Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Animal Review

March 2016, Volume 3, 1, pp 22-35

Apparent Metabolisability of Diets Containing Concentrate, Zostera Noltii or Taraxacum Officinalis in Anas Penelope

Carla Fabro


Matteo Del Fabbro


Barbara Piani


Stefano Filacorda


Piero A. Susmel

Carla Fabro 1 ,

Matteo Del Fabbro 2
Barbara Piani 1 Stefano Filacorda 1 Piero A. Susmel 1 
  1. Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science – University of Udine 1

  2. Green Solutions S.R.l. via Piave, Martignacco (UD) - Italy 2

Pages: 22-35

DOI: 10.18488/

Share :


Four metabolisability trials on captive Wigeons were conducted comparing a complete pelleted diet with others where Taraxacum officinalis and Zostera noltii were added. The daily dry matter (DM) intake of Wigeons varied from 54.4 to 65.5 g/day and the amount of nutrients received from the four diets was similar. The nitrogen (N) content of droppings statistically diminished when Wigeons were fed diets containing Zostera noltii. Correlation among cell wall components (CWC) of droppings and that of intakes was always highly significant and positive. The DM metabolisability of the four diets was 42-51 %. The crude protein (CP) metabolisability varied significantly from 21 % for the diet with Taraxacum to 39 % for that with the Zostera collected in June. The metabolizabilities of CWC also differed significantly among diets. The apparent metabolizabilities of ash with the Zostera diets were significantly higher when compared to those of two other diets.

Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the metabolic responses of captive Wigeons (Anas penelope) to four different diets and compared the results of nutritional aspects to those of their wild counterparts.


Wigeons, Bird captivity, Metabolisability, Zostera noltii, Taraxacum officinalis.



  1. M. Owen, "Food selection in geese," Verh. Ornithol. Ges. Bayer, vol. 23, pp. 169 - 176, 1978/1979.
  2. R. Buchsbaum, J. Wilson, and I. Valiela, "Digestibility of plant constituents by Canada geese and atlantic brant," Ecology, vol. 67, pp. 386 - 393, 1986.
  3. F. Salomonsen, "The moult migration," Wildfowl, vol. 19, pp. 5 - 24, 1968.
  4. J. G. Millais, The natural history of British surface feeding ducks. London: Longmans, 1902.
  5. P. W. Mayhew, "The feeding ecology and behaviour of Wigeon Anas penelope," PhD Thesis, University of Glasgow, Scotland, 1985.
  6. J. Woollhead, "Birds in the trophic web of Lake Esrom, Denmark," Hydrobiologie, vol. 279, pp. 29 - 38, 1994.
  7. L. Nilsson, "Food - seeking activity of south Swedish diving ducks in the non - breeding season," Oikos, vol. 21, pp. 145 - 154, 1970.
  8. R. H. A. Govaerts, "World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew." Available:, 2011.
  9. D. Den Hartog, The sea-grasses of the world. Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co, 1970.
  10. A. Meinesz and M. Simonian, "Cartes de la vegetation sous - marine des Alpes Maritimes (côtes françaises de la Méditerranée). II - La vegetation mixte à cymodocea nodosa - zostera noltii - caulerpa prolifera et la limite supérieure de l'her - bier de Posidonia oceanica entre Juan – les Pins et Golfe Juan," Ann. Inst. Océanogr, Paris, vol. 59, pp. 21 - 35, 1983.
  11. D. Curiel, G. Bellemo, and M. Marzocchi, "New records of marine algae in the lagoon of Venice," Giorn Bot Ital, vol. 130, p. 352, 2008.
  12. M. J. M. Hootsmans, J. E. Vermaat, and W. Van Vierssen, "Seed - bank development, germination and early seedling survival of two seagrass species from the Netherlands: Zostera marina L. and Zostera Noltii Hornemann," Aquat. Bot., vol. 28, pp. 275 - 285, 1987.
  13. M. C. Buia, L. Gazzella, H. Pirc, and G. F. Russo, "Fioritura di Zostera noltii Hornemann a Ischia Golfo di Napoli," Oebalia N.S, vol. 11, pp. 861 - 862, 1985.
  14. .A. Sfriso and P. F. Ghetti, "Seasonal variation in biomass, morphometric parameters and production of seagrasses inthe lagoon of Venice," Aquat. Bot., vol. 61, pp. 207 - 223, 1998.
  15. D. Curiel, A. Bellato, A. Rispondo, and M. Marzocchi, "Sexual reproduction of Zostera noltii Hornemann in the lagoon of Venice Italy, North adriatic," Aquat. Bot., vol. 52, pp. 313 - 318, 1996.
  16. M. Owen and G. J. Thomas, "The feeding ecology and conservation of Wigeon at the Ouse washes, England," J. Appl. Ecol., vol. 16, pp. 795 - 809, 1979.
  17. D. Durant, "Différences dans l’utilisation des hauteurs d’herbe par le anatidés herbivores et mécanismes sous - jacents," PhD Thesis, Université de La Rochelle, France, 2001.
  18. P. W. Mayhew, "The daily energy intake of European wigeon in winter," Ornis. Aust. J. Zool., vol. 19, pp. 217 - 223, 1988.
  19. P. J. S. Olney, "The autumn and winter feeding biology of certain sympatric ducks," presented at the Transactions Congress VI International Game Biologists, 1965.
  20. P. J. S. Olney, Food habits of wildfowl in Britain. In: The new wildfowler Eds., N. M. Sedgwick, P. Whitaker, J. Harrison. London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1970.
  21. M. W. Demment and P. J. Van Soest, "A nutritional explanation for body size patterns of ruminant and non ruminant herbivores," Am. Nat., vol. 125, pp. 641 - 672, 1985.
  22. M. Owen, "Some factors affecting food intake and selection in white - fronted geese," J. Anim. Ecol., vol. 41, pp. 79 - 92, 1972.
  23. R. Moss, "Effects of captivity on gut lengths in red grouse," J. Wildl Manage., vol. 36, pp. 99 - 104, 1972.
  24. R. M. Sibly, Strategies of digestion and defecation. In: Physiological ecology, an evolutionary approach to resource use, C.R. Townsend and P. Calow, Eds. London: Blackwell, 1981.
  25. M. R. Miller, "Gut morphology of mallards in relation to diet quality," J. Wildl Manage., vol. 39, pp. 168 - 173, 1975.
  26. M. Owen, "An assessment of fecal analysis technique in waterfowl feeding studies," J. Wildl Manage., vol. 39, pp. 271 - 279, 1975.
  27. E. Pulliainen and E. Tunkkari, "Seasonal changes in the gut length of willow grouse (Lagopus Lagopus) in finnish Lapland," Ann. Zool. Fenn., vol. 20, pp. 53 - 56, 1983.
  28. C. W. Gasaway, "Cellulose digestion and metabolism by captive rock ptarmigan," Comp. Biochem. Physio. A: Physiol., vol. 54, pp. 179 - 182, 1976.
  29. T. E. Remington, "Why do grouse have ceca? A test of the fiber digestion theory," J. Exp. Zool. Supplement, vol. 3, pp. 87 - 94, 1989.
  30. .A.O.A.C, Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemist, 16th ed. Washington, DC, USA: Publ, 1990.
  31. P. J. Van Soest, Nutritional ecology of the ruminant: Ruminant metabolism, nutritional strategies, the cellulotic fermentation and the chemistry of forages and plant fibres. Corvallis: O and B Books, 1982.
  32. R. G. Mathers and W. I. Montgomery, "Quality of food consumed by overwintering brent geese branta berniclahrota and wigeon anas penelope," Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. 97B, pp. 81 - 90, 1997.
  33. D. Durant, "The digestion of fibre herbivorous anatidae: A review," Wildfowl, vol. 54, pp. 7 - 24, 2003.
  34. J. Madsen, "Autumn feeding ecology of herbivorous wildfowl in the Danish Wadden Sea and impact of food supplies and shooting on movements," Danish Review of Game Biology, vol. 13, pp. 2 - 33, 1988.
  35. A. D. Fox, "Zostera exploitation by brent geese and wigeon on the Exe Estuary, Southern England," Bird Study, vol. 43, pp. 257 - 268, 1996.
  36. R. G. Mathers, A. A. Portig, and W. I. Montgomery, "The distribution and abundance of brent geese (Branta Bernicla Hrota) and wigeon (Anas Penelope) in Strangford Lough, Co. Down, N. Ireland," Bird Study, vol. 45, pp. 18 - 34, 1998.
  37. R. Inger, G. D. Ruxton, J. Newton, K. Colhoun, K. Mackie, J. A. Robinson, and S. Bearhop, "Using daily ration models and stable isotope analysis to predict biomass depletion by herbivores," J. Appl. Ecol., vol. 43, pp. 1022 - 1030, 2006.
  38. K. Charman, "The grazing of Zostera by wildfowl in Britain," Aquaculture, vol. 12, pp. 229 - 233, 1977.
  39. S. M. Percival, W. J. Sutherland, and P. R. Evans, "A spatial depletion model of the responses of grazing wildfowl to changes in availability of intertidal vegetation during the autumn and winter," J. Appl. Ecol., vol. 33, pp. 979 - 993, 1996.
  40. R. P. W. M. Jacobs, C. Den Hartog, B. F. Braster, and F. C. Carriere, "Grazing of the seagrass Zostera noltii by birds at Terschelling Dutch Wadden Sea," Aquat. Bot., vol. 10, pp. 241 - 259, 1981.
  41. D. Durant, M. Kersten, and H. Fritz, "Constraints of feeding on salicornia ramosissima by wigeon Anas penelope: An experimental approach," J. Ornithol., vol. 147, pp. 1-12, 2006.
  42. S. Lima, "Predation risk and unpredictablefeeding conditions: Determinants of body mass in birds," Ecology, vol. 67, pp. 377 - 385, 1986.
  43. R. Dudley and G. J. Vermej, "Do the power requirements of flapping flight constrain folivoryin flying animals?," Funct Ecol., vol. 6, pp. 101 - 104, 1992.
  44. F. P. Kehoe, C. D. Ankney, and R. T. Alisauskas, "Effects of dietary fiber and diet diversity on digestive organs of captive mallards anas platyrhynchos," Can J. Zoo, vol. 66, pp. 1597-1602, 1988.
  45. J. S. Sedinger, "Adaptations to diet and consequences of an herbivorous in grouse and waterfowl," Condor, vol. 99, pp. 314 - 326, 1997.
  46. D. J. Farrell, "The metabolizable energy (TME) and the alternative," in RAAN Conference Proceedings, 1980.
  47. D. Jamroz, A. Wiliczkiewicz, J. Orda, and J. Skorupinska, "Die scheinbare verdaulichkeit der gerüstkohlenhydrate und dorm fermentation verchiedener getreidearten bei drei geflügelspezies," IV Wien Tierӓrzte Mschr, vol. 83, pp. 210 - 218, 1996.
  48. L. W. Bruinzeel, M. R. Van Eerden, R. H. Drent, and J. T. Vu Link, "Scaling metabolisable energy intake and daily energy expenditure in relation to the size of herbivorous waterfowl: Limits set by available foraging time and digestive performance. In: Patchwork: Patch use, habitat exploitation and carrying capacity for water birds in Dutch freshwater wetlands, M. Van Eerden," Published PhD Thesis, University of Groningen, 1998.
  49. T. J. Dawson, A. B. Johns, and A. M. Beal, "Digestion in the Australian wood duck (Chenonetta Jubata): A small avian herbivore showing selective digestion of the hemicellulose component of fiber," Physiol. Zool, vol. 62, pp. 522-540, 1989.
  50. T. J. Dawson, P. J. Whitehead, A. McLean, F. D. Fanning, and W. R. Dawson, "Digestive function in Australian magpie geese Anser anas semipalmata," Aust. J. Zool, vol. 48, pp. 265 - 279, 2000.
  51. R. V. Marriott and D. K. Forbes, "The digestion of lucerne chaff by Cape Barren geese, cereopsis novae hollandiae Latham," Austr. J. Zool, vol. 18, pp. 257 - 263, 1970.
  52. J. G. Mattocks, "Goose feeding and cellulose digestion," Wildfowl, vol. 22, pp. 107 - 113, 1971.
  53. R. Drent, B. Ebbinge, and B. Weijand, "Balancing file energy budgets of arctic - breeding geese throughout the annual cycle: A progress report," Verh Ornithol Ges Bayern, vol. 23, pp. 239 - 264, 1979.
  54. E. M. Barnes, "The avian intestinal flora with particular reference to the possible ecological significance of the caecal anaerobic bacteria," Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 25, pp. 1475 - 1479, 1972.
  55. M. R. Van Eerden, Waterfowl movements in relation to food stocks. In: Evans P. E., Goss, J. D. Custarrd and W. G. Hale, (Eds). Coastal waters and waterfowl in winter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
  56. C. T. Robbins, Wildlife feeding and nutrition, 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic, 1993.
  57. R. W. Summers and M. M. Smith, "An age - related difference in the size of the nasal glands of brent geese branta bernicla," Wildfowl, vol. 41, pp. 35 - 37, 1990.
  58. L. P. Milligan and B. W. McBride, "Energy costs of ion pumping by animal tissues," J. Nutr., vol. 115, pp. 1374 - 1382, 1985.
  59. T. S. Coleman and D. A. Boag, "Canada goose foods: Their significance to weight gain," Wildfowl, vol. 38, pp. 82 - 88, 1987.
  60. R. G. Mathers, S. Watson, R. Stone, and W. I. Montgomery, "A study of the impact of human disturbance on wigeons anas penelope and brent geese branta bernicla hrota on Irish sea Loch," Wildfowl, vol. 51, pp. 67 - 81, 2000.
  61. M. R. Miller and K. J. Reinecke, "Proper expression of metabolizable energy in avian energetic," Condor, vol. 86, pp. 396 - 400, 1984.
  62. D. J. Farrell, "A new rapid method for determining the metabolizable energy of poultry feedstuffs," in RAAN Conference Proceedings, 1977.
  63. S. C. Kendeigh, V. R. Dol’nik, and V. M. Govrilov, Avian energetic. In: Pinowski J. and S. C. Kendeigh, Eds., Granivorous birds in ecosystems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
  64. F. Fournier, W. H. Karasov, M. W. Meyer, and K. P. Kenow, "Daily energy expenditures of free - ranging common loon (Gaviaimmer) chicks," Auk, vol. 119, pp. 1121-1126, 2002.
  65. M. A. Elgar and P. H. Harvey, "Basal metabolic rates in mammals: Allometry, phylogeny and ecology," Funct Ecol., vol. 1, pp. 25 - 36, 1987.
  66. B. I. Tieleman and J. B. Williams, "The adjustment of avian metabolic rates and water fluxes to desert environments," Physiol. Biochem. Zool, vol. 72, pp. 87 - 100, 2000.
  67. B. G. Lovegrove, "The influence of climate on the basal metabolicrate of small mammals: A slow-fast metabolic continuum," J. Comp. Physiol., vol. 173, pp. 87 - 112, 2003.
  68. C. Bousque, M. A. Pacheco, and R. B. Siegel, "Maintenance energy costs of two partially folivorous tropical passerines," Auk, vol. 116, pp. 246 - 252, 1999.
  69. J. B. Williams, "Heat production and evaporative water loss of dune larks from the Namib Desert," Condor, vol. 101, pp. 432 - 438, 1999.
  70. A. Anava, V. I. Kam, A. Shkolnik, and A. A. Degen, "Heat production and body temperature of Arabian babblers (Turdoides Squamiceps): A bird from hot desert habitats," J. Arid. Environ., vol. 48, pp. 59 - 67, 2001.
  71. E. L. Rezende, M. V. Lopez - Calleja, and F. Bozinovic, "Standard and comparative energetics of a small avian herbivore phytotoma rara," Auk, vol. 118, pp. 781 - 785, 2001.
  72. C. Hambly, E. J. Harper, and J. R. Speakman, "Cost of flight in the zebra finch (Taenopygia Guttata): A novel approach based on elimination of C - 13 labelled bicarbonate," J. Comp. Physiol., vol. 172, pp. 529 - 539, 2002.
  73. U. Aschoff and H. Pohl, "Rhythmic variation in energy metabolism," Fed. Proc., vol. 29, pp. 1541 - 1552, 1970.
  74. B. K. McNab, "Ecological factors affect the level and scalingof avian BMR," Comp. Biochem. Physiol., vol. 152, pp. 22 - 45, 2009.
  75. R. C. Lasiewski and W. R. Dawson, "A re - examination of the relation between standard metabolic rate and body weight in birds," Condor, vol. 69, pp. 13 - 23, 1967.
  76. M. R. Miller and J. McaEadie, "The allometric relationship between resting metabolic rate and body mass in wild waterfowl (Anatide) and an application to estimation of wintering habitat requirement," Condor, vol. 108, pp. 166 - 177, 2006.
  77. K. A. Nagy, "Field metabolic rate and food requirement scaling in mammals and birds. Ecological," Monographs 57, vol. 11, pp. 1 - 128, 1987.
  78. R. Drent, B. Weijand, and B. Ebbinge, "Balancing the energy budgetof arctic breeding geese throughout the annual cycle: A progress report," Verh. Ornithol. Ges. Bayern, vol. 23, pp. 239 - 264, 1978.
  79. P. Campredon, "Hivernage du canard siffleur (Anas Penelope, L.) en camargue (France): Stationnment et activities," Alauda, vol. 49, pp. 161 - 193, 1981.
  80. J. K. Kirkwood, "Energy requirements for maintenance and growth of wild mammals, birds and reptiles in captivity," J. Nutr., vol. 121, pp. 29 - 34, 1991.


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


Competing Interests:


Related Article

( 1 ) Apparent Metabolisability of Diets Containing Concentrate, Zostera Noltii or Taraxacum Officinalis in Anas Penelope
( 4 ) Performance of Growing Grasscutters Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Soybean Meal Replaced by Brewers Dried Grain
( 5 ) Seleno-Cystine Affects the Fatty Acid Profile in In Vitro Incubated Ovine Ruminal Fluid Containing α-Linolenic Acid
( 10 ) Monte Carlo Modeling for Aflatoxin B1 Distribution in Pistachio Samples: A Prerequisite for Sampling Plan Validation
( 11 ) Efficacy of Allicin (Allium Sativum Linn.) Against Bipolaris Sorokiniana in Barley Plants
( 12 ) GGE and Ammi Biplot Analysis for Field PEA Yield Stability in Snnpr State, Ethiopia
( 13 ) Storage Stability of Intermediate Moisture Cauliflower Brassica Oleracea, Var, Botrytis Cabbage Brassica Oleracea, Var, Capitata Using Radiation as Hurdle Technology
( 14 ) Perception of Gender Mainstreaming in Agricultural Extension in Fogera Woreda, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 15 ) Growing Jatropha Curcas and Jatropha Gossypiifolia as a Interculture with Sunflower for Control of Meloidogyne Javanica in Egypt
( 16 ) Nutritional, Functional and Sensory Properties of Biscuit Produced from Wheat-Sweet Potato Composite
( 17 ) Development of a Mathematical Model for Angle of Soil Failure Plane in Case of 3-Dimenssional Cutting
( 18 ) Small-Scale Milk Processing, Utilization and Marketing of Traditional Dairy Products in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha Districts, Northwestern Ethiopia
( 19 ) Effect of Some Botanicals against Termites, Macroterms Spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Under Laboratory Conditions
( 20 ) Evaluation of Field Pea (Pisum Sativum L) Genotypes Performance for Yield and Yield Components at Five Growing Environments of Southern Ethiopia
( 21 ) Effect of Disc and Tilt Angles of Disc Plough on Tractor Performance under Clay Soil
( 22 ) Association between Yield Components of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L. (Moench) Under Different Watering Intervals
( 23 ) Olfactory Response of an Assassin Bug, Rhynocoris Longifrons (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae) To the Hexane Extracts of Different Agricultural Insect Pests
( 24 ) Study on Adaptability of Released Midland Maize Varieties around South Ari Woreda, South Omo Zone, Southern Nation Nationality Peoples Region, Ethiopia
( 25 ) Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.)
( 26 ) Diversity, Use Pattern and Management of Forest Resources in the Eastern Himalaya: A Case Study of Mizoram, India
( 27 ) Screening of Mycotoxins Producer Fungal and Aflatoxins Level in Dried and Smoked Fish (Clarias Sp.) and (Oreochromis Sp.) from Lake Fitri - Chad
( 28 ) Curative Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobruchus Maculatus F. Infested Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.) Grain in Storage
( 29 ) Urban Area - Review of Protective Forest Management
( 30 ) Soil Respiration, Microbial Biomass and Ratios (Metabolic Quotient and Mbc/Toc) As Quality Soil Indicators in Burnt and Unburnt Aleppo Pine Forest Soils
( 31 ) Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan
( 32 ) The Influence of Probiotics and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Growth Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters in Broilers
( 33 ) The Extent of Finger Millet Production in South Omo Zone in the Case of South Ari Woreda
( 34 ) Evaluation of Some Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. [Walp]) Genotypes for Stability Of Performance Over 4 Years
( 35 ) Comparative Growth Analysis and Yield Performance of Glycine Max under Jatropha Curcas Based Agrisilviculture System of Agroforestry in the Northern Part of Bangladesh
( 36 ) Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability to Guide Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolar) Production in Miesso Areas, Eastern Ethiopia
( 37 ) Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics in Hulet Wogedamea Kebele, Northern Ethiopia
( 38 ) Key for First Recorded Dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) Fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
( 39 ) Analysis of Determinants of Demand and Supply of Maize in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 40 ) Performance Evaluation and Adaptation of Lentil Varieties in Lemu, Gumur and Damot Gale Districts of Southern Ethiopia
( 41 ) Survey on Economical Important Fungal Diseases of Tomato in Sub-Zoba Hamemalo of Eritrea
( 42 ) Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction
( 43 ) Microbial Degradation of Organic Waste through Vermicomposting
( 44 ) Effect of Whole Inedible Date and Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth Performance of Ross 308 Broiler Chicks
( 45 ) Profitability of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Production and Marketing in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State: A Case for Honey
( 46 ) Fetal Maceration in Crossbred Holstein Frisian Heifer-A Case Report
( 47 ) Examination of Oribatid Mites for Cysticercoids of Moniezia Sp
( 48 ) Correlation between Milk Yield, Somatic Cell Count and Milk Quality in Dairy Farming
( 49 ) Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
( 50 ) Variation in Density and Shrinkage between Sawmill and Hand Processed Khaya Senegalensis Woodin Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria
( 51 ) Effect of Using Different Pre-Storage Warming Times on Hatchability of White Hisex Breeders’ Eggs
( 52 ) Effect of Ethanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants on Sclerotiumrolfsii, Causal Agent of Postharvest Rot of Yam (Dioscorea Spp.)
( 53 ) Partial Budgeting Analysis of Different Strategies for Management of Insect Pests in Cashew and Mango Orchards in Tanzania
( 54 ) Stover Yield and Chemical Composition in Some Sorghum Varieties in Gadarif State, Sudan
( 55 ) An Analysis of the Pre and Post Harvest Management Techniques in Rice Production: The Case of Unvda Ndop, North West Region, Cameroon
( 56 ) Chemical Analysis of Acacia Ehrenbergiana (Salam) Tree Fruits (Seed and Pods) As Dry Season Supplement For Livestock in Arid and Semi –Arid Lands of Sudan
( 57 ) Genotype X Environment Interaction and Stability Analysis for Yield and Yield Related Traits of Desi-Type Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) In Ethiopia
( 58 ) Effects of Dried Rumen Contents Level in Rations on the Performance of Shugor Desert Sheep in Halfa Elgadeda, Kassala State, Sudan
( 59 ) Prevalence and Management of Some Surgical Affection in Cattle and Buffaloes at Qena Governorate in Field Situation
( 60 ) Gender Issues of Labour Participation in Vegetable Production in Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State
( 61 ) Estimation of Export Demand Function for Swazi Sugar: A Panel Data Analysis
( 62 ) In Vitro Differential Effect of Nerve Growth Factor on Functional Parameters of Murrah Buffalo Spermatozoa in Low and High Fertile Groups
( 63 ) Physiological Effects of Some Artificial and Natural Food Coloring on Young Male Albino Rats
( 64 ) Analysis of Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Maize Food in Swaziland
( 65 ) Application of Agroforestry Techniques in the Management of Bamboo
( 66 ) Pelvic Floor Fractures in 55 Dogs and 39 Cats: CT and X- Ray Findings
( 67 ) Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Swimming Animals- an Inspiration for Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft
( 68 ) Exposure of Medium Dose Gamma Rays and Storage Conditions Influenced the Weight Loss and Ripening of Alphonso Mango
( 69 ) Effect of Sodium Alginate Coating with Ascorbic Acid on Shelf Life of Raw Pork Meat
( 70 ) Protective Effects of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis L.) The Induction of Micronuclei Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes
( 71 ) “Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”
( 73 ) Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica Infecting Sunflower by Some Composted Plant or Animal Residues as Soil Amendments in Egypt
( 74 ) Evaluation of Improved Varieties of Teff in West Belessa, Northwest Ethiopia
( 75 ) Rheological Studies of Texture-Modified Chicken Rendang with Tapioca and Sago Starches as Food Thickener for Patients with Dysphagia
( 76 ) Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan
( 77 ) Evaluation of the Biomass of the Green Oak (Quercus Rotundifolia) of the Central Middle Atlas: Case of the South Jbel Aoua Forest (Morocco)
( 78 ) Study on Agronomic Evaluation of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum, Mill.) Varieties for Phonological, Growth and Yield Characters
( 79 ) Assessments of Market Oriented Beef Cattle Fattening System Under Farmer Management Condition in South Omo Zone of Snnpr
( 80 ) Effect of Jameed Form on the Chemical Composition, Rheological and Microbial Properties
( 81 ) Analysis of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 82 ) Comparative Effect of Organic and In-Organic Fertilizer Treatment on the Growth and Tuberyeild of Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batata L)
( 83 ) Performance of Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in the Shiselweni Region of Swaziland
( 84 ) Multi-Environment Variety Testing (Pre-Met) for Irrigated Ecosystem in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
( 85 ) A Suction Trap for Sampling Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan Trees
( 86 ) Mobile Food Consumption Monitoring Application
( 87 ) Effects of Segregated Early Weaning at 7 Days on Dams Body Condition, Parturition Interval and Offspring Birth Weight and Litter Size in the Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) for Intensive Production
( 88 ) Comparing Post-Partum Growth by Body Weight between Sex and Litter Size of Agouti (Dasyprocta Leporina) Offspring from Birth to 360 Days Old
( 89 ) Evaluation of Selected Botanical Extracts against Mendi Termite Macrotermes subhyalinus (Isoptera: Termitidae), under Laboratory Condition
( 90 ) An Example of Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: Production of Pine Nuts
( 91 ) A New Activity in Turkey's Agricultural Forestry: Truffle Mushroom Cultivation
( 92 ) Remotion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Absorption Column
( 93 ) The Evaluation of the Agriculture of Hazelhazelnut in Duzce According to Climate Parameters
( 94 ) The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Silkworm (Bombyx Mori, L. 1758) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Lines and their Conservation
( 95 ) Heterosis for Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Yield and Yield Components in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
( 96 ) Evaluation of the Sustainability Criteria of Forest Management in the Municipality Palma Soriano, Santiago De Cuba Province
( 97 ) Molecular Studies on E.Coli Isolate from Milk of Mastatic Cattle with Special Reference to Associated Biochemical Changes in Kaliobea Governorate
( 98 ) Improvement of Maize Productivity (Zea Mays L.) by Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Ferruginous Soil in Center of Benin
( 99 ) Prospects of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy
( 100 ) Feeding Potential of Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus on Different Date Palm, Phoenix Dactylifera Varieties Under Field Conditions
( 101 ) Establishing Short Bowel Syndrome in Nigerian Dogs
( 102 ) Growth and Survival Parameters and Blood IgG and Total Protein Levels of Calves Born in the First Production Year of Brown Swiss and Simmental Cows
( 103 ) Assessment of Government Feeding Programme on Improved Nutritional Health Status of Secondary School Students in Maiduguri, Borno State
( 104 ) Variation of Wood Density in Tropical Rainforest Trees
( 105 ) Forest Ecosystem Service Valuation: A Case of the Kalika Community Forest, Dhading, Central Nepal
( 106 ) Adaptation Study of Mung Bean (Vigna Radiate) Varieties in Raya Valley, Northern Ethiopia
( 107 ) Effect of Soaking on the Nutritional Values of Kordala (Maerua Pseudopetalosa) Seeds Grown in Kordofan Region, Sudan
( 108 ) Performance Evaluation of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Benatsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia
( 109 ) Forecasting Goat Milk Production in Turkey Using Artificial Neural Networks and Box-Jenkins Models
( 110 ) Sooty Mold on Lemon Trees - First Recording from El-Beida City, Libya
( 112 ) Uncertainty Analysis and Calibration of Swat Model for Estimating Impacts of Conservation Methods on Streamflow and Sediment Yield in Thika River Catchment, Kenya
( 113 ) Optimization of Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius) Extract Syrup Formula as a Nutritive Antioxidant Drink
( 114 ) Duration of Freezing Influences Sensory Attributes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Plantain (Musa paradisiaca AAB)
( 115 ) Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria
( 116 ) Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes
( 117 ) The Value of Selected Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya
( 118 ) Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Rooting and Shooting Performance of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.) Cuttings in Hydroponic Culture System
( 119 ) Pulsing Preservatives to Prolong Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers in Bahir Dar, Northwestern Ethiopia
( 120 ) Study of Factors Linked to the Variation in Rentability in the Farming of Broiler Chickens in Northeast Algeria
( 121 ) Report of an Outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminants in Iran, Clinical, Epidemiological and Pathological Study
( 122 ) Social, Economical and Environmental Issues of Floriculture Sector Development in Ethiopia
( 123 ) Roles of Extension Services in Adoption of Agroforestry Practices among Farmers in South West Nigeria
( 124 ) Gross Morphology and Morphometric Studies of Digestive Tract of Barn Owl (Tyto alba)
( 125 ) A Pictorial Guidebook on Poultry Diseases; Diagnostic Techniques and their Effective Treatment
( 126 ) Determinants and Extent of Pre- and Postharvest Losses of Fruits in Northwestern Ethiopia
( 127 ) Social, Economical and Environmental Issues of Floriculture Sector Development in Ethiopia
( 128 ) Influense of Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) for Stenting Propagation of Cut Rose
( 129 ) Tabu-Genetic Algorithm-Based Model for Poultry Feed Formulation
( 130 ) Pepper Disease Assessment and Identification in Major Growing Districts of West Gojam Zone in Northwestern Ethiopia
( 131 ) Patterns of Plant Community Formation and Vegetation Structure in the Afro- Alpine Vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia
( 132 ) Evaluation of Eggshell as Organic Fertilizer on Sweet Basil
( 133 ) Importance of Arginine as Immune Regulator in Animal Nutrition
( 134 ) Insecticide Spraying Regime to Control Insect Pest of Cowpea: Management and Monitored Application of Cypermethrin in Lomami Province, DR Congo
( 135 ) Floristic Composition and Density of Main Woody Species of the Parklands in Two Phytogeographical Zones in Burkina Faso
( 136 ) Ectoparasitosis in Domesticated Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) in Jere Area, Borno State, Nigeria
( 137 ) Study on Temporal Alterations in Land Cover Types in Simien Mountain National Park, Northwest Ethiopia
( 138 ) Optimal Rate of Nitrogen and Intra-Row Spacing for Economical Production of Onion under Irrigated Farming System in Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 139 ) Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
( 140 ) Effect of Planting Date on Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subtermnea (L) Verdc.) Varieties in Rainforest Zone of Delta State
( 141 ) Dynamic Shift-Share Analysis of Forestry Industry Structure and Competitiveness in Heilongjiang Province
( 142 ) Response of Intraspecific Crosses in F1 and their Deterioration in F2 Generation of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
( 143 ) Socioeconomic Impact of Bagging Technology for Value Addition in Mango in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh
( 144 ) Morphometrical Traits and Structural Indices of Malle Cattle Reared in the South Omo Zone of Southwest Ethiopia
( 145 ) Short-Term Benefits of Grain Legume Fallow Systems on Soil Fertility and Farmers Livelihood in the Humid Forest Zone of Cameroon
( 146 ) Purple-Blue Pigmentation Production as a Sign of Immune Response by Bleached Corals to Avoid Stress Caused by Elevated Sea Surface Temperature
( 147 ) The Effect of Varieties and Fungicide Spray Frequencies on Septoria Leaf Blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) Epidemics on Bread Wheat in Western Amhara, Ethiopia
( 148 ) The Fungicide and Variety Integration Effect on Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) Disease of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Western Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 149 ) Evaluation of Leaf-Water Relation Traits, as Selection Criterion for Developing Drought Resistant Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Genotypes
( 150 ) Comparative Evaluation of Six Different Storage Materials for Long-Term Preservation of Huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) Seeds
( 151 ) Evaluation of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.) Varieties against Faba Bean Gall Disease in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia
( 152 ) Impact of Subclinical Mastitis on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Animals
( 153 ) Evaluation of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterranea (L) Verdc.) Varieties for Adaptation to Rainforest Agroecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria
( 154 ) Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance Analysis in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Genotypes in Northwestern Ethiopia
( 155 ) Modelling and Optimization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Paddy Pre-Treatments for Optimum Chemical Property using Response Surface Methodology
( 156 ) Phenotypic Performance Evaluation of Improved Tef (Eragrostis tef L) Genotypes in North Gondar
( 157 ) Principal Component Analysis for the Quantification of Soil Horizon Carbon Stocks in Relation to Soil Bulk Density
( 158 ) Two Stubborn Storage Insect Pests, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais: Biology, Food Security Problems and Control Strategies
( 159 ) An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality
( 160 ) Penman and Thornwait Equations for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Under Semi-Arid Environment
( 161 ) Understanding Mcdonalds Nutrition Facts using Discriminant Analysis and Neural Network
( 162 ) Application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) in Development of Suitability Model for Rice Production in Taraba State
( 163 ) Evaluating Variation in Seed Quality Attributes in Pinus Patula Clonal Orchards using Cone Cluster Analysis
( 164 ) Rural Population Perceptions on Anti-Silting Managements in Kebili Governorate, South Tunisia
( 165 ) Color-Based Forest Cover Type Image Segmentation using K-Means Clustering Approach
( 166 ) Effects of Melon Seed or Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Incompletely Peeled Cassava Garri
( 167 ) Proximate and Sensory Properties of Moi-Moi Developed from Cowpea and Avocado Pear Seed Flour Blends
( 168 ) Comparing the Molluscicidal Action of Metaldehyde, Oxamyl, Potassium Nitrate and a Botanical Insecticide for Managing Limacolaria Spp Infesting Banana Plantations in Cameroon
( 169 ) Market Participation and Food Security Status of Bio-Fortified Cassava Processors in South Western Nigeria
( 170 ) Growth Performance of Kit Rabbits Fed Concentrate Diet Supplemented with Varying Foliage Leaf Meals
( 171 ) Evaluation of Bread Making Performance of Some Wheat Flour Brands Available in Nigerian Markets as Affected by Cassava or Sweet Potato Flour Inclusion
( 172 ) Processing and Storage Impact on Carotenoid Contents and Functional Properties of Yellow Cassava Traditional Food Products
( 173 ) Essential and Toxic Metals Determination in Imported and Fresh Beef Cattle Meat Sold in Erbil Markets
( 174 ) Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobium on Growth and Nutrient Content of Arachis hypogaea
( 175 ) Quality Attributes of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Flour as Affected by Some Processing Parameters
( 176 ) Storage Effects on Microbiological and Some Antioxidant Potentials of Partially Substituted Bread Produced from Wheat Flour and Fresh Coconut Meat
( 177 ) Challenges of Groundwater Development for Towns and Big Cities Water Supply in Rift Valley Areas
( 178 ) Seedlings Performance of Triplochiton scleroxylon (K. Schum.) under Different Light Intensities and Soil Textural Classes
( 179 ) The Role of Drones as an Enabler for the 4th Agricultural Revolution
( 180 ) A Survey of Farmers Knowledge and Practice on the Management of Watermelon Diseases in Horticultural Belt of Mt. Kenya Slopes
( 181 ) Breeding for Weevil (Sitophilus Zeamais Motschulsky) Resistance in Maize (Zea mays L)
( 182 ) Contributing Factors of Boro-Rice Production in Hakaluki Haor of Bangladesh
( 183 ) The Effect of Land-Use on Herbaceous Production and Grazing Capacity in the Molopo District of the North West Province, South Africa
( 184 ) Exploring the Climate Change Impact on Major Food Crops of Bangladesh - A Time Series Analysis
( 185 ) Estimation of Ground Water Recharge for Irrigation Water Budget Planning in Kanzenze Swamp
( 186 ) Plant Diversity and Regeneration Potentials in Protected Area Forests of Sierra Leone
( 187 ) On-Farm Evaluation of Conservation Agriculture Practice on Weed Control and Yield of Wheat in Northern Bangladesh
( 188 ) Exogenous Application of Antioxidants on Leaf Chlorophyll, Yield Dynamics and Berry Quality of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
( 189 ) A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of Wheat Production Sustainability in the Semi-Arid Environment of Mashhad, Northeastern Iran
( 190 ) Interactive Effects of Zinc-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi on Cadmium Uptake, Rubisco, Osmolyte Synthesis and Yield in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.
( 191 ) Characterization of a Novel Floral Mutation Induced by Gamma Irradiation of Philippine Rice Variety NSIC Rc9 (Apo)
( 192 ) The Effect of Farmers Social Networks on Sustainable Agricultural Practices Adoption: A Scoping Review Protocol
( 193 ) Quality Evaluation of Instant Mosa (A Fried Maize Based Snack) Produced from Fermented Maize and Sorghum Flour
( 194 ) Relationship between Human Activities and Deforestation in Karongi District of Rwanda
( 195 ) Reduction of Aflatoxins and Microorganisms in the Koura-Koura Produced in Burkina Faso with Spices and Aromatic Leaves
( 196 ) Selection of Superior Clones by the Multi-Dimensional Decision-Making Techniques in Scots Pine Seed Orchard
( 197 ) Ovitrap Surveillance of the Dengue Vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Selected Endemic Areas in Sandakan, Sabah
( 198 ) Temporal Rhythms of Dry Tropical Forest Regeneration under Exploration of Granite-Gnaisse Mining in a Semi-Arid Area
( 199 ) Evaluation of Socio-Economic Impacts of Deforestation in Edo State, Nigeria
( 200 ) Effect of Photoperiod on Estrus Cycle and Reproductive Organs in Female African Giant Rat (Cricetomys Gambianus: Waterhouse)
( 201 ) Cultivation and Nutritional Quality of Moringa Oleifera Lam. Produced Under Different Substrates in Semi-Arid Region in Northeast Brazil
( 202 ) Development of an Effective Biocatalyzed Organic Fertilizer Derived from Gliricidia Sepium Stem Biochar
( 203 ) Impacts of Rural Community on the Forest Estate in Ugbolu, Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria
( 204 ) Construction of Sustainable Frugal Innovations Index for the Agriculture Sector
( 205 ) Classification and Recognition of Urban Tree Defects in a Small Dataset using Convolutional Neural Network, Resnet-50 Architecture, and Data Augmentation
( 206 ) Determination of Phosphorous Fixation Capacity on Alluvium, Sandstone and Shale Soils of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
( 207 ) Bacteriological Quality and Cyanide Contents of Different Cassava Products Processed in Benue State for Use as Food for Man or Feedstock for Animals
( 208 ) Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and its Effects on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows during the Postpartum Period in Gasabo District, Rwanda
( 209 ) Alleviating Climate Change Effect using Environmentally Friendly Process to Preserve Wood against Biodeteriaorating Agent
( 210 ) Penicillium and Aspergillus Species Characterization: Adaptation to Environmental Factors and Sensitivity to Aqueous Medicinal Plants Extracts
( 211 ) Reliability of Morphological Characters in Identification of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Varieties in Ex-Situ Conditions
( 212 ) Ecosystem Services Assessment of Mangrove Forest in a Coastal Island of Bangladesh
( 213 ) Constructed Wetland Effluent Irrigation as a Potential Water and Nutrient Source for Vegetables
( 214 ) Households Demand for Branded Tea in Southwest, Nigeria
( 215 ) Floristic Composition and Woody Species Diversity in National Park of Madhupur Tract Under Tangail North Forest Division, Bangladesh