Journal of Food Technology Research

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No. 2

Preservative Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) Extract and Citric Acid and Pasteurization on the Nutritional Quality and Shelf Life of Tiger-Nut Non-Dairy Milk

Pages: 202-211
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Preservative Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) Extract and Citric Acid and Pasteurization on the Nutritional Quality and Shelf Life of Tiger-Nut Non-Dairy Milk

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.202.211

Olasunmbo A. Ajayi , Toluwalope I.Bankole

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Olasunmbo A. Ajayi , Toluwalope I.Bankole (2020). Preservative Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) Extract and Citric Acid and Pasteurization on the Nutritional Quality and Shelf Life of Tiger-Nut Non-Dairy Milk. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(2): 202-211. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.202.211
Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) non-dairy milk is a plant milk and a rich source of nutrients. However, milk from animal or plant is highly perishable. The focus of this study was to evaluate the influence of inclusion of preservatives and pasteurization on the quality of tiger nut milk. Five samples were produced: control (0 % preservative); natural preservatives (ginger or tumeric extract); combination of ginger and turmeric and manufactured citric acid. Samples were stored at room and refrigeration temperatures and evaluated for 30 days. Analyses performed include physico-chemical and nutritional composition, microbial load and general acceptability of tiger nut non-dairy milk samples using standard methods. Tiger nut non-dairy milk without preservative was generally accepted, while milk with ginger extract scored higher in appearance. Values ranged from (5.9 - 6.1), (5.2 - 6.8), (4.8 - 6.5); and (0.05 - 0.17 %); (0.04 – 0.15%); (0.05 – 0.17 %) for 0; 15 and 30 days respectively for pH and total titratable acidity. Total viable counts were (<1 to 5.9±1.8ax106 CFU/mL); enterobacteriaceae, (<1 to 5.4±0.7ax106 CFU/mL), Staphylococcal (3.3±1.0d x105 to 4.2±0.9bx106 CFU/mL) and fungal (<1 to 4.5±0.5ax106 CFU/mL). Moisture content (85.6 to 87.8 %), protein (3.7 - 4.3 %), ash (0.7– 1.8 %), crude fat (3.5 – 4.57 %). Sodium and potassium content ranged from (178.2 - 431.9 mg/kg) and (52.5– 416.2 mg/kg) respectively. The L* value ranged from (75.2–79.7). Conclusively, tiger nut non-dairy milk with natural preservative was as effective as manufactured citric acid in reducing the microbial content and maintaining the nutrients.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature to the versatility of underutilized Tigernut. This crop can be converted to several food products including non-dairy milk. Natural preservative extracts were effective in preserving this nutritious plant milk. Preserving plant milk with turmeric extract is a novel idea to our knowledge.

Assessment of the Processing Effects of Fresh Solanum Anguivi Berries on Biochemical Contents and Functional Properties of Powder

Pages: 189-201
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Assessment of the Processing Effects of Fresh Solanum Anguivi Berries on Biochemical Contents and Functional Properties of Powder

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.189.201

Bio Sigui Bruno BAMBA , Marie Stella Hermance AKRE , N Guessan Ysidor KONAN , Ayemene Cedrick Ardin KOMENAN , Joelle-Annabelle N GOUIN , Yade Rene SORO

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Bio Sigui Bruno BAMBA , Marie Stella Hermance AKRE , N Guessan Ysidor KONAN , Ayemene Cedrick Ardin KOMENAN , Joelle-Annabelle N GOUIN , Yade Rene SORO (2020). Assessment of the Processing Effects of Fresh Solanum Anguivi Berries on Biochemical Contents and Functional Properties of Powder. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(2): 189-201. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.189.201
Solanum anguivi is used as food and medicine for numerous health-benefiting effects. However, it is highly perishable due to its high moisture content. To avoid post-harvest losses, sun-drying is the common preservation method used from tropical countries. Unfortunately, this method faces uncomfortable applying during harvest period usually holding in rainy seasons. This study aims to investigate the effect the of oven-drying temperature (60, 80, and 100°C) combining with or not blanching (80 °C for 10 min) compared to the sun-drying on biochemical contents (moisture, crude fiber, polyphenol, alkaloid content) and functional properties (solubility, hygroscopicity) of S. anguivi berries processed into powder. The results exhibited excellent nutritional quality of S. anguivi powder processed from the oven-drying compared to the sun-drying. In addition, the increase in oven-drying temperature significantly affected all studied properties. Sun-drying resulted in long drying delay and powder with low polyphenol content. Moreover, blanching enhanced drying effect and resulted in powder having high polyphenol and fiber content but showing low solubility and hygroscopicity. Nonetheless, oven-drying berries at 80 °C for 24h without blanching proved to be the optimal condition leading to good quality powder which demonstrated high solubility and low hygroscopicity suggesting its good utilization and preservation as functional food ingredient.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the first that proposes the oven-drying process of S. anguivi berries as an alternative to sun-drying one traditionally used in households which greatly affects its overall quality. It simultaneously documents the biochemical quality attributes and the incorporation and preservation properties of the resulting powder.

Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat

Pages: 178-188
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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.178.188

Akinyede, A. I. , Akande, M. O. , Babatuyi, C. Y. , Oguntuase, S. O.

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Akinyede, A. I. , Akande, M. O. , Babatuyi, C. Y. , Oguntuase, S. O. (2020). Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(2): 178-188. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.178.188
Bread is a major wheat product consumed in every household because of its easy handling. Fresh coconut meat which is readily available in all rural area in Nigeria may boost both the economy and provide health benefits to those in the rural area. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of wheat flour with fresh coconut meat. Wheat flour was partially (90?– 100?%) substituted with 0 –10% fresh coconut meat in the ratio 100 : 0 (WF), 98 : 2 (WFCM1), 96 : 4 (WFCM2), 94 : 6 (WFCM3), 92 : 8 (WFCM4), 90 : 10 (WFCM5). The study evaluated the effects of substitution on proximate composition, sensory characteristics, storage time on some antioxidant potential and microbial stability. Results showed that the overall acceptability of the bread baked from WFCM5 blend was preferred over WF. On the day of production, WFCM5 had the highest phenolic content and total flavonoids but as the days there were reduction in the antioxidant contents of all the bread samples. The microbial load of Nutrient agar, MacConkey agar and Potato dextrose agar increased as the days increased. The bread from the blends may serve as nutritious and potential accepted bread products. The present study confirms effective substitution of wheat flour with fresh coconut meat. The substituted bread showed improved overall acceptability, some antioxidants potentials and microbial stability which may provide health benefits to those in the rural area in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the possibility of producing bread from partial substitution of wheat flour with coconut meat and also provides information on its antioxidant potentials and microbial stability for possible health benefits to those in the rural area in Nigeria.

Quality Attributes of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Flour as Affected by Some Processing Parameters

Pages: 171-177
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Quality Attributes of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Flour as Affected by Some Processing Parameters

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.171.177

Orhevba, B. A. , Ajiboye, M. O.

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Orhevba, B. A. , Ajiboye, M. O. (2020). Quality Attributes of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Flour as Affected by Some Processing Parameters. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(2): 171-177. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.171.177
The effect of slice thickness and blanching time on some properties of yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour was investigated. The properties determined include moisture content, crude protein, ash content, crude fibre and carbohydrate; bulk density, water and Oil absorption capacity; taste, texture, appearance and aroma respectively. The yam tubers were sliced at 6, 12, 18mm, labeled samples A, B, C and D (control sample) and blanched at 650C for 5, 7 and 9 mins. They were dried at 600C and milled into flour. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using the design expert software 7.0. The results show that slice thickness and blanching time have significant effect (p<0.05) on the fat and ash content which ranged from 3.55 to 9.40% and 1.63 to 2.51% respectively. The slice thickness and blanching time did not have significant effect on moisture content, crude fibre, protein, carbohydrate, bulk density, water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity of the flour; they ranged from 3.88 to 13.15%, 0.37 to 1.34%, 0.19 to 2.04%, 74.86 to 87.94%, 0.73 to 0.79g/ml, 2.00 to 6.67g/ml, 0.5 to 7.5g/ml respectively. Organoleptic assessment shows that yam flour with slice thickness 18mm and blanched for 5min, 7min and 9 minutes were preferred by panelists in terms of appearance, aroma, texture and taste with mean of 4.6, 4.4, 3.7 and 4.3 respectively. The statistical analysis based on desirability function shows that yam flour sliced at 6mm and 12mm, blanched for 7 minutes respectively yielded yam flour with better nutritional and functional properties.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the effect of slice thickness and blanching time on the nutritional, functional and organoleptic properties of yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour. The results revealed that processing parameters affected some of the quality attributes of yam flour.

Utilization of Food Processing Technologies by Women Farmers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria

Pages: 163-170
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Utilization of Food Processing Technologies by Women Farmers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.163.170

Nzeakor, F. C. , Ukoha, J. C. I.

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Nzeakor, F. C. , Ukoha, J. C. I. (2020). Utilization of Food Processing Technologies by Women Farmers in Umuahia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(2): 163-170. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.163.170
The study focused on the utilization of food processing technologies by women farmers in Umuahia Agricultural zone, Abia State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used in selecting 120 farmers that participated in the study. Information was obtained through structured questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the data. Major results showed that the mean age and years of farming experience of farmers were 42 years and 11 years respectively, the mean income of vegetable farmers per month was N23, 375.33. Furthermore, the result showed the respondents had a mean household size of 7persons with over 95% of them having one form of education or the other. About six different food processing technologies were disseminated to farmers, out of which, five were highly utilized with a grand mean score of 3.1 on a 4-point scale. The technology on processing cassava into odourless fufu was highly utilized with a mean score of 3.5 while the technology on processing tumeric into drink had low utilization (x?=2.3). Major factors that positively influenced effective utilization of food processing technologies include Easy understanding and application of technologies (x?=3.3), Frequency of extension contacts (x?=3.1), Availability of food crops (x?=3.1), Increased income from sales (x?=3.3) among others. The inferential result showed that there is a relationship between the women farmers’ age and their level of utilization of the processing technologies in the study area. It is therefore recommended that government should assist the women to access credit facilities to boast their processing enterprise.
Contribution/ Originality
The study is one of the very few studies that investigated utilization of food processing technologies by women and the findings will be of immense help to technology developers and development agencies to adequately plan and implement programmes that will better the lots of rural women for sustainable food security.

Processing and Storage Impact on Carotenoid Contents and Functional Properties of Yellow Cassava Traditional Food Products

Pages: 154-162
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Processing and Storage Impact on Carotenoid Contents and Functional Properties of Yellow Cassava Traditional Food Products

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.154.162

Lawal, Oluranti Mopelola , Badejo, Adebanjo A , Fagbemi, Tayo Nathaniel

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Lawal, Oluranti Mopelola , Badejo, Adebanjo A , Fagbemi, Tayo Nathaniel (2020). Processing and Storage Impact on Carotenoid Contents and Functional Properties of Yellow Cassava Traditional Food Products. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(2): 154-162. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.154.162
This study determined the carotenoid content, functional properties and sensory qualities of seven cassava products (Dried chips, Attieke, Chickwangue, Fufu, Gari, Lafun and Pupuru) obtained from yellow fleshed biofortified cassava varieties (TMS 01/1371, TMS 01/1412 and TMS 01/1368) before and after processing over a 3months period of storage. Cassava products obtained from the three varieties were analysed and compared with non biofortified products. Bulk density was highest at 0.92 g-1ml in variety TMS01/1412 and lowest at 0.57 g-1ml in TMS 01/1371. Swelling capacity ranged from 25.67-51.33% while Water absorption capacity ranged from 19.33-75.33% across all the biofortified products. Carotenoid content decreased after processing and even much more after storage but modest retention recorded in variety TMS 1368. Retention of total carotenoid after the storage period was highest in Chickwangue (95%) and Fufu (92%) for variety TMS01/1368 and lowest in lafun from TMS 01/1371(25%). Overall acceptance of food products from variety 01/1368 was significantly higher among the samples hence, have potential to be the choice of biofortified cassava variety for production of cassava based food products with high retention of total carotenoid content.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to literature on valorization of yellow fleshed biofortified cassava varieties by examining the retention of total carotenoids as well as the functional properties of traditional food products from these yellow varieties for possible industrial application.

Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion

Pages: 144-153
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Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.144.153

Gervase Ikechukwu Agbara , Iliya Ishira , Litini Afodia Kassum , Hadiza Kubura Lawan

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Gervase Ikechukwu Agbara , Iliya Ishira , Litini Afodia Kassum , Hadiza Kubura Lawan (2020). Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(2): 144-153. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.144.153
The study examined the baking potential of wheat flour brands available in Nigerian markets and their performance in composite flour bread. Three flour brands were identified and selected based on availability and popularity: Dangote (DG) Bread flour, Golden penny (GP) Prime, and Honeywell(HW) Bakers Delight. Cassava (CV) and Sweet Potato (SP) flours were separately blended with each of the selected wheat flour brands in a ratio of 80:20 to obtain six formulations code named: DG, GP, HW, DGCV, DGSP, GPCV, GPSP, HWCV, HWSP. Breads were produced using AACC straight dough method. Physicochemical and sensory properties of the flours/flour blends were evaluated using approved procedures. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, total ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents of the wheat and root flours were: 5.35-10.10%, 5.78-14.52%,1.79-3.15%, 0.80-2.59%, 1.77-3.15% and 70.83-81.16% respectively. GP flour had significant higher dry gluten (19.00%), water absorption capacity (2.0ml/g) and HW flour had the highest thoroughs (95%) through 212?m sieve followed by Sweet potato (92.50%) yet none met the Codex Alimentarius standard for wheat flour particle size. The specific volumes of the wheat breads varied significantly (p<0.05) from 2.55-3.28ml/g with GP leading, although DG had though had the highest absolute volume, those of composite flour bread (2.16-2.48ml/g) were lower and GP and HW flours produced better composite flour bread with cassava in terms of specific volume. The sensory attributes of GP and HW wheat breads were rated higher which also reflected in higher scores for GPCV and HWCV breads. This study has demonstrated that GP brand of wheat flour had superior bread baking performance either alone or in a blend with 20% cassava flour. It is recommended that further study be carried out involving other brands of wheat flour and other indicators of wheat flour quality.
Contribution/ Originality
Some indices of quality for wheat flour brands available in Nigerian markets were characterized, in addition to evaluating their baking strength when blended with either cassava or sweet potato flour. The study provided decision making information for the miller and the end-user, and much needed baseline data for further study, even though the factors governing flour quality are dynamic.

Proximate and Sensory Properties of Moi-Moi Developed from Cowpea and Avocado Pear Seed Flour Blends

Pages: 136-143
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Proximate and Sensory Properties of Moi-Moi Developed from Cowpea and Avocado Pear Seed Flour Blends

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.136.143

Emelike, N.J.T. , Ujong, A.E. , Achinewhu, S.C.

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Emelike, N.J.T. , Ujong, A.E. , Achinewhu, S.C. (2020). Proximate and Sensory Properties of Moi-Moi Developed from Cowpea and Avocado Pear Seed Flour Blends. Journal of Food Technology Research, 7(2): 136-143. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2020.72.136.143
Moi-moi is a steamed cowpea based gel that is popular in Nigeria. The proximate composition and sensory properties of moi-moi produced from cowpea and avocado pear seed flour blends was investigated. Moi-moi was prepared by varying the proportion of cowpea to avocado pear seed flour in the ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The result of proximate analysis of the moi-moi samples revealed a significant decrease in the ash (1.73-1.17%), fat (2.15-0.71%), crude protein (12.33-7.18%) and carbohydrate (52.06-49.27%) contents while an increase in moisture (30.38-39.52%) and crude fibre (1.35-2.15%) contents was observed as substitution of cowpea with avocado pear seed flour increased in the blends. The control sample without avocado pear seed flour substitution was significantly different from all others except for ash in which the blend with 10 and 20% avocado pear seed flour substitution was not significantly different (p<0.05) with control sample. Results of the sensory analysis also revealed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the 100% cowpea moi-moi and all the other samples except for texture of the 10%, 20% and 30% avocado pear seed flour substitution (with mean value of 5.95, 5.85 and 5.35 respectively) and sogginess of 10% avocado pear seed flour moi-moi blends (with mean value of 5.95). This study therefore suggests that the blend of 10% avocado pear seed flour with cowpea can be used for the production of moi-moi with desirable sensory quality thereby providing an alternative way of utilizing avocado pear seed.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the possibilities of making moi-moi from the partial substitution of cowpea with Avocado pear seed flour. The acceptable level of Avocado pear seed flour to cowpea flour for moi-moi production was also established.