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Listing 48 - 20 of 1962 results.

Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Maize Food in Swaziland

Research Article
Author(s): M.M. Simelane, M.B. Masuku, J.I. Rugambisa, D.M. Earnshaw
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Genetic modification has been regarded as the new techno-economic standard of the 21st century. There are a number of promised benefits that come with the technology, including that of increase in crop yield, drought tolerance, environmental friendly farming, low food prices, better taste and nutrition among others. However, the use of biotechnology in food production is one of the most controversial subjects in modern agriculture with some scientists and consumer organizations citing possibilities of GM food causing allergies and cancer in human beings among other negative environmental and ethical concerns. This study was an assessment of consumer willingness to pay for GM food in Swaziland. Data were collected across the four regions of the country, sampling 100 respondents in each region making a total sample size of 400 respondents. The respondents were primary or secondary shoppers in their households, who were above the age of 18 and have heard about GMOs. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20. The results show that there were few respondents (32%) who had objective knowledge about GMOs. However, 70% of the respondents believe that GMOs are already being sold in the local markets. A binary logistic regression model was used to analyse willingness to pay for GM maize meal. The variable that were found to be affect consumers’ willingness to pay for GMO maize food were age, knowledge level, health perception, ethical perception and environmental perception about GMOs. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of consumers’ perceptions on genetically modified food. This is the only study in conducted in Swaziland that focused on consumers, while other studies focused on farmers.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

Personalized Medicine: Futuristic Predictive Nanomedicines for Diagnosis and Therapeutics

Research Article
Author(s): Vivek P. Chavda
Journal: Genes Review

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Abstract
The concept of personalized medicine has got its credential due to the development of molecular techniques. It involves right drug & dose, right patient and with right time administration of a medication. By averting the knowledge of gene sequence and their functions, biomedical researches are diversified towards inter-individual variations that are expected to become an eminent part of treatment planning in terms of efficacy and toxic side effects of drugs. The clairvoyance of the future health care adjudicate  a system in which patient care is consistently belay by captivating information on the individual patient’s genomes and their downstream products. By combining the credentials of various disciplines such as life sciences, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and information and communication technology ameliorated this concept. These have been well addressed by the so called ‘-omics’ technology. However, assimilation of genomic data to its risk-benefit analyses and the adaptability of the patient population with certain ethical issue becomes one pillar for this and the view of the pharmaceutical industry towards this discipline.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature with a view to provide the reader the potential avenues that can be grafted using gene delivery particularly by “-omics” technology. It can be studied under two subheadings 1. Biomarker and 2. Therapeutics; which were cogently cited with example in this manuscript.
Medical Sciences » Genes Review » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

Microbiological Profile, Shelf Stability and Some Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Flour from Different Sweet Potato Cultivars

Research Article
Author(s): Ezeama C.F, Amajor J.U
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
Sweet potato flour was produced after fermentation of two cultivars (TIS87/0087 and TIS 2532.OP.1.13) of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots for 24h. The microbiological profile, pH and titratable acidity (TA) of the fermenting medium were assessed. The proximate composition and shelf stability of the ambient stored flour samples were also determined. Bacteria isolated from the fermenting medium were Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus spp, Bacillus spp and Staphylococcus aureus while the fungal isolates included Penicillium spp. Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Total Viable Count of both cultivars during fermentation differed significantly (P<0.05) only at 0h of fermentation. However, for TIS 87/0087 it ranged from 3.40 – 4.60 log10 cfu g-1 and 3.54 to 4.64 log10 cfu g-1 for TIS 2532.OP.1.13 cultivar. The lactic acid bacteria counts ranged from 2.40 to 3.60 log10 cfu g-1 for cultivar TIS87/0087 and 2.54 to 3.64 log10 cfu g-1 for cultivar TIS 2532.OP.1.13. The TA for both cultivars were observed to have increased from 0.51% to 4.96% for TIS 87/0087 and 0.40% to 4.04% for TIS 2532.OP.1.13 as fermentation progressed in relation to fall in pH. The proximate composition of flours from TIS87/0087 and TIS 2532.OP.1.13 showed low moisture content (10.76% and 11.37%), high dry matter (89.24% and 88.66%), carbohydrate (81.25% and 81.01%), protein (5.16% and 5.09%), fiber (0.76% and 0.64%) and crude lipid (0.68% and 0.47%) respectively. However, the protein and crude lipid content of TIS 87/0087 flour were higher. The fermented flour had an acceptable microbial load limit (<5log10 cfu g-1) and shelf life stability for 3 months under ambient storage. The fermented TIS 87/0087 flour can be recommended for incorporation into instant food and bakery products. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the recent Sweet potato cultivars in Nigeria, but in this, using fermentation process to improve the nutritional and microbial quality of the flours. The study had shown that the fermented flours had high nutritional and low microbial qualities.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Application of Agroforestry Techniques in the Management of Bamboo

Research Article
Author(s): Igbokwe, G. O., Zubairu, Y. G, A. G. Bello
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
This paper highlights the potential of Bamboo tree under Agroforestry management practices of the forest industry in Nigeria. Bamboo possesses a dense network of fine roots with a capacity for abundant mycorrhizal association, high rate of Nitrogen fixation, absence of toxic substances in the litter or root residues, it has the capacity to grow on poor soils as well as rapid growth rate even under competing environment. It plays a significant role in the economy by providing livelihood for the rural poor and urban dwellers thereby supporting millions of people. Its richness and diversity both as an environmental and economic species coupled with fast growing ability makes it a profitable Agroforestry tree to be studied for cultivation under the dwindling forest estate in Nigeria. 
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to the existing literature on Bamboo cultivation, it aims at the important use of Agroforestry techniques in the cultivation of the species, while  highlighting the value of the techniques both in ecological and environmental protection.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

Rural - Urban Balance as a Measure of Socio-Economic Development with Special Reference to Iran

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
The dual rural-urban imbalance is a major obstacle to integrating socio-economic development in most developing countries including Iran. The paper explores how the rural-urban balance could play as a paradigm to development in general. Dual rural-urban economic structure which refers to different growth patterns in rural and urban areas leading to a wide rural-urban gap ___ a chronic problem in many developing societies with a reference to Iran, needs to be narrowed. Iran needs to plan and build a new type of agriculture-industry and rural-urban relations in which the agricultural sector promotes and feed the industrial sector and the vice versa. The paper proposes a strategy in which agriculture and industry; rural and urban sectors benefit each other. However, rural-urban balance optimistically results in socio- economic development and integration, and on the contrary, surging urbanization leads to shrinking farmland areas. The paper discover that if rural communities are properly empowered, they can and may manage their own local development efforts.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

Teaching Hypothesis Test in an Easy Way

Research Article
Author(s): M. Shafiqur Rahman
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This paper introduced an easy way for selecting null (H0) and alternative hypotheses (H1), finding p-values and taking decisions. Should a research hypothesis or a claim be H0 or H1? This paper proposed a new method to select H0 and H1. Considering two sets of hypotheses (a) H0: θ ≤ θ0 against H1: θ > θ0 and (b) H0: θ ≥ θ0 against H1: θ < θ0 for testing a location parameter θ if the absolute value of the test statistic obtained from a sample is less than the absolute critical value then the two decisions corresponding to two sets of hypotheses (a) and (b) are contradictory. This paper proposed new methods to overcome these issues and making consistent decisions. This paper also introduced a general formula for finding P-value. These new methods and formula have been applied in an undergraduate class. It is observed that the performances of the proposed methods are significantly better than that of the traditional methods.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding an easy way for selecting null and alternative hypotheses. This study uses new three region hypothesis testing method and introduces a new formula for finding P-values. It is one of very few studies which have investigated practically the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 12-2015 Issue: 12

Measuring the Quality of Islamic Banks Services and Its Impact on Customers Satisfaction A Survey Study on the Islamic Banks Customers in Lattakia-Syria

Research Article
Author(s): Nashwa Hammoud, Mona Bittar
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study aims at exploring how Islamic banks customers assess the services provided to them and identifying the impact of the service quality dimensions of customer satisfaction. To achieve the aims of this study, a convenient sample of the customers of Islamic bank branches in Lattakia- Syria is selected. Data are collected through a questionnaire designed on the basis of the service performance approach and compliance. Data analysis is conducted via the use of exploratory factor analysis, descriptive statistics, and regression analysis. The study concluded that the quality of the services provided by Islamic banks is high in general. However, the total scores of customer satisfaction indicated a moderate satisfaction. The results also showed a significant impact of all service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction with Empathy dimension being the most effective dimension.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of the Islamic Banking through identifying the most important factors that influence customers satisfaction and determine the relative importance of the service quality dimensions of customer satisfaction. 
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Reconceptualising Student Success

Research Article
Author(s): MCN Phewa
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The phrase ’access for student success’ is familiar in the South African Higher Education (SAHE) sector since the formation of the Department of Education in 1994, a result from the desegregation of the then 17 racial departments. Numerous initiatives to address this concept have been instituted in different ways by the Higher Education (HE) institutions. These have taken the form of student support programmes which have, inter alia, included access and/or foundation provision, academic development initiatives, career development and employment preparation programmes. The University of South Africa (Unisa) has not been omitted in taking on similar initiatives. Unisa in its attempt to enhance student success offers academic development (AD) programmes such as the Science Foundation Provision (SFP), amongst others. However, academic development remains an ad-hoc activity being offered by different directorates working in silos and often times duplicating some of the services. This paper aims to present a proposal towards developing an integrated model for learner support whose objective is to identify students’ academic and career needs at the point of entry; refer them to appropriate learning and career development programmes; and thereafter enrol them in a job readiness training and placement programme (JRTP) in preparation for work-integrated learning (WIL) placements. This is a mixed methods study, involving a diagnostic academic literacies assessment, student and employer questionnaires as well as focus group discussions. Participants were ’employers’ of Unisa students in WIL programmes with and/or without the career development and JRTP experience as well as Unisa students in these programmes. It was found that most senior students view student success as obtaining a qualification, and being able to use such qualification in gainful employment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature the notion that students perceive success as a combination of obtaining good grades and employability skills which will lead them to obtaining and retaining good employment. It further hopes to contribute towards development of support programmes that integrate academic development, job-readiness and placement.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

A Cryopreservation Protocol for the Malaysian Fresh Water Microalgal Strain

Research Article
Author(s): Nor Afiqah, A., Siti Saizah, M.S., Ernie Eileen, R.R.
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Microalgae is important in many biotechnological exploitations in producing valuable products, services and processes. The technology of cryopreservation is useful in the long-term storage of many microalgal strains able to survive post cryopreservation. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris was utilised to determine the effects of different concentrations of a cryoprotectant to preserve the fresh water microalgal strain employing three types of protocol. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different concentrations of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% were added to the microalgal suspension in three types of protocol. Protocol 1 involved direct plunging into liquid nitrogen, Protocol 2 is slow cooling to -80°C and Protocol 3 is slow cooling to -20°C. The absorbance value at 540 nm was used as a measurement to determine the growth post cryopreservation. The absorbance value recorded with 30% DMSO in Protocol 2 was the highest at 0.387 + 0.015 and was significant at p<0.05 compared to Protocol 1 and 3. The best protocol for post cryopreservation growth of Chlorella vulgaris was Protocol 2 using slow cooling to -80 °C treated with 30% DMSO as the cryoprotective agent.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the use of 30% DMSO as a cryoprotectant produced the optimal results for the viability of the microalgae. This study documents that the microalgae cryopreserved using Protocol 2, which involved slow cooling in the -80°C freezer showed the best protocol in the cryopreservation of the fresh water microalgal strain.

Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Predicting Changes in the Land Use in Midsize Cities (Case Study: Urmia City of Iran in 2025)

Research Article
Author(s): Mostafa Basiri, Mina Farokhi Someh
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
The Urmia is the capital city of the Western Azerbaijan province that is an urban area and in the northwest of Iran. In recent years, the rapid increase in urban lands and areas in this city has resulted in inconsistent and extensive urban growth. The purpose of the present study is to predict the changes in the land use in midsize cities and apply this prediction on the case study of the Urmia city in Western Azerbaijan. Satellite images and IDRISI Andes have investigated the changes land use in the lands of Urmia city and were used GIS to examine the land use and changes from 1984 to 2011. Then, Markov Chain model and Cellular automate have been used in IDRISI Andes to document and propose a prospect of land use changes in the Urmia city in 2025. With respect to the land use changes, the results of the present study will indicate that the built up area in this city in 1984 was about 2706.57hectares; however, in 2011, the area of built urban zones in the same city has reached 9811.26 hectares. Hence, in 2025, it can be speculated that in the future, the area of built up will reach 12970.53 and the agricultural lands will inevitably be allocated for urban constructions; that is, in 2025, all agricultural lands will undergo a change of land use from farming into urbanization. It should be pointed out that due to the population growth in this area and the available lands, a 3000-hectare increase in the area will be needed to accommodate the increased population.
Contribution/ Originality
•This study explores the sprawl characteristics of land use/cover changes with rapid population growth and accelerating urban growth in Western of Iran.
•There were changes in land use area in midsize city.
•We have used Markov chain-CA analysis to see direction of change in land use pattern.


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Satisfaction Assessment of the Quality of Life of Urban Families and their Roles in the Development of Zabol

Research Article
Author(s): Javad Farnam, Gholam Reza Miri, Mahsume Hafez Rezazade
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Urban growth and urbanization is the most prominent feature of socio-economic developments in recent times. Therefore, along with urbanizing of the society of Iran, analysis of its consequences, including the assessment of the quality of urban life is one of the most important needs of urban studies. Accordingly, this study analyze the satisfaction of quality urban life and its role in the development of the city of Zabol. The kind of the research is applied research and its method is descriptive-analytic based on questionnaire. The statistical community is residents of the city of Zabol and the sample community are 195 people living in five districts of Zabol. The sampling method is randomly and sample size has been calculated by the Cochran method. Data and Information have been analyzed by statistical Methods of SPSS software. The overall results showed that the citizens' satisfaction with the quality of life in the city of Zabol with 2/46 of average value is less than average. The social dimension with average value of 2/67 and the Physical environmental dimension with average value of 2/33 have allocated the highest and the lowest of the citizens’ satisfaction with the quality of life respectively.
Contribution/ Originality
This study for the first time analyze the satisfaction of quality urban life and its role in the development of the city Zabol, That Data and Information have been analyzed by using SPSS software. Results showed that the quality of life in the city of Zabol is less than average.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 02-2016 Issue: 2

The Relationship Between P-Wave Velocity and Slake Durability Index

Research Article
Author(s): Mehdi Hosseini
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Many manmade structures such as tunnels, roads, bridges, dams, power plants, etc. have been built either on top or inside rocks. Therefore, it is highly crucial to determine the various parameters of rocks in construction designs. Slake durability index is one of the widely applied features in this respect. A great deal of time and money is required to prepare samples and conducts slake durability tests. For that reason, easier and less expensive methods are employed to determine slake durability index. This research project mainly attempted to propose an equation to estimate the slake durability index after the second cycle (Id2) based on the speed of sound (VP). In addition to the longitudinal wave velocity test and the Brazilian slake durability test, the point load was specified on the samples so as to further expand the study. The tests were conducted on samples of sandstone, tuffite, andesite, red sandstone, limestone, marl, marble and travertine. The simple regression yielded three separate equations, i.e. the first relationship between the slake durability index of the second cycle and velocity of longitudinal waves, the second relationship between slake durability index of the second cycle and tensile strength and the third relationship between the slake durability index of the second cycle and the point load index. The results demonstrated that the greatest coefficient of determination (R2) was in the relationship between the slake durability index of the second cycle and the velocity of longitudinal waves. The results of comparison between this relationship and those proposed by other researchers suggested that the equation offered in this paper can accurately estimate the slake durability index in a broad range of rocks.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the relationship between the sound velocity and slake durability index. This study documents that slake durability index can be estimated with a high level of accuracy by using the proposed equation. 
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 02-2016 Issue: 2

Pelvic Floor Fractures in 55 Dogs and 39 Cats: CT and X- Ray Findings

Research Article
Author(s): M.A. Sadan, K. Amort, M. Kramer
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
Radiographic examination of the pelvis is the standard diagnostic test for evaluating dogs with suspected pelvic trauma, but because of the complexity of many pelvic floor fractures and the superimposition of bony structures, a precise description of the injury can be difficult to obtain from standard radiographs. Computed tomography (CT) imaging is an important component in the pre-operative assessment and management of pelvic fractures in humans and small animal. The objective of this study was to investigate the benefits of radiographic and CT images in the diagnosis of pelvic floor fractures in dogs and cats. Our hypothesis was that CT would detect the different types of pelvic floor fracture than radiographic examination of these fractures.     Radiographic examination and CT scan of 94 traumatized cases of canine and feline pelvic floor fractures were evaluated, where CT images and radiographic assessments were performed on each case. Radiographs and CT images were reviewed on separate occasions and fracture assessments were evaluated. Of the examined 55 dogs and 39 cats, unilateral ischium fractures were the most common detectable fractures in dogs (67.92%) and in cats (72.41%) (Table 1). Different fracture lines (transverse, longitudinal and oblique fractures lines) of ischium and pubic bones were observed, they were more clear in the computed tomography than in plain radiographs. Pelvic floor fractures were associated with unilateral sacroiliac joint luxation, bilateral sacroiliac joint luxation and femur luxation and fractures of sacrum, ilium, acetabulum, femur and tibia (Table 2).
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes by way of showing the benefits of radiographic and CT images in the diagnosis of pelvic floor fractures in dogs and cats. This study documents that CT would detect the different types of canine and feline pelvic floor fracture than radiographic examination of these fractures.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

On the Component Analysis and Transformation of An Explicit Fifth – Stage Fourth – Order Runge – Kutta Methods

Research Article
Author(s): Agbeboh Goddy Ujagbe, Esekhaigbe Aigbedion Christopher
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
This work is designed to transform the fifth stage – fourth order explicit Runge-Kutta method with the aim of projecting a new method of implementing it through tree diagram analysis. Efforts will be made to represent the equations derived from the y derivatives and x,y derivatives separately on Butcher’s rooted trees. This is because the rooted trees and derived equations for the y derivatives and x,y derivatives are the same for the explicit fourth-stage fourth-order methods, hence, we are motivated to analyze the fifth-stage fourth-order method. This idea is also derivable from general graphs and combinatorics.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 04-2015 Issue: 2

A Negative Rational Pigs Game and its Applications to Website Management

Research Article
Author(s): Dianyu Jiang, Yabin Shao, Xiaoyang Zhu
Journal: Games Review

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Abstract
In order to study the balance relation between individual interests and its negative effects, based on a simple rational pigs game to allow robbing food whose negative game system is given by the axiomatic method. The research results are that a system regulation-free will lead to malignant states due to individuals’ immediate interests and that in a system with regulation, a bad equilibrium situation can change into a equilibrium situation with the best public welfare by adjusting some indices. An application to website management shows that the conclusion of this paper conforms to actual situations.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper establishes a new axiomatic theory on rational pigs game which is a negative game of a rational pigs game to allow robbing food. The theory can be used to control and to adjust players’ the selfish behavior to injure the public interest to benefit their own private interest.

Economics » Games Review » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

A Comprehensive Public-Private Partnership Concept for Resources Sustainability from a Mega-Project Management Multi-Level Perspective

Research Article
Author(s): Christopher Mulanda Aura, Farida Hassan, Melckzedeck K. Osore, Safina Musa, George Morara, Jacqueline Uku
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
This paper outlines an effective and comprehensive public-private partnership approach that has the potential to enhance natural resource management (NRM) and improve access to essential community services (CS). The paper is based on the institutional and resource-dependency theories on the management of Kenya Coastal Development Project (KCDP) community development fund (Known in Swahili as Hazina ya Maendeleo ya Pwani, HMP), financed by Kenya Government through a loan from the World Bank at the Kenya coast. The HMP fund targets CS and NRM sub projects implemented by communities in the six coastal counties. To ensure sustainability of HMP financed sub projects, the framework involved strategic planning, system design, finance usage, implementation, and connection of theory and practice based on research and interpretation. KCDP data on HMP financed community projects implemented since 2013-2015 was used in the evaluation of project performance. Counties with enhanced security, and improved socio-economic status benefit the most in the project. The coastal communities were more willing-to-contribute towards implementation of CS than NRM projects due to consumptive nature attached to the former in the short term. Gender parity in the HMP participation occurred, attracting more women than men. By careful designation of the project management framework, sustainable management of natural resources and access to most immediate needs, considered crucial by coastal residents are highly likely to be met.
Contribution/ Originality
 This study documents and discusses a comprehensive public-private partnership approach for resource mobilization and capacity building towards sustainable delivery of essential social and ecosystem services for improved wellbeing of the communities along the Kenya coast.

Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 11-2015 Issue: 11

Study of Hepatic Dysfunction in Patientsinfected with Dengue Virus

Research Article
Author(s): M. Younus, Aiysha Ejaz, Mutti-ur-Rehman Khan, Azhar Maqbool, Qamar-un- Nisa, Sanan Raza, Aman Ullah Khan
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
Dengue fever is a fatal infection affecting the lives of the patients and this study was designed to further explore its pathological effects. A total of 200 consecutives of dengue viral infection were included in this prospective descriptive study conducted at the Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore from October, 2009 to September, 2010. A special proforma was designed to collect all the relevant clinical information from each patient. All the strip positive cases of dengue virus were further confirmed by performing IgM capture ELISA and then analyzed for hepatic impairment through liver function tests including serum bilirubin, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum ALT and AST. The results were then gathered and analyzed. The already existing liver diseases like hepatitis A, B, C, E and inherited liver disorders were not included in the study. Total number of patients included in study with Dengue IgM +ve were 200. Out of 200 cases 130 were male and 70 were females. The patients were categorized into two classes according to severity of sign symptoms like puerperal rash on the body. The classes are dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The total number of DF cases was 28.50% (57/200) and number of DHF cases was 71.50% (143/200). The patients of DHF group were found to have more liver derangement that is 90.20% (128/200) while the patients belonging to DF group were at a less risk for impairment of liver function that is 9.80% (15/200). The patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever are more prone to have liver enzyme derangement and it has a direct relation with the titer IgM in the body of patients infected with dengue virus. The liver enzyme which are found to be more raised are serum ALT and AST while serum alkaline phosphatase and serum bilirubin are not markedly raised.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by exploring pathological effects of dengue fever in humans and relation with biochemical parameters. The logical analysis has primary contribution in its finding that dengue fever is more prevalent in males and serum liver enzyme level rises as IgM level raises.

Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 2

Investigation of Kidney Stone Using a Microstrip Patch Antenna Scanning System

Research Article
Author(s): Mohamad ALWAN, Sawsan SADEK
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
The abnormalities of the kidney can be identified by ultrasound imaging. The kidney may have structural abnormalities like kidney swelling, or change in its position and appearance. Kidney abnormality may also arise due to the formation of stones, congenital anomalies, blockage of urine etc. For surgical operations it is very important to identify the exact and accurate location of stone in the kidney. The ultrasound images are of low contrast and contain speckle noise and could affect human body in some situations like pregnancy. This makes the detection of kidney abnormalities rather challenging task. Thus, microwave imaging could be a good alternative. A microstrip patch antenna scanning system allows to identify the exact and accurate location of stone in the kidney. A physical testing system will be developed in order to generate antenna response surfaces on material which could represent the human body. The serum is used in the experimental measurement because it has similar dielectric properties as human body.  In order to represent stone  presence in an homogenous medium, small calcium sto  ne bearings of different sizes embedded are used to simulate the abnormality. Compact microstrip patch antenna were designed and tested at different frequencies in ISM band : 2.26 GHz, 2.38 GHz, 2.5 GHz, and 2.62 GHz for the RF investigation imaging system in order to detect and localize stones in the kidney.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

The Potential Protective Role of Chamomile Extract on Rat Liver Ultrastructural Changes Induced by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

Research Article
Author(s): Dalal A. Al-Baroudi, Thana El-Kholy, Reham Arafat, Awatef Ali
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
The current study aimed to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of chamomile extract and its role in relieving the ultrathin structure changes in liver tissue caused by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) using electron microscopy.This experiment was performed on 12 -14 weeks old male Wistar  rats divided into six groups (six animals each). The first group was kept as control. The second and third groups received orally accumulative doses of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.), of 2, 4- D respectively. The forth group received orally Chamomile extract (500 mg/kg b.wt.) alone. The last two groups received Chamomile extract with either doses of 2, 4-D (75 or 150 mg/kg b.wt). At the end of the experimental period (4 weeks), the liver was dissected and examined by electron microscope. Histopathological examination of liver sections of rats administered 2, 4-D75 mg/kg showed differences in nuclear shapes and size, envelope and increase in heterochromatin masses. Adminstration of 2, 4-D150mg/kg showed pyknosis and changes inmitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Kupffer cells, increases in lysosomes and lipid droplets. Chamomile group showed the normal control ultra structure of the liver. In group treated with chamomile and 2, 4-D75,there was improvements in all degenerative changes induced by 2, 4-D75. Chamomile and 2, 4-D150 groupshowed partial improvement in both nucleus and the mitochondria. Chamomile reduces the oxidative damage induced by 2, 4-D due to its antioxidant properties. It is recommended that Chamomile extract can be taken to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have demonstrated chamomile role in relieving hepatocytes ultrastructural changes caused by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The paper's primary contribution is finding that chamomile has antioxidant effect against oxidative stress. This study documents the hepatoprotective effect of chamomile against 2,4- D toxicity.

Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Enhanced Isolation Mimo Antenna with DGS Structures for Long Term Evolution Systems

Research Article
Author(s): I. Messaoudene, M. A. Belhocine, S. Aidel, N. Djeffal
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
In this communication, a new multi-antenna system based on two microstrip antennas is analyzed and proposed for LTE (Long Term Evolution) terminals. The multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna is printed on a FR4 substrate with size of 60×100×1.6 mm3. The proposed design, in its basic form, operates around 2.3 GHz, and provides a transmission coefficient of -19 dB. In order to improve the isolation between the two antenna ports, some rectangular and circular slots are inserted in the ground plane between the two antennas. With this modification, the mutual coupling of -59 dB was achieved, which are 40 dB improvements over the initial antenna. The simulated results are presented and discussed in term of reflection coefficients, transmission coefficients and radiation patterns.
Contribution/ Originality
This study presents a new antenna design, proposed for MIMO/LTE application. This proposed antenna provide a low mutual coupling (less than -59 dB) between the two ports which ensure a high isolation.

Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 12-2015 Issue: 4