Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Journal of Social Economics Research

December 2020, Volume 7, 2, pp 62-71

Ethical Context of Organization and Turnover Intention of Women Employees: The Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support

Seyedeh Fatemeh Ghasempour Ganji


Lester W. Johnson


Babak Banejad


Vahid Babazadeh Sorkhan

Seyedeh Fatemeh Ghasempour Ganji 1

Lester W. Johnson 2
Babak Banejad 3
Vahid Babazadeh Sorkhan 4

  1. Ph.D. Student, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. 1

  2. Professor, Swinburne Business School, Swinburne, University of Technology, Hawthorn Victoria, Australia. 2

  3. Ph.D in Marketing Management, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran. 3

  4. Master, Islamic Azad University, Babol Branch, Iran. 4

Pages: 62-71

DOI: 10.18488/journal.35.2020.72.62.71

Share :

Article History:

Received: 12 June, 2020
Revised: 15 July, 2020
Accepted: 18 August, 2020
Published: 04 September, 2020


Previous studies found that females understand and react to behavioral factors such as ethical behaviors and organizational support different from men. As females appear to have higher senility to ethics and supportive behaviors, thus, their behavioral response including turnover intention (TI) has been gaining a vast amount of attention in literature. This study aims to examine the influence of ethical context on female employees’ turnover intentions. It also examines the mediating effect of perceived organizational support. The sample of 210 was obtained from female employees at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran using a standard questionnaire. We employ Partial Least Square Structure Acquisition Modeling (PLS-SEM) to analyze data. The results of the research demonstrate that perceived organizational support is a mediator in the link between ethical context and turnover intention. The negative direct and indirect effects of ethical context on turnover intention were also supported. Moreover, perceived organizational support negatively effect of turnover intention.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by conceptualizing the mediation effect of perceived organizational support in the relationship between ethical context and turnover intention which was not sufficiently investigated in literature.


Ethical context, Turnover intention, Perceived organizational support, University, Female employee.


Ahanchian, M., & Ganji, S. F. G. (2017). The effect of perceptions of ethical context on job satisfaction with emphasis on work values: The case of female staff at an Iranian university. International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, 8(2), 118-130.

Alkhateri, A. S., Abuelhassan, A. E., Khalifa, G. S., Nusari, M., & Ameen, A. (2018). The Impact of perceived supervisor support on employees turnover intention: The Mediating role of job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment. International Business Management, 12(7), 477-492.

Arnéguy, E., Ohana, M., & Stinglhamber, F. (2018). Organizational justice and readiness for change: a concomitant examination of the mediating role of perceived organizational support and identification. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1172.

Arokiasamy, L., Marimuthu, M., & Moorthy, M. K. (2010). A study on the perceived organizational support in the financial industry in Malaysia. A literature review. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(7), 56-72.

Arshad, H., & Puteh, F. (2015). Determinants of turnover intention among employees. Journal of Administrative Science, 12(2), 1-15.

Babic, A., Stinglhamber, F., & Hansez, I. (2015). Organizational justice and perceived organizational support: Impact on negative work-home interference and well-being outcomes. Psychologica Belgica, 55(3), 134-138.

Belcourt, M., Bohlander, G., & Snell, S. (2008). Managing human resources (5th ed.). Canada: Thomson-Nelson.

Cheng, P.-Y., Yang, J.-T., Wan, C.-S., & Chu, M.-C. (2013). Ethical contexts and employee job responses in the hotel industry: The roles of work values and perceived organizational support. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 108-115. Available at:

Chiang, C.-F., & Hsieh, T.-S. (2012). The impacts of perceived organizational support and psychological empowerment on job performance: The mediating effects of organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 180-190. Available at:

Chinomona, E., Popoola, B. A., & Imuezerua, E. (2017). The influence of employee empowerment, ethical climate, organisational support and top management commitment on employee job satisfaction South Africa. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR), 33(1), 27-42.

Cohen, G., Blake, R. S., & Goodman, D. (2016). Does turnover intention matter? Evaluating the usefulness of turnover intention rate as a predictor of actual turnover rate. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 36(3), 240-263. Available at:

Demirtas, O., & Akdogan, A. A. (2015). The effect of ethical leadership behavior on ethical climate, turnover intention, and affective commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(1), 59-67. Available at:

Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. D., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 42-51. Available at:

Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500-507. Available at:

Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I. L., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 565. Available at:

Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(1), 51059. Available at:

Engelbrecht, A., & Samuel, O. M. (2019). The effect of transformational leadership on intention to quit through perceived organisational support, organisational justice and trust. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 22(1), 1-8. Available at:

Ensari, M., Sebnem, K., & Melisa, E. K. (2016). The mediating effect of perceived ethical climate on organizational commitment, trust and turnover intention interactions: A research on insurance sector. European Law Review, 58(5), 28-46.

Ganji, E. F. G., Kafashpour, A., & Sorkhan, V. B. (2017). The effect of ethical context perceptions to the job response: emphasizing work value (case of study: Female staff at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad). Quarterly Journal of Women Studies Sociological and Psychological, 14(4), 69-94.

Ganji, S. F. G., & Ahanchian, M. R. (2016). Perception of the organization's ethical context effect on female employees’ turnover intention with work values as the moderator. Organizational Resources Management Researches, 6(3), 129-152.

Ganji, S. F. G., & Johnson, L. W. (2020). The relationship between family emotional support, psychological capital, female job satisfaction and turnover intention. Studies, 7(1), 59-70.

Ganji, S. F. G., & Kafashpour, A. (2016). A survey of the mediating role of perceived organizational support in the relationship between ethical context and female employees' job response. Sociology of Women Journal of Woman and Society, 7(327), 1-18.

Ishak, A., Hussein, A., Hussain, A., & Hamid, S. F. (2018). Entrapment of permanently employed employees: Precarious work behaviour, organizational justice & perceived organizational support. Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art & Communication. Special Education, 1364-1370. Available at: 10.7456/1080SSE/182.

Jawahar, I. M., & Hemmasi, P. (2006). Perceived organizational support for women's advancement and turnover intentions the mediating role of job and employer satisfaction. Women in Management Review, 21(8), 643-661.

Johnsrud, L. K., & Rosser, V. J. (2002). Faculty members' morale and their intention to leave: A multilevel explanation. The Journal of Higher Education, 73(4), 518-542. Available at:

Jung, H. S., Namkung, Y., & Yoon, H. H. (2010). The effects of employees’ business ethical value on person–organization fit and turnover intent in the foodservice industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(3), 538-546.

Kaptein, M. (2011). Understanding unethical behavior by unraveling ethical culture. Human relations, 64(6), 843-869.

Kim, S., Tam, L., Kim, J.-N., & Rhee, Y. (2017). Determinants of employee turnover intention. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 22(2), 1-16.

Kincaid, C. S., Baloglu, S., & Corsun, D. (2008). Modeling ethics: The impact of management actions on restaurant workers’ ethical optimism. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(3), 470-477.

Kokabi, M. (2009). Where is information ethics in Iranian library and information science publications and services? Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, 12(1), 89–94.

Lee, E., & Jang, I. (2020). Nurses’ fatigue, job stress, organizational culture, and turnover intention: A Culture–Work–Health model. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 42(2), 108-116.

Liu, C.-M., & Lin, C.-P. (2016). Corporate ethical values and turnover intention. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 23(4), 397-409.

Liu., W., Zhao, S., Shi, L., Zhang, Z., Liu, X., Li, L., . . . Jia, X. (2018). Workplace violence, job satisfaction, burnout, perceived organisational support and their effects on turnover intention among Chinese nurses in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open, 8(6), 1-20.

Mete, E. S., & Sökmen, A. (2019). The mediating role of organizational commitment in the organizational justice’s effect on job satisfaction and turnover intention. A Research on Academic Staff, Gazi Journal of Economics and Business, 5(3), 193-205.

Nakhaie, H., Shariat, H., & Kavousi, E. (2011). A survey of the relationship between organizational culture and ethical behavior of the state organizations staff in Kerman (Kerman is a city in Iran). Paper presented at the International Conference on Financial Management and Economics, IPEDR, IACSIT Press, Singapore.

Newman, A., Thanacoody, R., & Hui, W. (2011). The effects of perceived organizational support, perceived supervisor support and intra-organizational network resources on turnover intentions: A study of Chinese employees in multinational enterprises. Personnel Review, 41(1), 56-72.

Nica, E. (2016). The effect of perceived organizational support on organizational commitment and employee performance. Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics, 4(4), 34-40. Available at:

Reader, T. W., Mearns, K., Lopes, C., & Kuha, J. (2017). Organizational support for the workforce and employee safety citizenship behaviors: A social exchange relationship. Human Relations, 70(3), 362-385. Available at:

Rubel, M. R. B., Kee, D. M. H., Quah, C. H., & Rimi, N. N. (2017). Ethical climate and employee turnover intention in the ready-made garment industry of Bangladesh. Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 36(2), 61-73. Available at:

Saeed, I., Waseem, M., Sikander, S., & Rizwan, M. (2014). The relationship of turnover intention with job satisfaction, job performance, leader member exchange, emotional intelligence and organizational commitment. International Journal of Learning and Development, 4(2), 242-256. Available at:

Satardien, M., Jano, R., & Mahembe, B. (2019). The relationship between perceived organisational support, organisational commitment and turnover intention among employees in a selected organisation in the aviation industry. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(8), 11-23.

Schneider, B. (1975). Organizational climates: An essay 1. Personnel Psychology, 28(4), 447-479. Available at:

Schyns, B., Torka, N., & Gossling, T. (2007). Turnover intention and preparedness for change. Career Development International, 12(7), 660-679.

Shafer, W. E., & Simmons, R. S. (2011). Effects of organizational ethical culture on the ethical decisions of tax practitioners in mainland China. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 24(5), 647-668.

Shafer, W. E. (2002). Ethical pressure, organizational-professional conflict, and related work outcomes among management accountants. Journal of Business Ethics, 38(3), 261-273.

Shafique, M. Z., ud Din, M. Z., & Tahir, M. (2018). The effects of perceived organizational support on the turnover intention: A case study of textile sector. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(9), 547-558. Available at:

Shahzad, I. A., Farrukh, M., Kanwal, N., & Sakib, A. (2018). Decision-making participation eulogizes probability of behavioral output; Job satisfaction, and employee performance (evidence from professionals having low and high levels of perceived organizational support). World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 14(3), 321-339.

Stinglhamber, F., & Vandenberghe, C. (2004). Favorable job conditions and perceived support: The role of organizations and supervisors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(7), 1470-1493.

Tetteh, S., Wu, C., Opata, C. N., Asirifua Agyapong, G. N. Y., Amoako, R., & Osei-Kusi, F. (2020). Perceived organisational support, job stress, and turnover intention: The moderation of affective commitments. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 30(1), 9-16. Available at:

Trevino, L. K. (1990). A cultural perspective on changing and developing organizational ethics. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 4(2), 195-230.

Treviño, L. K., Butterfield, K. D., & McCabe, D. L. (1998). The ethical context in organizations: Influences on employee attitudes and behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8(3), 447-476.

Trevor, C. O., & Nyberg, A. J. (2008). Keeping your headcount when all about you are losing theirs: Downsizing, voluntary turnover rates, and the moderating role of HR practices. Academy of Management Journal, 51(2), 259-276. Available at:

Valentine, S., Nam, S.-H., Hollingworth, D., & Hall, C. (2014). Ethical context and ethical decision making: Examination of an alternative statistical approach for identifying variable relationships. Journal of Business Ethics, 124(3), 509-526. Available at:

Wong, Y. W., & Wong, Y. T. (2017). The effects of perceived organisational support and affective commitment on turnover intention. Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, 8(1), 2-21.

Xiong, R., & Wen, Y. (2020). Employees’ turnover intention and behavioral outcomes: The role of work engagement. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 48(1), 1-7. Available at:

Zeffane, R., & Bani, S. J. (2017). Trust, job satisfaction, perceived organizational performance and turnover intention: A public-private sector comparison in the United Arab Emirates. Employee Relations, 39(2), 1148-1167.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

Related Article

( 1 ) Explaining Psychological Capital Components through Organization’s Ethical Climate Components
( 2 ) Implications of Accountants Unethical Behavior and Corporate Failures
( 3 ) Ethical Context of Organization and Turnover Intention of Women Employees: The Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support
( 4 ) Taylor Rule in The Context of Inflation Targeting: The Case of Tunisia
( 5 ) The Interactions between Culture, Global Mindset and Leadership in Global Context
( 6 ) Is Brics a Viable Solution for Russia in the Context of the Present Eu’s Economic Sanctions?
( 7 ) Emotional Workgroup Performance and Group Effectiveness Egyptian Context
( 8 ) What are the Contextual Influences of Bank Criminality in Osun East Senatorial District?
( 9 ) Testing the Validity of Gibrats Law in the Context of Profitability and Leverage
( 11 ) Organizational Commitment of White Collar Employees in Damansara Heights, Kuala Lumpur
( 13 ) The Role of Strategic Planning on the Management of Organizational Change
( 14 ) The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Organizational Performance: A Study on Banks in Libya
( 15 ) Corporate Funding and Sustainability of Non- Governmental Organizations in Africa
( 16 ) How the Principles of the Sharing Economy Can Improve Organizational Performance of the US Public School System
( 17 ) Relevance of Stakeholders Theory, Organizational Identity Theory and Social Exchange Theory to Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees Performance in the Commercial Banks in Nigeria
( 18 ) Employee Loyalty and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in the Port Harcourt Area Command of the Nigeria Police Force
( 19 ) Investigating the Impact of Business Alignment on Job Gratification in an Organization: The Case of a University in Egypt
( 20 ) Effects of Socio-Cultural Diversity on the Performance of Private Health Care Organizations in Kogi State
( 21 ) Organizational Memory and Employee Performance in Federal Parastatals in Enugu State of Nigeria
( 23 ) The Effect of Disruptive Factors on Inventory Control as a Mediator and Organizational Performance in Health Department of Punjab, Pakistan
( 24 ) The Influence of Organizational Culture, Communication and Work Satisfaction on Organizational Commitments: A Case Study of Lecturers at Yayasan Pendidikan Borobudur
( 25 ) Facing the Challenges of Covid-19 in the Egyptian Banking Sector: The Role of Bricoleurs in Achieving Organizational Innovations via Learning through Improvisation
( 27 ) A Mixed-Methods Study to Explore Stage of Readiness and Intention of Micro and Small Enterprises to Adopt Mobile Money in Indonesia
( 28 ) Intention to Use E-Recruitment System: Empirical Evidence from Jobseekers in the Advertising Industry in Malaysia
( 29 ) Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?
( 30 ) Consumers’ Behavioural Intention to Adopt Mobile Banking in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa Using an Extension of Technology Acceptance Model: Lessons from Zimbabwe
( 32 ) Fear of Covid-19 and Intentions towards Adopting E-Health Services: Exploring the Technology Acceptance Model in the Scenario of Pandemic
( 33 ) Challenges and Survival Strategies for Women in Small Scale Catering Business: A Case Study of Siyaso Magaba, Mbare
( 34 ) The Wider Vision of Social Policy: Exploring the Ways of Curbing Violence against Women in Four Wards of Shamva North Constituency (Zimbabwe)
( 35 ) Entrepreneurial Networking and Women Entrepreneurs’ Contribution to Employment Creation in Rivers State, Nigeria
( 37 ) The Trajectory and Diaspora of Women Imprisonment: An Analysis
( 39 ) The Role of Women in Rural Development in Enugu State, Nigeria
( 40 ) Women in Parliament and Public Health Expenditure: Evidence from Sub-Saharan African Countries
( 43 ) Foreign Direct Investment - Growth Linkage in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is Governance a Mediating Factor?
( 44 ) The Mediating Effect of Financial Self-Efficacy on the Financial Literacy-Behavior Relationship: A Case of Generation Y Professionals
( 46 ) Relational Capabilities under Moderating and Mediating Effects to Understand their Impacts on Firm Financial Performance
( 47 ) Making Poverty A History in Africa: The Role of the G8
( 48 ) Relationships Between Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia
( 49 ) Driving Role of Institutional Investors in the Indian Stock Market in Short and Long-Run – An Empirical Study
( 50 ) The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Rural Socio-Economic Development in Africa
( 51 ) Social Security; A Public Policy for Good Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Nigerian Legislature
( 52 ) The Role of Bank Loans in Monetary Policy Transmission in Malaysia
( 53 ) Nigerian Politics, Economic Development, and the Role of Human Rights Organisations on Elections
( 54 ) Role of Foreign Investment and External Debt in Determination of Exchange Rate
( 55 ) Moderating Effects of Project Management Experience, Project Team Size, Project Duration and Project Value Size on the Relationship between Project Manager’s Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness in Malaysia
( 57 ) The Role of Social Entrepreneurship in Pakistan and its Impact on Economy
( 58 ) Industrialization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Human Capital in Structural Transformation
( 59 ) The Roles of Labour Union in Nigeria Industrial Harmony and Development
( 60 ) Foreign Direct Investment in Zimbabwe: The Role of Uncertainty, Exports, Cost of Capital, Corruption and Market Size
( 61 ) Determinants of Banks Profitability & Liquidity and the Role of BASEL III in Islamic & Conventional Banking Sector of Pakistan: A Case Study of NBP
( 62 ) Rethinking Port Role as Transport Corridor under Symbiosis Theory-Case Study of China-Europe Trade Transportation
( 63 ) The Role of Social Security Program for Enhancing Seniors Longevity
( 64 ) Trade Union Performance and Industrial Relations Climate in the Nigerian Petroleum Sector