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Listing 96 - 20 of 1969 results.

Risk Factors for the Contamination of Wild Stomoxys niger niger Macquart 1851 (Diptera: Muscidae) with the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

Research Article
Author(s): Sevidzem Silas Lendzele, Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini, Simon Dickmu, Alfons Renz, Acapovi-Yao Genevieve Lydie, Jacques Francois Mavoungou, Rebecca Garabed
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The study aimed at detecting the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA in Stomoxys niger niger and cattle. Flies were collected using a Vavoua trap pitched 50m from the center of the herd and by net-catches on clinically sick (n=5) and symptomless cattle (n=5). Vesicular Epithelia Tissues (VETs) from sick cattle were analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt RT PCR) and serum from randomly selected animals without clinical signs was examined by serological test (NSP-ELISA Kit) for the presence of FMDV antibodies. Of a total of 568 Stomoxys trapped using the Vavoua trap, two species were identified namely 196 S. niger niger (34.51 %, 9. 33 Snn/t/d), 101 S. omega (17.78%, 4.80 so/t/d) and 271 non-biting Musca sp. (47.71%, 12.90 m/vavoua and day). The dissected mouth and legs of each fly caught were screened for FMDV using the rt RT PCR. FMDV RNA was found in the epithelial vesicles of all clinically sick animals (n=5, with mean Ct of 27.98456) and 3 out of 5 were serologically positive in the clinically in-apparent cattle group. The overall S. n. niger (most abundant species) contamination rate with the FMDV irrespective of collection method was 40.3 % with females (49.0 %) being slightly more contaminated than males (21.7%) (OR =0.45, P= 0.1506) and legs being more often positive than mouth-parts (P=0.02002). Flies were contaminated less frequently on animals without clinical signs than those on animals with clinical signs, but this difference was not significant (P=0.69680).
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the mechanical transmission potential of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease by an African stable fly (Stomoxys niger niger). The FMD virus carrier status of wild S. n. niger was associated with the fly collection method, sex and anatomical part.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Antimicrobial Activities of Garlic and Ginger Extracts on Some Clinical Isolates

Research Article
Author(s): Iotsor, B. I., Iseghohi, F., Oladoja, O.E., Raji, O.R., Yusuf, Z., Oyewole, O.A.
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The antibacterial activity of n-hexane and methanol extracts of ginger and garlic was determined in vitro against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella dysenteriae using agar well diffusion technique. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, alkaloids and triterpenes in the plant extracts. The n-hexane and methanol extracts of garlic were observed to be more potent against S. dysenteriae with maximum zone of inhibition of 27 mm at 40 mg/ml and 29 mm at 80 mg/ml. The n-hexane and methanol extracts of ginger were observed to be more potent against E. coli with maximum zone of inhibition of 16 mm at 40 mg/ml and 19 mm at 80 mg/ml. The MIC of the methanolic extract against the test organisms was determined to show values between 5 and 20 mg/ml. In comparison, the n-hexane extract had MIC values between 2.5 and 10 mg/ml. The methanol extract of ginger had MIC values between 10 and 40 mg/ml while the n-hexane had MIC values between 10 and 20 mg/ml. The MBC of methanol garlic extract was between 10 and 40 mg/ml. The n-hexane garlic extract had MBC values between 2.5 and 20 mg/ml. The methanol extract of ginger had MBC values between 10 and 40 mg/ml while the n-Hexane ginger extract had MBC values between 10 and 20 mg/ml. The result of this study showed that the extracts had activity against the test organisms and as such could be used for drug development.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the use of garlic and ginger for their antimicrobial properties aside from their use as spices. These plant-based extracts provide hope for solving antimicrobial resistance problems since it is difficult for microorganisms to develop resistance to them.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Effects of Medical Security Satisfaction and Trust in Doctors on Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from China

Research Article
Author(s): Xiaomei Gong, Jiaping Zhang
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
How to improve residents' well-being is regarded as an important goal of sustainable economic development. Although health care has an important impact (directly and indirectly) on subjective well-being (SWB), existing literature rarely empirically investigated the impact of individual’s satisfaction with health care on SWB, especially in developing countries like China, where the health care level has obviously lagged behind the public health needs and the speed of economic development. In addition, China is also facing a tense doctor-patient relationship situation in recent years. Based on the data from the Chinese Social Survey (CSS) for 2015, this paper empirically analyzes the impact of medical security satisfaction and trust in doctors (to reflect doctor-patient relationship) on Chinese people’s SWB. We have adopted a variety of methods for robust test, and used the propensity score matching (PSM) method to deal with the endogenous problems that may be caused by “selection bias”. The results show that both the medical security satisfaction and trust in doctors have positive effects on SWB, indicating that the improvement of medical security and doctor-patient relationship can contribute to Chinese people’s SWB in the new era. This study has certain guiding significance for the implementation of “healthy China” strategy, and further enriches the related research of health economics.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which has directly investigated the predictors of individual’s subjective well-being from the perspective of health care satisfaction. This paper further enriches the relevant studies on health economics and has important policy implications for developing countries.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Estimating the Economic Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Bioenergy in EU-28: An Application of Tobit Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Mohd Alsaleh, A.S. Abdul-Rahim
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This study identified the effects of economic factors on technical efficiency (TE) rate in the bio-energy section for the European Union zone (EU-28). A Tobit framework estimation was used to investigate the economic factors of TE rate in the bio-energy sector for the EU-28 zone during the period among 1990 through 2013. The findings point that economic determinants have a significant impact on TE rate of the bio-energy sector in the EU-28 countries. The empirical findings suggest that labor input and gross domestic product (GDP) significantly affected the TE of the bio-energy sector in the EU-28 zone through the duration of this paper. The results obviously inviting governors and politicians to investigate the TE rate of the bio-energy sector within the EU-28 zone. This paper gives further facts and details to the senates of the bio-energy sectors, as they require to get a further comprehension of the impact TE has on bio-energy production execution. In addition, the findings of this paper have suggestions for financiers who concentrates significantly on revenues from their direct-investments.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature in investigating the TE of the bioenergy industry in the EU-28 region. This study uses new estimation methodologies such as the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the Tobit Model to investigate the impact of economic determinants on the TE of the bioenergy industry in the EU28 region during the period between 1990 and 2013.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Examining the Implications of Differentiated Instruction for High School Students’ Self-Actualization

Research Article
Author(s): Afaf Aljaser
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Adopting differentiated teaching and learning strategies has proved effective in addressing students’ diverse capabilities and potentials as well as developing their skills. This study examines the implications of differentiated instruction for self-actualization among high school students. For achieving this purpose, the quasi-experimental approach was adopted. The sample consisted of (58) high school students from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. They were subdivided into an experimental group comprising (28) students taught in a differentiated classroom environment and a control one comprising (30) students taught in a traditional classroom environment. Two scales, a differentiated classroom environment scale and a self-actualization scale, were prepared and applied upon the participants. The results showed a high level of self-actualization among the experimental group students, indicating that differentiated instruction improved their self-actualization skills. Differentiated instruction provided students with an environment suitable to make them feel self-confident, establish positive relations with their classmates, and positively interact and cooperate with them. In the light of these results, the author recommends holding training courses and workshops to qualify teachers for designing and utilizing differentiated instruction.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the implications of differentiated instruction for self-actualization. It enriches the existing literature of learner-centered education since it aims at considering learners’ individual differences and self-actualization skills. Studying the implication of differentiated instruction for self-actualization has a promising significance.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Production of Biosurfactants Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa for Biodegradation of Herbicide

Research Article
Author(s): Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun, Ayams, Jude Ndanusa, Abioye, Olabisi Peter
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This study was aimed at isolating Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the soil to produce biosurfactant for degradation of herbicide. The soil sample was collected from oil polluted site in mechanic workshop, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria and transferred to the microbiology laboratory of the University in a sterile polyethylene bag. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the soil and identified using microbiological and biochemical assays. The isolate was screened for biosurfactant production using haemolytic assay, drop collapse, oil spreading and emulsification test. Biosurfactant production was carried out using mineral salt medium for ten days. The ability of the biosurfactant produced by P. aeruginosa in degrading herbicide was tested on five concentrations of herbicide (5%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%) and the results showed biodegradation percentages as 56.4%, 53.1%, 32.6%, 29.8% and 26.2% respectively revealing that degradation was higher at lower concentrations. This suggests that herbicide could be biodegraded especially at low concentrations using biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that biosurfactant could be produced from bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and this could be used for degradation of herbicide that has remained an environmental problem.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

The Impact of Military Spending on Economic Wellbeing in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Michael A. Akume, Gylych Jelilov, Benedict Akanegbu
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The impact of military spending on domestic output is contentious and therefore requires further analysis on a country by country basis to determine its level of significance. Nigeria’s military contributions to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sub-region and the recent rise of various insurgencies, particularly, Jam??at Ahl al-Sunna lil-Da?awah wa al-Jih?d’ (Boko Haram) – arguably the most fatal insurgent group – has increased Nigeria’s military expenditure. This study investigates the impact of this increase in military spending on the economic well-being (measured by GDP per capita) of Nigerians using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to co-integration for the period from 1988 to 2017. The results suggest that there is a positive relationship between military spending and economic well-being in Nigeria. However, the impact on citizens’ wellbeing is not instantaneous as the variable is only significant after the current year spending; which does not last longer than a year. The study therefore recommends that defense spending be strategic, and that all earmarked funds for defense be deployed appropriately so that increases in wellbeing can be more long-term as opposed to lasting for only one year.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature on military spending and growth. This study uses an adapted model.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 05-2019 Issue: 4

Combined Antibacterial Activity of Honey Bees (Apis Florae) and Embelia Schimperi Extracts Against Standard and Clinical Isolated Bacteria

Research Article
Author(s): Muluken Dejen, Tilahun Yohannes, Tesfahun Bekele
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Despite tremendous progress in drug development and treatment, infectious diseases caused by bacteria are still a major threat to human and animal health mainly due to drug resistances. These the ever-increasing threats demand a global effort to search for novel solutions. Different parts of plants and bee’s honey have been used, separately or in combination, as a source of therapeutic agents in traditional medicine since ancient time due to bioactive compounds they contain. Therefore the objective of this study is to determine the antibacterial activity of crude extract of Embelia schimperi leaves and combined with bee’s honey (Apis florae) against some standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. The In-vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts was tested at different concentrations by using agar well diffusion method and measuring zone of inhibition. The data was analyzed by ANOVA. Both the clinical and standard bacteria showed sensitivity to E. schimperi with inhibition zones ranging from 7.17 ± 0.29 to 28.96 ± 0.25. The ethanol extract of E. schimperi leaves and ethanol extract blended with honey have showed significant inhibition against the tested organisms than the chloroform extract and chloroform extract blended with honey respectively. The inhibition zone was lower against S. aureus during both the Chloroform leave extract and the chloroform blended with honey. The highest inhibition zone was observed against E. coli with the ethanol leave extract and against K. pneumonia with the ethanol mixed with honey. Therefore, the E. schimperi leaves extract and synergy with honey has witnessed broad spectrum antibacterial activity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature of the antibacterial effects of leaf extracts of E. schimperi. It is the only study that investigated the synergetic effects of leaves of E. schimperi with honey. Therefore, the synergy of the leaves with honey has shown promising antimicrobial effect.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Does Social Barriers Influence Women's Intention toward Entrepreneurship?

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammad Ali, Md. Tanvir Alam Himel
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This paper aims to investigate the impact of social and psychological barriers on the negative intention of female students to be an entrepreneur and to analyze the mediating role of psychological barriers between social barriers and negative entrepreneurial intention. Total of 791 female students were surveyed from Bangladesh through an on-line questionnaire. Four hypotheses have been developed and tested on the total sample. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to measure the validity of the data and the relationship among the variables. The study endorsed that social barriers have a significant negative association with the negative intention toward entrepreneurship that indicates social barriers do not significantly reduce the entrepreneurial intention. Psychological barriers as mediating variable have a significant and positive relationship with social barriers and those barriers also have a significant positive effect on negative intention toward entrepreneurship. Psychological barriers partially mediate the relationship between social barriers and the intention toward entrepreneurship. Thus, social barriers through psychological barriers significantly influence the entrepreneurial intention and reduce the inclination of female students toward entrepreneurship.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates unique findings that social barriers do not directly contribute to reducing the entrepreneurial intention, but psychological barriers significantly reduce the intention of the female students toward entrepreneurship. Besides, psychological barriers play a mediating role between social barriers and entrepreneurial intention.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

The Effect of Selected Factors on Tax Revenue Mobilization in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region

Research Article
Author(s): Tilahun Aemiro Tehulu
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
While many African countries raise 15% or more in tax revenue, some countries like Ethiopia still do not raise the necessary amount of resources to allow for the sound functioning of domestic institutions and basic service delivery. Therefore, this study investigated the perceived effect of selected factors on tax revenue mobilization in Ethiopia. Data is collected through a structured questionnaire and analyzed using univariate statistics namely one sample T-test and other descriptive statistics including proportions and means. The findings revealed that the political instability of the country has negatively affected the normal business operation of firms; reduced investments due to lower confidence of investors and negatively affected the taxable income of business firms. The results, however, revealed that closeness to general elections doesn’t affect normal business operation of firms. The findings also revealed that there is high corruption by tax officials in our region; taxpayer awareness creation to report any corruptive practices is also weak; measures by the tax authority to improve the accountability of tax officials are also limited or none and those corruptive practices have negatively affected the amount of tax the revenue office could mobilize. Finally, the study uncovered that the present tax audit practice does not reduce tax evasion and other irregularities in our region and that the awareness of taxpayers of tax audit per se doesn’t make the tax payers render a satisfactory tax return. We also found that the tax administrative structure lacks autonomy and there is the inadequacy of skilled and competent employees in the tax administration.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by investigating the relationship among tax revenue mobilization of the recent political instability, the level of corruption, the present tax audit practice, the level of autonomy of the tax authority and competence of revenue collectors in Ethiopia, specifically, in Amhara region.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Ethiopia: The Case of Amhara Region MSEs

Research Article
Author(s): Tilahun Aemiro Tehulu
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
In Ethiopia, MSEs have become the favorite of policy makers as they are believed to play a critical role in addressing both poverty reduction and economic growth goals. Over the years, while some MSEs have grown extremely large and profitable, many others have failed or have not been as successful as they might have been. This study seeks to identify the factors that hamper the success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Amhara region of Ethiopia since studies aimed at assessing the same are virtually missing. This study employed a quantitative research approach using a descriptive survey design. The data was drawn from a survey of 316 MSEs in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Statistical models including One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and T-test are used to analyze the data apart from other descriptive statistics such as percentages and mean. The study has revealed that working premises, marketing and financial factors are the three most serious factors that hamper the success of MSEs. We suggest that since the real challenges of MSEs change over time, the challenges of MSEs must be studied at some periodic interval to identify the real challenges of MSEs of the time and take appropriate action timely.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the existing literature by revealing the critical factors that hamper the success of MSEs and may help the local government to devise ways to support these enterprises in efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development by 2030.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Plants Extract

Research Article
Author(s): Dina S. Ahmed, Teeba Hashim Mohammed, Mohsen Hashim Risan, Liqaa H. Najim, Salam A. Mohammed, Rahimi M. Yusop, Emad Yousif
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
The development in the eco-friendly and cost-effective green synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles utilizing several natural resources like microorganisms, plant, flower and fruit extracts is an emerging area of nanotechnology. In recent years, the development of efficient green chemistry methods for synthesis of metal nanoparticles has become a major focus of researchers. One of the most considered methods is production of metal nanoparticles using organisms. Among these organisms plants seem to be the best candidates and they are suitable for large-scale biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles produced by plants are more stable and the rate of synthesis is faster than in the case of microorganisms. Moreover, the nanoparticles are more various in shape and size in comparison with those produced by other organisms. The advantages of using plant and plant-derived materials for biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles have interested researchers to investigate mechanisms of metal ions uptake and bioreduction by plants, and to understand the possible mechanism of metal nanoparticle formation in plants. In this review, most of the plants used in metal nanoparticle synthesis are shown. Researchers have focused their attention on understanding the biological mechanisms and enzymatic processes of nanoparticle biosynthesis as well as detection and characterization of biomolecules involved in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Many biomolecules in plants such as proteins/enzymes, amino acids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, alcoholic compounds, and vitamins could be involved in bioreduction, formation and stabilization of metal nanoparticles. Genetic modification of plants with improved metal accumulation capacities is the future approach to increase the productivity of these organisms in nanoparticle synthesis.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to develop the efficient green chemistry methods which have investigated synthesis of metal nanoparticles
Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

The Relationship between Financial Development, Economic Growth, and Inflation: Evidence from Southeast Asia

Research Article
Author(s): Anh Tru Nguyen
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study examines the relationship between financial development, economic growth, and inflation five developing Southeast Asian countries between 1997 and 2016 using a vector autoregressive model. The results revealed that: inflation positively affected money supply and stock market capitalization, but GDP per capita growth rate negatively; GDP per capita growth rate was positively correlated with domestic credit to the private sector; money supply positively affected stock market capitalization and inflation; domestic credit to the private sector exerted a positive influence on GDP per capita growth rate, but negative on inflation; and stock market capitalization was negatively related to inflation. Further, a directional relationship runs from GDP per capita to inflation, from inflation to money supply, and from inflation to domestic credit to the private sector. Policies are recommended to promote economic growth, reduce inflation, and achieve sustainable development in Southeast Asia. First, inflation should be carefully controlled as it causes a decline in the GDP per capita growth rate. Second, GDP per capita growth rate should be promoted owing to its positively effect on domestic credit to the private sector, which has been an important catalyst for economic growth in Southeast Asia over recent decades. Finally, domestic credit to the private sector and stock market capitalization should be fostered because of their contribution to reducing inflation and increasing the GDP per capita growth rate.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by clarifying the causal relationship between financial development, economic growth, and inflation in five developing Southeast Asian countries between 1997 and 2016, using a vector autoregressive model.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 05-2019 Issue: 4

Attitude to Age and Socio-Demographic Information Reporting: The Unseen Challenges to Sustainable Development Goals

Research Article
Author(s): Okafor Samuel, O., Okoye Onyinyechi, E.
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The study investigated the prevailing factors over age reporting and other socio-demographic information during the Nigerian population census. The study was carried out in south eastern Nigeria, using the cross sectional survey method. The sample size was 597 respondents, males and females aged 26 and older. The analysis examined the latent factors that affected the reporting of age and other socio-demographic status of the citizens using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. From the data, the study demonstrated that age reporting can be predicted by educational level (?= .075, t= 1.965, P<.05), the means of information about the population census (?= .126, t= 3.272, P<.05) and the citizens’ understanding of the census as a means of knowing their needs by the government (?= .343, t= 8.943, P<.05); similarly, reporting of occupational status can be predicted by educational levels (?= .130, t= 3.263, P<.05) and the citizens’ understanding of census as a means of knowing their needs by the government (?= . 263, t= 6.592, P<.05), etc. The study revealed the loopholes that affected the 2015MDG target and set a pace to achieve the post-2015 SDGs. The study has raised a concern for the empirical evaluation of census participation and socio-demographic status reporting.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on population studies. It uses new estimation methodology and originates age-reporting studies. It is one of very few studies which have investigated age-reporting. The paper contributes the first logical analysis of age-reporting. Its primary contribution is finding that census data are not absolutely dependable. This study documents age reporting lapses.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Causes, Dissemination Channels, and Consequences of Corruption in Zimbabwe: Searching for a Kryptonite Solution

Research Article
Author(s): Joe Muzurura
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The term corruption is a multidimensional phenomenon that encompasses abuse of power, misappropriation of public resources, fraud, bribes, collusion, and other rent-seeking activities undertaken for private gain, monetary and non-monetary. Applying a logit model to a survey of 100 individuals and 50 small-to-medium-sized private firms, this study investigates the causes, dissemination channels, and consequences of corruption in Zimbabwe for the period 1998 to 2018. Opportunity perceptions, political instability, weak public institutions, excessive market regulations, red tape, cultural tolerance, competition, poverty, risk capital, business uncertainties, high taxation rates, the existence of a shadow economy, and the level of education were found to be the main causes of corruption. The channels of its dissemination are primarily the monetary and fiscal policies that implement macro-controls. This study therefore recommends the adoption of policies that reduce excessive market regulations for private exchanges, ensure the rule of law, restore macroeconomic stability, enhance regulatory quality and efficiency, develop robust and transparent public institutions, and minimize the discretionary powers of bureaucrats and politicians. Furthermore, to improve accountability, Zimbabwe should implement policies that ensure the forfeiture and repatriation of the proceeds of corruption, early detection of corruption, and prosecution of perpetrators, without fear or favor. Finally, severe penalties should be imposed on all cases of corruption, regardless of how petty, as preventive and deterrent measures.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the causes and consequences of corruption in Zimbabwe. Unlike similar studies that rely on cross sectional surveys, this study pioneers the application of binary choice models, in the form of the logit regression model, to examine the causes and dissemination channels of corruption.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Cyber-Crime and its Effects on E-Commerce Technologies

Research Article
Author(s): Richard Apau, Felix Nti Koranteng, Samuel Adu Gyamfi
Journal: Journal of Information

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Abstract
Adoption and use of e-commerce technologies continue to rise because they provide access to global markets, offer a competitive advantage and increase the effectiveness of businesses. Safety and trust are important factors that affect users' intentions and use of e-commerce technologies. Considering the upsurge of cyber-crime activities and the paucity of research in this domain particularly in developing countries, this paper investigated how cyber-crime perceptions affect users' intention to conduct business via e-commerce technologies. Using a survey approach, an online questionnaire was distributed and data from 476 participants was rigorously analyzed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling. The paper extends the theory of reasoned action with relevant constructs; trust and cyber-crime perceptions. The relationships between the constructs were based on deductive reasoning from prior studies. The hypothesized model explained 33.1% of the variance in Attitude Towards Behavior and 41.5% of Consumers Intention to Purchase. The results indicate that trust in internet medium, attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and cyber-crime perceptions are significant predictors of intention to purchase using e-commerce. There was, however, no significant relationships between Trust of Ecommerce Sellers and Cyber Crime Perceptions as well as Trust of Ecommerce Sellers and Consumers Purchase Intention. The findings elucidate businesses and stakeholders on the impacts of trust and cyber-crime perceptions on users' purchase intentions. It also inspires e-commerce technology developers to incorporate security features that reduce the vulnerability of these systems. Finally, the findings for this study are limited to respondents from Ghana hence future analysis could explore other countries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the effects of cybercrime on e-commerce technologies from the perspective of a developing country. In fact, the first study in Ghana, which attempts to examine consumers’ perception of cybercrime on their purchase intentions using electronic commerce technologies.
Computer Sciences » Journal of Information » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Optimization of Biodiesel Development from Non-Edible Indigenous Feedstocks in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Nwoko, Christopher Ikpe Amadi, Nkwoada, Amarachi Udoka, Ogu, Helen Ugochi
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This study investigated the transesterification of Rubber seeds (Hevea brasiliensis), Avocado Pear seeds (Gratissima persea), and Nipa Palm Kennel seeds (Nypa frutican) locally sourced from Nigeria as an adsorbate for the esterification reaction of oleic acid with methanol. Reaction was catalysed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) to form methoxide oleate (biodiesel) adsorption from aqueous solution in batch model for the production of biodiesel. The results obtained showed that rubber seeds oil (RSO), Avocado pear seeds oil (APO) and Nipa palm kernel seed oil (NPKO) oil gave maximum biodiesel yields at 0.9 % w/v, 0.1 % w/v and 0.1 % w/v catalyst concentration respectively. Their biodiesel yields were 88.0 %, 92.0 % and 96.7% respectively. They recovered biodiesel were characterized as an alternative fuel via specific gravity, viscosity, acid value, flash point and cloud point. The results obtained showed that the specific gravity for RSO (0.886 kg/m3), APO (0.876 kg/m3) and NPKO (0.850 kg/m3) were fairly significant at temperature of 25 oC to other conventional petroleum diesel ASTM D 975, standard biodiesel ASTM D975, and standard biodiesel ASTM 6751 and EN14214.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on Nigeria local plants capable of producing biodiesel via catalysed trans-esterification reaction.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Potential Economic Benefit and Producers’ Willingness to Adopt Bt-Brinjal in Bangladesh: An Ex-Ante Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Md. Abdullah Al Mamun, Mohammad Jahangir Alam, Dilshad Zahan Ethen, Swarup Barua
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Introduction of genetic engineering in agriculture is a recent idea of native scientists. Scientists from Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI) are working on developing an FSB resistant brinjal variety namely Bt-brinjal in collaboration with Cornel University, USA. In addition, this study was attempted to find out the potential economic benefit and producers’ willingness to adopt Bt-brinjal. A total of 80 respondents were randomly selected from Gazipur and Jamalpur districts. Descriptive statistics and Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze data. Yield gain and reduction in insecticide use data give the result as Bt-brinjal will increase yield by 65.76 percent and 44.87 percent and reduce pesticide cost by 71 percent and 70.36 percent compared to local OPV and Hybrid brinjal respectively. 98 percent of farmers will produce Bt-brinjal if they reduce insecticide use but 65 percent will not produce it if there are any health-related issues. Mass advertisement is also a significant factor of adoption (63.75 percent). It was found that the marketing channel for Bt and non-Bt brinjal is same. For this producers’ adoption of Bt-brinjal is related to the potential benefit and harmlessness of the technology. Results also showed that adoption is significantly influenced by education, own land size, no. of spray per season, season of growing brinjal (p<.01) and household size, type of growing brinjal (p<.05) respectively. Though voice against GM crops was also very loud but the Bangladesh government is very much eager to introduce this technology to the market and give the benefits to its consumers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated potential economic benefit and producer willingness to adopt of Bt-brinjal in Bangladesh. This study was an ex-ante analysis related to Bt-brinjal adoption in Bangladesh. Hence; this is an original contribution in this field.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2019 Issue: 3

Initiatives for Accomplishing the TIMSS 500 CenterPoint through Curricula, Teachers' Development and Instructional Strategies

Research Article
Author(s): Masooma Ali Al-Mutawah, Ruby Thomas, Abdulghani Al-Hattami, Nisha Preji, Maha Al-Enizi
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is one of the most influential assessments of student achievement conducted every four years. It provides reliable data on mathematics and science achievements in grade 4 and grade 8 as well as information about instructional curricular and teaching-learning process. This helps to make decisions on policy development and identify areas of progress. This research delivers evidence on factors that influence the improvement in the scores of TIMSS examination in 2015 compared to 2011 in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Since the Kingdom experienced a major reformation in mathematics and science education, this research analyzes the improvement in students’ skills and knowledge by comparing the same cohort results in 2011 and 2015 in mathematics as well as science. This research is also trying to identify other factors, as benchmarked by the Bahrain Numeracy Strategy (BNS) such as school environment, teacher education, teacher’s professional development, and classroom contexts for learning and instructional support which backed the improvement. This research provides initiatives to be taken to accomplish TIMSS Center Point 500 in the coming TIMSS examination in 2019 or later.
Contribution/ Originality
This research provides initiatives to be taken to cross TIMSS Center Point 500 in the coming TIMSS examinations in the Kingdom of Bahrain by analyzing the factors such as curriculum development, instructional strategies, school infrastructure, teacher’s education and professional development, classroom contexts for developing a learning environment.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Impact of Social Media on Social Value Systems among University Students in Saudi Arabia

Research Article
Author(s): Hanan A. Aljehani
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The present study aims to investigate the impact of social media on the value system (especially citizenship, time respect, others' privacy respect, family communication, and communication values) among the students of the College of Education, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University. It utilized the descriptive approach and applied a 40-item questionnaire covering (5) domains to a randomly selected sample of (142) students. Results revealed a positive impact of social media on citizenship and communication values, a moderately negative impact on time respect, and a poor impact on others' privacy respect and on family communication. There were no statistically significant differences in the impact of social media on the value system due to (specialization, family's economic status, time spent on social media, and preferred social media). The study results call for benefiting from the positive impacts of social media and sensitizing students to the negative ones, especially time respect and its optimal use, as well as conducting qualitative studies on the reasons for spending too much time on social media.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by identifying the impact of social media on the value system among the students of the College of Education, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia. It explores the impact of social media on student values e.g. citizenship, time respect, others' privacy respect, social communication, family communication, and communication values.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3