports on the implementation of an implicit strategy training for metacognitive strategies in the context of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) setting in Indonesia. In the study which involved 37 senior high school students, strategies were measured using a questionnaire based on a seven - point Likert scale comprising of metacognitive strategies for the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. To find out the effect of implicit learning strategy training on students’ learning strategy use, a paired sample t-test was used to compare the data taken from the students’ learning strategy questionnaire. An English proficiency test was also administered for the purpose of the identification of the students’ proficiency in English before and after the treatment, and to correlate them with the use of metacognitive strategies. The findings indicate that there was a trend towards students using metacognitive strategies of the four language skills more frequently after they were trained to use such strategies implicitly. In particular, the study reveals that the language learners significantly improved their use of metacognitive strategies in writing, and the use of metacognitive strategies in writing was significantly correlated to students’ writing performance. The study suggests that language learners could improve their language performance through the improvement of strategy use in implicit strategy training.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few that have investigated the implementation of implicit strategy training for metacognitive strategies in the context of EFL learning. The paper’s primary contribution is that the students used metacognitive strategies of the four language skills more frequently after implicit strategy training.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 2

Dynamic Modelling of 3-RUS Spatial Parallel Robot Manipulator

Research Article
Author(s): Nguyen Hong Quang, Nguyen Van Quyen, Do Trung Hai, Nguyen Nhu Hien
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
Parallel manipulators are characterized as having closed-loop kinematic chains. Parallel robots have received increasing attention due to their inherent advantages over conventional serial mechanism, such as high rigidity, high load capacity, high velocity, and high precision. A definite advantage of parallel robots is the fact that, in most cases, actuators can be placed on the truss, thus achieving a limited weight for the moving parts, which makes it possible for parallel robots to move at a high speed. These advantages avoid the drawbacks on serial ones and make the mobile platforms of the parallel manipulators carry out higher performances. Therefore, parallel manipulators have been applied to the industrial manufacturing, flight simulation, medical resuscitation, and so on. The basis for model-based control of parallel manipulators is an efficient formulation of the motion equations. In this paper a formulation of the motion equations in redundant coordinates is presented for parallel manipulators. The fully coupled non-linear equations of motion of 3-RUS spatial parallel manipulator having 3 DOF with Revolute-Universal-Spherical joints are obtained by using the Lagrange equations with multipliers for constrained multibody systems.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper presented the modelling of motion for 3-RUS spatial parallel manipulator by using the redundant generalized coordinates and the Lagrangian multipliers. A novel formulation of Coriolis/centrifugal matrix is constructed directly in matrix based manner by using Kronecker product. The skew symmetry property of dynamic model of robot manipulators is guaranteed by the proposed Coriolis/centrifugal matrix. Then, the equations of motion in DAEs form were transformed to ordinary differential equations.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

XBRL Adoption: An Examination on the Malaysian Business Reporting System (MBRS)

Research Article
Author(s): Azleen Ilias, Erlane K Ghani, Nasrudin Baidi, Rahida Abdul Rahman
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
In 2018, Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that are registered with the Companies Commission of Malaysia (SSM) in Malaysia are required to prepare their annual return using eXensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) via Malaysian Business Reporting System (MBRS), followed by voluntary submission of financial reports and statements in 2019. This study seeks to explore if practitioners are aware of and fully understand MBRS. This study also investigates the level of MBRS preparation among the companies. In addition, this study examines the practitioners’ readiness, intention to use and experience in using MBRS. Finally, the factors influencing MBRS adoption among the practitioners will be examined. Using a questionnaire survey as the research instrument, the data shows that there are improvements to be made in regards to the understanding, readiness and intention to use the MBRS which is requirement by SSM. Additionally, this study shows how optimism, innovativeness, discomfort and insecurity influence the intention to use MBRS in the future. The finding indicate that an XBRL adoption via MBRS received a more positive response from the practitioners and hence, signals a possible successful XBRL adoption in Malaysia. This in turn, ensures the stakeholders a high quality financial reporting.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by examining the practitioners’ readiness, intention to use and experience in using MBRS.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 2

High-Sensitivity Testing of Effectiveness of Citrus Limon, Vitis Vinifera and Citrus Sinensis in the Postharvest Control of Callosobruchus Maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Infestation of Cowpea Seeds

Research Article
Author(s): Godfrey M. Petgrave, Usman Zakka, Luke C. Nwosu, Owolabi M. Azeez, Victor C. Okereke, Uwaoma O. Aguwa
Journal: International Research Journal of Insect Sciences

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Abstract
Traditional control tactics are commonly employed against stored-product insects and mites in developing countries. Therefore, at economically justified dose of 1.0% (w/w), the biological activities of dry peel powders of three citrus species were evaluated in laboratory conditions (30oC, 77.8% r.h.) against Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infesting cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp seeds in storage. The dry peel powder of the three citrus fruit species (the lemon, Citrus limon; the common grape vine, Vitis vinifera; sweet orange, Citrus sinensis) had contact toxicity on the C. maculatus insect pest and affected its biological traits in a trial that used ten varieties of cowpea. Citrus limon caused the highest adult mortality at 24 h high-sensitivity exposure time and this differed significantly from mortalities caused by the other citrus species. The same results were obtained for oviposition, adult emergence and seed damage. The pooled mean toxic effect of C. limon on the store-product pest was comparable to cypermethrin standard insecticide in 24 h. Trials using pure compounds have shown that limonene is responsible for C. limon toxicity. Powders of the citrus materials were effective in this order lemon > grape vine > sweet orange; the effect reduced by 50% across the test materials. Citrus limon dry peel powder should be used solely to protect seeds of cowpea in stores against infestation and damage by C. maculatus. It should also be incorporated into the integrated pest management system for the control of C. maculatus infestation in stored cowpea.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the toxic effect of Citrus limon on C. maculatus infesting cowpea seeds in storage was comparable to cypermethrin standard insecticide under high-sensitivity test condition.
Agricultural Sciences » International Research Journal of Insect Sciences » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Two Stubborn Storage Insect Pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais: Biology, Food Security Problems and Control Strategies

Research Article
Author(s): Luke C. Nwosu, Owolabi M. Azeez, Akubuike N. Eluwa, Godfrey M. Petgrave
Journal: International Research Journal of Insect Sciences

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Abstract
This review work contributes to the biology, food security problems and control strategies of two stubborn storage insect pests, the cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius) and the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky). The beetles have high destructive capacity and therefore require control tactics that are rapidly effective and at the same time safe for man and his environment. The biology will evoke inspirations to devise efficient control tactics. The C. maculatus adult is small and measures 2.5 to 3.5 mm in length, compact, brownish, possesses serrated and un-clubbed antennae, relatively long legs, a pair of distinct and toothed ridges on the ventral side of each hind femur. Whereas, S. zeamais adult measures between 3.0 to 3.5 mm long and it is easily identified by its prominent protruded snout or rostrum. Cowpea varieties most common for C. maculatus to lay their eggs are black eyed peas, mung beans and adzuki bean and when more than one host is available; the insect chooses its host depending on the variety- size of the bean and texture of the seed coat. It was revealed that under certain storage conditions, S. zeamais shows preference to products which are not maize. Application of the efficient control tactics will ensure food security of cowpea seeds and maize grains in storage.
Contribution/ Originality
This review work discusses the biology, food security problems and control strategies of two stubborn storage insect pests, the cowpea bruchid and the maize weevil.
Agricultural Sciences » International Research Journal of Insect Sciences » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

The Relationship between Tourism and Economic Growth: Evidence from Oceania

Research Article
Author(s): Anh Tru Nguyen
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
The article aims to examine the relationship between tourism and economic growth in four Oceanian countries between 1998 and 2017 using a VAR model. Results showed that international tourism receipts have a positive relationship with international tourism arrivals. Further, international tourism arrivals positively affect GDP growth rate, but international tourism receipts have a negative influence on GDP growth rate. These imply that economic growth of four Oceanian countries depends on the quantity of international tourists rather than expenditures of international visitors in domestic markets. In the short run, there is a directional relationship running from international tourism arrivals to international tourism receipts; from GDP growth rate to tourism arrivals; and from GDP growth rate to tourism receipts. In the long run, there is a relationship among variables at the 1% critical value and the 5% critical value. Lastly, we recommend that the tourism sector in the region should be improved to exploit expenditures of international tourists.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by clarifying the causal relationship between tourism and economic growth in four Oceanian countries between 1998 and 2017, using a vector autoregressive model.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Application of Interval Valued Fuzzy Soft Max-Min Decision Making Method

Research Article
Author(s): Rana Muhammad Zulqarnain, Muhammad Saeed, Bagh Ali, Nadeem Ahmad, Liaqat Ali, Sohaib Abdal
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
In this paper, we study some basic concepts of fuzzy sets, soft sets, fuzzy soft sets, and interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. Secondly, we study the interval-valued fuzzy soft max-min decision-making function and developed the graphical model for the Interval-valued fuzzy soft max-min decision making (IVFSMmDM) method by using Interval-valued fuzzy soft max-min decision-making function. Finally, we used IVFSMmDM for faculty selection in the education department and observed that T4   is the best teacher for teaching by using hypothetical data.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes a new graphical model for IVFSMmDM by using interval-valued fuzzy soft max-min decision-making function and used for faculty selection in the education department.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Antibacterial Sensitivity Profile of Lactobacillus Species and Characterization of Aflatoxin Producing Fungi Isolated from Yam and Plantain Flour

Research Article
Author(s): Ozabor Praise Temilade, Olaitan Janet Olubukola, Wahab Abideen Akinkunmi, Hammed Oluwafunmilayo Rukayat
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This study investigated the beneficial effects of fermenting microorganisms as well as the presence of aflatoxins in milled flour samples. Thermotolerance, pH tolerance, phenol tolerance, temperature sensitivity, in-vitro antimicrobial potentials of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates and aflatoxin detection in the milled flour sample were analyzed. LAB isolates were identified and characterized as Lactobacillus species using standard procedures. Probiotic properties and antimicrobial activity of LAB isolates were investigated using standard methods. In addition, quantitative and qualitative detection of aflatoxins in the milled flour samples were also studied. The results showed that all the LAB isolates were Lactobacillus species which survived in high temperature range of 50 0C-60 0C, acidic pH (pH 2, 3, 4 and 5), phenol tolerance (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4%). In -vitro antimicrobial properties of the LAB species (PSEO1 and PSEO4) showed that they were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli(ATCC 43816) and Klebsiella pneumoniae(25922) with the corresponding zones of inhibition: 25mm and 20 mm. Due to the effect of storage time (6 months), yam and plantain flour samples moisture content yielded 9.50% and 9.20% with the corresponding total number of aflatoxins: 859.3 and 899.0. In conclusion, LAB species isolated from yam and plantain flour samples have probiotic potentials. Moreover, the longer the storage time, the higher the number of aflatoxins. Thus, they should be consumed within the shortest time possible to avoid caking and moisture accumulation which tends to decrease the number of beneficial microbes present in them.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the inherent probiotic bacteria isolated from yam and plantain flour. These microorganisms enhance the improvement of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, storing these food products in a humid-free environment will prevent moisture accumulation and aflatoxin contamination. This in turn reduces the risk of food-borne intoxications.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Inflation, Oil Revenue, and Monetary Policy Mix in an Oil-Dependent Economy: Empirical Insights from the Case of Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Stephen Taiwo Onifade, Mehmet Alagoz, Savas Erdogan, Olalekan Obademi
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Oil revenues in many nations have remained largely unstable owing to factors like volatility in global oil prices and output regulations among other international and domestic issues, thereby affecting the stability of many oil-dependent economies. This study examines the combined impacts of oil revenue and inflation on the economic growth of Nigeria within the framework of the Autoregressive Distributed Lags models (ARDL) while incorporating selected monetary policy measures in the model to fit into the country’s inflationary scenario amidst dwindling oil revenue in recent times. The empirical result provides evidence that both oil revenue and inflation exert significant diametric impacts on economic growth in Nigeria. While the former demonstrates a positive impact on growth the latter has a negative impact within the period of the study (1981-2017). The Granger Causality test also provides complementary evidence of causality from both oil revenue and monetary policy measures to growth. Considering the vulnerability of oil revenue to external shocks, we strongly recommend mapping out of aggressive diversification program to reduce the current huge dependence on oil proceeds while the monetary authorities keep close tabs on regulating the monetary environment to efficiently mitigate the negative impacts of inflation to facilitate sustainable growth in the long-run.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses a flexible empirical methodology that produces more accurate and robust estimates, thus providing timely insights and contributions to the existing literature on growth vis-à-vis the challenges of managing inflation in Nigeria amidst the dwindling oil revenues in recent times.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 02-2020 Issue: 2

Green Synthesis, Characterization and Larvicidal Activity of Cu/Ni Bimetallic Nanoparticles Using Fruit Extract of Palmyra Palm

Research Article
Author(s): Wilson Lamayi Danbature, Zaccheus Shehu, Abigail John Mai, Buhari Magaji, Muhammad Mustapha Adam, Musa Aminu Bunu
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
The mixture of Cu2+/Ni2+ solution was reduced to Cu/Ni BMNPs using fruit extract of Palmyra palm as a green reducing agent. The formation of Cu/Ni BMNPs noticed based on the visual change in color of the reaction mixture at room temperature from sky-blue to light blue within 15 min. UV-Visible and Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrophotometers were applied to investigate the Optical properties as well as the interaction between the formed Cu/Ni hybrid nanoparticles and the raw fruit extract respectively. These Cu/Ni BMNPs were evaluated for larvicidal potency against first, second and third instars of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvicidal studies were carriedout at the concentration range of 5-50 mg/L (Cu/Ni BMNPs) and the %mortality increases with increase in concentration for all the instars. The result showed good activity where the lethal concentration values herein for the three instars were LC50=14.75, LC90=83.96; LC50=18.25, LC90=258.83; LC50=18.50, LC90=331.50 mg/L respectively. Therefore, Cu/Ni BMNPs could be a potential future nanolarvicide for Culex quinquefasciatus.
Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of a very few studies which have investigated fast green synthesis of Cu/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles and its larvicidal activity against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Evaluation of Iranian Chemical Industries

Research Article
Author(s): Malek Hassanpour
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
The chemical industry is part of the industries, which supply the chemicals needed by other industries through the conversion of raw materials into the required products. The current cluster study of Iranian Chemical Industries (ICI) encompassed all input and output materials streams, ICI energy demands and technologies applied based on the assessment carried out by both Iranian Industries Organization (IIO) and Iranian Environment Protection Agency (IEPA). Then the raw data were empirically evaluated via traditional to novel decision-making models, SPSS software and Excel 2013 to make a decision about the classification of ICI and pave the way for further industrial ecology studies in a certain cluster as the objective of current research. T-test analysis had presented no significant difference among the main criteria of ICI such as the number of staff, power, water, and fuel demands and the land area occupied by ICI individually. Finally, the obtained values in the weighing and ranking systems and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was composed to classify ICI as a cluster ranking and prioritized them from the highest weighting value and efficiency score to the lowest one based on the main criteria and an inventory of availability.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of industrial projects conducted by the Iranian evaluator team. The screening of ICI scrutinized the existing properties of projects as a first report. The methodology employed traditionally to new decision-making models towards sustainable development of projects.
Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Effect of Different Extraction Solvents on the Antimicrobial Activity of Psidium Guajava (Guava) Leaves against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria Implicated in Nosocomial Infections

Research Article
Author(s): Fadahunsi Ilesanmi Festus, Oyeniran Opeyemi Goodness, Ozabor Praise Temilade
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This present work was designed to investigate the effect of different extraction solvents on the antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava leaves against some multidrug resistant bacteria in nosocomial infections. The MDR isolates such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Bacillus cereus were obtained from Microbiology department culture collection of Department of Microbiology University of Ibadan Nigeria and their identities reconfirmed using biochemical methods. The antimicrobial activities of the different solvent extracts were tested using agar well diffusion method while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts were monitored using the double fold dilution method. The results reconfirmed the identities of the bacteria as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Bacillus cereus. Methanol extracts at a concentration of 160 mg/ml showed the highest inhibition zone of 10.0±0.1mm followed by ethyl acetate extract with 8.0±0.6mm inhibition zone against E.coli which were significantly different (P<0.05) while N-hexane, cold and hot water showed zero inhibition zones. Ofloxacin and DMSO. showed 20.0±0.and 0.00 mm inhibition zones respectively. This trend was observed at all the other concentrations. Methanol and ethyl acetate had MIC of 40.0 mg/ml for E. coli, S. saprophyticus, P.aeruginosa and B. cereus and they showed MBC of 80.0mg/ml for E. coli, S. saprophyticus, P.aeruginosa and B. cereus and MBC of 40.0 mg/ml for S. Epidermidis. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts could be employed in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by MDR bacteria.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that Psidium guajava (guava) leaf extracts can be used for the treatment of some multi-drug resistant bacteria implicated in nosocomial infections. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves possess the greatest antimicrobial activity due to the high sensitivity of the MDR organisms.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Application of Ant Algorithm for Software Optimization

Research Article
Author(s): Shafagat Mahmudova
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
Different technologies, methods and algorithms are used when developing high-quality software systems. There are various ways to create optimal software. One of them is an ant algorithm. The ant algorithm can be attributed to the field of biomimetic. Ant algorithm is one of the most effective polynomial algorithms for finding approximate solutions, and it also solves similar route search problems in graphs. Various methods, including the ant algorithm, are used to improve software efficiency and optimize it. The essence of the concept is to analyze, use, and meta-heuristically optimize the behavior of ants in search of paths to the food source of the colony. This article analyzes the studies in this area, and explains the idea of the algorithm used, compares different ant systems, shows program code operators as ants, and applies the ant algorithm to them. As a result of applying the algorithm, the shortest path to some operators (cycle, condition) contained in the program code is found. The experiments perform good results.
Contribution/ Originality
The ant algorithm, various methods including the ant algorithm was studied. Analyzes the studies in this area, and explains the idea of the algorithm used, compares different ant systems, shows program code operators as ants, and applies the ant algorithm to them.
Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Interactive Algorithms for the Verification of the Equality between Complex and Simplified Boolean-Algebra Expressions in Digital Decoders

Research Article
Author(s): Tochukwu Arinze Ikwunne, Samuel Obiora Okide
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
This work highlights the use of an algorithm in evaluating and verifying a complex Boolean expression that are used in fabricating digital decoder systems. Digital decoders are built by human beings and, unfortunately, humans make mistakes. Both design errors and faulty implementation may lead both the hardware and software components of systems to behave in unexpected ways, which in turn may lead to business losses and even risky situations. Karnough maps, Boolean algebra theorems and laws are some of the techniques that can be used to simplify and reduce complex Boolean algebra expressions and truth table can be used to confirm that the reduced Boolean algebra expression is the same as the original, complex Boolean algebra expression. However, generating the truth table manually is tedious, especially when the Boolean algebra equation or expression has many Boolean variables. Therefore, this work presents novel algorithms to verify and evaluate complex Boolean expression from the fabricated decoder circuit.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the importance of using an algorithmic approach in checking and evaluating the equality of a complex Boolean expression and its simplified form from the fabricated decoder circuit. This is to ensure that the hardware and software systems are designed with reduced or no errors.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Ammonia Variations in Owerri Metropolis and Ecological Impact

Research Article
Author(s): Nnadozie, C.F., Nkwoada A.U., Akagha C.I.
Journal: Journal of Atmosphere

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Abstract
Ammonia emissions inventory is rarely reported in Nigeria and when at high levels is toxic to animals including humans. It is instructive to evaluate the levels of ammonia in metropolitan area as a priority to promote a clearer understanding of its distribution and interaction. The study investigated the levels of ammonia in different parts of Owerri Metropolis and its ecological impact. Ambient atmospheric NH3 concentrations have been measured for Owerri metropolis, away from point sources, for a period of three consecutive months in 2018 calendar year. Measured lowest mean NH3 concentrations have been in August at 0.04633 mg/L, which exceeded the critical loads and occupation exposure limits. There has been no significant change in the spatial variation in NH3 concentrations between the months albeit different locations varied significantly. The ecosystems where lichens and bryophytes are key species within the studied area may be under threat from loss of biodiversity while levels of human exposure to NH3 are completely unacceptable and require reducing and controlling measures. Hence, excess ammonia will induce elevated nitrification and denitrification driving higher greenhouse gas emissions.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the levels of ammonia in a metropolitan area in Nigeria. The findings shows relatively high levels of ammonia, which if not controlled might increase to levels that disrupts human health and ecosystem balance.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Journal of Atmosphere » Month: 03-2020 Issue: 1

Numerical Computation of Fitzhugh-Nagumo Equation: A Novel Galerkin Finite Element Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Hazrat Ali, Md. Kamrujjaman, Md. Shafiqul Islam
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
The key objective of this research paper is to find the numerical solution of the famous FitzHugh-Nagumo equation. The numerical scheme used here is the Galerkin finite element method (GFEM) in a simple and convenient way. Because the advantages of using GFEM are that it can be used directly without any linearization or any other restrictive assumption, it uses shape functions instead of trial functions, and it gives a polynomial at each point instead of value, so it can be used to find value at any point within the domain. First we derive the detail formulation of GFEM for this nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation. Then we solve the FitzHugh-Nagumo equation for various values of. Later, we solve another renowned Newell-Whitehead equation for the verification of the consistency of this algorithm. The results are depicted both graphically and numerically. All results are compared with the analytical solutions to show the convergence of the proposed algorithm. Those results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm works efficiently and gives a very good agreement with the exact solution. This can be applied for solving any nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation (PDE).
Contribution/ Originality
The study uses the new estimation methodology for approximating the numerical solution of the well-known FitzHug-Nagumo equation by GFEM. It is also remarked that this study is one of very few studies which have approximated the famous F-N partial differential equation using a new technique.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Effect of Brand Enhancement on Buying Behavior towards the Sport Sponsorship Companies in Riyadh, KSA

Research Article
Author(s): Iyad A. Al-Nsour
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The study aims at measuring the effect of the brand enhancement on the buying behavior toward the sponsor companies in Riyadh as well as determining the statistical differences in the brand enhancement and buying the brand according to demographics such as gender, education and age. The research population consists of all Saudi fans of the sport activity in Saudi Arabia. The total research population in Riyadh 2017 reaches 1.32 million. The purposive sampling method is used and the calculated sample size reaches 385 of the sports audience. The study concludes that brand enhancement has a positive significant effect on buying the brand of the sponsor companies. The study finds that there are no statistical differences in rand enhancement and buying the brand according to all demographical variables. Finally, the study suggests a set of recommendations and implications that support the brand enhancement of the sponsor companies in Riyadh city.
Contribution/ Originality
This study in one of very few studies which investigated the relationship between brand enhancement and purchasing behavior toward the sponsors companies. The online survey by the researcher finds that there is an ambiguous in defining the suggested relationship epically in Saudi market.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 02-2020 Issue: 2