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Animal Review

June 2020, Volume 7, 1, pp 14-18

Essential and Toxic Metals Determination in Imported and Fresh Beef Cattle Meat Sold in Erbil Markets

Azad B. Sabow


Nithal Y. Yakub


Shawnm J. Saleh

Azad B. Sabow 1 ,

Nithal Y. Yakub 1 Shawnm J. Saleh 1 
  1. Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture Engineering Sciences, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. 1

Pages: 14-18

DOI: 10.18488/

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Article History:

Received: 20 May, 2020
Revised: 29 June, 2020
Accepted: 31 July, 2020
Published: 26 August, 2020


Meat of cattle (beef) constitutes a greater percentage of red meat in human diets because of its nutritive value and palatability. However, it can be contaminated with heavy metals just like other food materials. Heavy metals are very harmful due to their ability to accumulate in human body. Thus, this examination is completed to decide the heavy metals levels in frozen beef cattle meat obtained from different markets and fresh meat collected randomly from local beef cattle (Iraqi) and imported beef cattle (Brahman) at slaughterhouse in Erbil city. The result showed that the concentrations of most studied heavy metals were found to be significantly higher in imported frozen boneless beef cattle meat than those of fresh boneless meat obtained from local and imported cattle. The results also reveal that the concentrations nickel and lead metals in imported frozen cattle beef meat surpassed as far as possible set by Food and Agricultural Organization. The burden of the body with these components is extremely reliant on the concentration of the different components in main sources of animal protein, namely meat obtained from cattle. Therefore, people that consume imported beef cattle meat are probably going to be presented to higher nickel and lead concentrations and might be harmful to the health.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the concentration of some essential and toxic metals in imported and local cattle meat sold in the markets of Erbil city, with emphasis on hygienic and toxicological aspects.


Beef cattle meat, Contamination, Essential metals, Erbil city, Spectrometer, Toxic metals.


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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Authors special thanks and much appreciation goes to the workers in slaughterhouse, Erbil-Iraq for their kindness and cooperation.

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