Journal of Food Technology Research

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Online ISSN: 2312-3796
Print ISSN: 2312-6426
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No. 1

Screening of Mycotoxins Producer Fungal and Aflatoxins Level in Dried and Smoked Fish (Clarias Sp.) and (Oreochromis Sp.) from Lake Fitri - Chad

Pages: 49-56
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Screening of Mycotoxins Producer Fungal and Aflatoxins Level in Dried and Smoked Fish (Clarias Sp.) and (Oreochromis Sp.) from Lake Fitri - Chad

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.61.49.56

Abdoullahi Hissein Ousman , Guira Flibert , Abdelsalam Tidjani , Nikiema Fulbert , Kabre Elie , Bazié Bazoin Sylvain Raoul , Abakar Idriss Lawane , Savadogo Aly

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Abdoullahi Hissein Ousman , Guira Flibert , Abdelsalam Tidjani , Nikiema Fulbert , Kabre Elie , Bazié Bazoin Sylvain Raoul , Abakar Idriss Lawane , Savadogo Aly (2019). Screening of Mycotoxins Producer Fungal and Aflatoxins Level in Dried and Smoked Fish (Clarias Sp.) and (Oreochromis Sp.) from Lake Fitri - Chad. Journal of Food Technology Research, 6(1): 49-56. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.61.49.56
Fish is a protein source of high nourishing value consumed in the entire world. In Saharan countries it is consumed fresh, however as dried or smoked. However, fish is subject to both fungal and mycotoxins contamination. This study aims to identify fungal presumed producing mycotoxin and to evaluate the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, and G2. A total of 150 samples of dried and smoked fish (Clarias sp. and Oreochromis sp.) have been collected in different islands of the Fitri lake. Standard methods of microbiology have been used for fungal isolation and identification. Aflatoxins content in fish has been determined using HPLC associate to GCMS. Fifty samples (50) were contaminated by four major fungal kinds. Frequency of fungal was to 40 % (Aspergillus niger), 26 % (Aspergillus fumigatus), 20 % (Mucor sp), 8% (Curvularia spp) and 6% (Scycadium). Twenty (20) samples suspected to be contaminated and analyzed, only seven (7) was contaminated with aflatoxins (B1, B2 and G2). The aflatoxin contamination level vary according to the fish species. Clarias sp. samples are 50 % contaminated by aflatoxins when Oreochromis sp are 20 % contaminated. Aflatoxins rates ranged from 0.01 to 2.78 and 0.09 to 0.32 µg/Kg respectively for aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 for Clarias sp and from 0 to 0.4 µg/Kg of aflatoxin B2 for Oreochromis sp. The mycotoxins level is in average high than the European Union recommendation for dried product. These results call for more sensitization and training for producer for safe dried and smoked fish.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, and G2 in dried and smoked fishes (Clarias sp and Oreochromis sp.) from Fitri lake in Chad.

A Brief Discussion on Curdling Technology, Microbiological Risks and Contaminants of Fermented Milk Named Biisim Missiga

Pages: 37-48
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A Brief Discussion on Curdling Technology, Microbiological Risks and Contaminants of Fermented Milk Named Biisim Missiga

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.61.37.48

Cisse Hama , Zongo Oumarou , Tarnagda Bakary , Abdoullahi Hissein Ousman , Kagambega Boureima , Ouedraogo Abasse Ganame , Sawadogo Adama , Traore Yves , Savadogo Aly

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Cisse Hama , Zongo Oumarou , Tarnagda Bakary , Abdoullahi Hissein Ousman , Kagambega Boureima , Ouedraogo Abasse Ganame , Sawadogo Adama , Traore Yves , Savadogo Aly (2019). A Brief Discussion on Curdling Technology, Microbiological Risks and Contaminants of Fermented Milk Named Biisim Missiga. Journal of Food Technology Research, 6(1): 37-48. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.61.37.48
The objective of this study was to evaluate endogenous curdling knowledge, microbiological hazards and other contaminants of Biisim missiga. Thus, a survey was conducted among local producers to collect information on curdling technologies in five cities to Burkina Faso. The quality of Biisim missiga samples collected was assessed according to standard microbiological criteria. Contaminants and their sources have been identified according to literature review. The results of this survey revealed that fresh and powdered milk are the most used raw materials to production of Biisim missiga. Curdling technologies are similar in cities surveyed. Microbiological quality of Biisim missiga analysed was unsatisfactory according to criteria used. The presence of pathogenic potential was detected during microbiological analyses. Three types of contaminations have been identified according to literature. In sum, this study revealed that the Biisim missiga analysed do not comply with the criteria in force. Corrective measures must be taken to improve the quality of Biisim missiga sold in Burkina Faso.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature knowledge of endogenous milk curdling technologies in Burkina Faso. In our study we are focused as well on the diversity of biological, physical and chemical contaminants of curd milk in generally. This study documents on the sanitary risk of the dairy products chain.

Effect of Tuber Sections, Heat Treatment and Rehydration with Process Chemicals on the Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. (Lam)) Flour

Pages: 28-36
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Effect of Tuber Sections, Heat Treatment and Rehydration with Process Chemicals on the Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. (Lam)) Flour

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.61.28.36

Iheagwara, M. C. , Chibuzo, I. H. , Ibeabuchi, J. C.

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Iheagwara, M. C. , Chibuzo, I. H. , Ibeabuchi, J. C. (2019). Effect of Tuber Sections, Heat Treatment and Rehydration with Process Chemicals on the Physicochemical Properties of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. (Lam)) Flour. Journal of Food Technology Research, 6(1): 28-36. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.61.28.36
The impact of tuber sections and some processing conditions on the physicochemical properties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) flour was investigated. Flour samples were generated as fresh, boiled and steamed from the head, middle, tail and the whole tuber. All the samples were subjected to some physicochemical analyses such as swelling index (SI), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC), total soluble solids (TSS), blue value index (BVI), gelling point temperature (GPT), boiling point temperature (BPT) and pH in order to assess the effect of tuber section, heat treatment and post-milling rehydration properties of flour in different steeping solution of varying concentrations. The result showed that the proximate composition of the flour from the tuber sections and the whole did not differ significantly (p < 0.05). The influence of steeping solution type (SST) was not significant (p > 0.05) on WAC, SI (boiled and steamed) and TSS (raw) while steeping solution concentration (SSC) effected significant variations (p < 0.05) in all the tested parameters of the flour. Also, the parameter analytical temperature (PAT) caused significant differences (p < 0.05) in all the test parameters.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the effect of tuber sections and processing conditions on the physicochemical properties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) flour. The investigation showed that the test variables had significant effects on the physicochemical properties of sweet potato flour.

A Review: Role of Inulin in Animal Nutrition

Pages: 18-27
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A Review: Role of Inulin in Animal Nutrition

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.61.18.27

Muhammad Waseem Birmani , Aamir Nawab , Muhammad Waseem Ghani , Guanghui Li , Mei Xiao , Lilong An

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Muhammad Waseem Birmani , Aamir Nawab , Muhammad Waseem Ghani , Guanghui Li , Mei Xiao , Lilong An (2019). A Review: Role of Inulin in Animal Nutrition. Journal of Food Technology Research, 6(1): 18-27. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.61.18.27
Inulin is an oligosaccharide which can be used in the animal diet as a functional fiber. Among other natural plant-derived fructans, inulin has so many beneficial effects on the immune system, lipid metabolism, and helps in mineral absorption and has the ability to balance the intestinal microbiota of animals. Increasing global meat demand and ban of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed due to its residual effects in human food are the factors driving the growth of inulin as a feed additive. As feed additive in animal feed inulin has a positive effect on intestinal health and have the potential to improve the immunity of livestock and poultry. From few years, inulin has been making headlines in animal nutrition, but it remains a little-known feed ingredient and is even less used in the feed industry. Therefore, the objective of this review is to provide recently applied knowledge to the researchers about the general beneficial functions of inulin in the animal body and its application in the animal feed industry.
Contribution/ Originality
Present study has much contribution of inulin use in animal nutrition. Before that lot of studies available on inulin in human. In our study we focus on inulin use in animal diet. It is considered a functional plant-based ingredient that effectively boosts digestion and other processes. From this study scientists and nutritionists get idea to use inulin in livestock and other animal feed.

Effect of Domestic Cooking on Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Var. Marmande)

Pages: 1-17
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Effect of Domestic Cooking on Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Var. Marmande)

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.61.1.17

Lynda Arkoub-Djermoune , Salima Bellili , Lamia Khenouce , Farida Benmeziane , Khodir Madani , Lila Boulekbache-Makhlouf

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Lynda Arkoub-Djermoune , Salima Bellili , Lamia Khenouce , Farida Benmeziane , Khodir Madani , Lila Boulekbache-Makhlouf (2019). Effect of Domestic Cooking on Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Var. Marmande). Journal of Food Technology Research, 6(1): 1-17. DOI: 10.18488/journal.58.2019.61.1.17
Most of the vegetables are consumed after being cooked. Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet. This study was performed to investigate the influence of the traditional cooking methods of Algerian people (frying, griddling and baking) on the physicochemical properties (pH, moisture, acidity, Brix, total sugar, ash and non enzymatic browning index), phytochemicals contents (phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, flavonols vitamin C, carotenoids and lycopene) and the antioxidant activity of tomato (S. lycopersicum) cultivated in Algeria. Cooking treatment affect positively their physicochemical properties (pH, acidity, Brix, total sugar, ash and non-enzymatic browning index) except the moisture content which decreases significantly. After cooking, the number of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins increase significantly, nevertheless vitamin C, carotenoids and lycopene contents decrease for all cooked samples. Finally, DPPH and ABTS free radicals scavenging activities increased in cooked tomato extracts, while a slight decrease was recorded in ferric reducing power (FRP) due to the reduction of vitamin C contents. Consequently, the antioxidant activity of tomato depends on the cooking procedure and griddling, frying seems to be the best cooking way that enhances its antioxidant activity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents for the first time to determine the influence of the traditional cooking methods of Algerian people (frying, griddling and baking) on the physicochemical properties, the phytochemicals contents and the antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS and FRP) of Algerian tomato (S. lycopersicum var. Marmande) used in different food preparation.