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Listing 86 - 20 of 1965 results.

Determinants and Extent of Pre- and Postharvest Losses of Fruits in Northwestern Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Muluken Bantayehu, Melkamu Alemayehu, Merkuz Abera, Solomon Bizuayehu
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The study was conducted to identify determinants of losses during pre-harvest and postharvest activities of fruits and their extent at producer`s level in Northwestern Ethiopia where tomato, papaya, avocado, banana and mango were used as fruit samples. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 180 randomly selected respondents of six districts (FinoteSelam, BurieZuria, Bahir Dar, Bahir Dar Zuria, Dangla and Farta). Descriptive statistics and multiple regressions analysis were used to identify determinant factors. The results of the findings revealed that the total fruit loss was estimated to be 44.8% where about 20.7% of the fruits were lost due to improper activities in the pre-harvest stages while about 24.1% loss was due to improper activities during post-harvest stages. The shares of pre-harvest and postharvest losses to the total fruit loss were about 46.2% and 53.8%, respectively. Income sources, use of pesticide, and use of compost or manure during production were the determinant factors that influenced fruit losses during pre-harvest while experience and educational levels of producers in fruit production and shortage of labor were the determinant factors of fruit losses during harvesting. Moreover, chemical treatments of fruits before storage and educational levels of the producers were the determinants that influenced fruit losses in producer`s storage while experiences of the fruit producers, distance to market and educational levels were the significant factors of fruit losses during marketing. Further researches and trainings of producers about use of pre- and post-harvest technologies that minimize losses at the value chain of fruits are vital.
Contribution/ Originality
This survey is one the few researches that has estimated fruit loss and identified the major factors responsible for loss. The research paper contribution is finding that about 44.8 percent fruit is lost and use of pre- and post-harvest technologies as well as educating producers about fruit loss is vital.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2018 Issue: 4

Leading Indicators and Financial Crisis: A Multi-Sectoral Approach Using Signal Extraction

Research Article
Author(s): Mpho Bosupeng
Journal: Journal of Empirical Studies

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Abstract
Using signal extraction, this study identifies leading indicators of financial crisis over the period 1980-2015 in developing and advanced economies. The study evaluates vulnerability in the external, public and financial sector in developing countries. The results postulate that the level of imports is the principal leading indicator for detecting a forthcoming crisis in developing nation’s external sector. In the public sector, the best indicators for predicting a crisis in South Africa are in the order: maturity of debt; external debt; debt-GDP ratio; interest rate payments; short-term debt and government expenditure. In Namibia, the best indicator for predicting crisis is total expenditure and interest rate payments. Comparatively, Russia’s crises are better predicted by the following variables: debt ratio; interest rate payments; short-term debt; expenditure and external debt. The two best indicators were debt ratio and interest rate payments. In the financial sector, the common risk indicator among developing economies is the lending rate. The external balance sheet assessment shows that in developed countries, predictors of a financial emanate from portfolio investments and direct investments. For the UK, the best indicators of a looming financial crisis are: direct investment liabilities; portfolio debt liabilities and direct investment debt instruments.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the first contributions in early warning systems that assesses vulnerability in multiple sectors of an economy which are external, public and financial sectors. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is also the first to determine external balance sheet assessment in developed nations.
Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Triple Hurdle Model with Zero Expenditures

Research Article
Author(s): Yeong Nain Chi
Journal: Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research

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Abstract
The Tobit model is a one-step decision method, implying that the decision to participate and the decision of how much to spend are influenced by the same variables and in the same manner. The double hurdle model is a two-step decision process; consumers first decide whether or not to participate, and then a second decision is made on how much to spend. The triple hurdle model has three separate stochastic decision choices for the first stage of awareness, the second stage of participation, and a final stage of consumption decision. This study provides a guidance in the choice of an appropriate model, which all observations can be used in the estimation for awareness and participation decisions, but only positive observations that pass awareness, participation and consumption decisions simultaneously can be used in the estimation based on a censored and truncated sample, allowing for richer interpretation of consumer choice behavior.
Contribution/ Originality
This study provides guidance in the choice of an appropriate model in the Tobit model, double hurdle model, and triple hurdle model in empirical expenditure analyses, which contain a high proportion of zero expenditure in the microdata, based on the Likelihood Ratio test.
Economics » Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

A Study on the Internet Usage Pattern of Youths in Sikkim

Research Article
Author(s): Saibal Kumar Saha
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Internet is being used by people all over the world as if it is a part of their day to day activity. The smartness brought my internet and its related devices have made life of people easy and sharing knowledge, researching and reaching out to people are now within the reach of fingertips. This study aims to find the internet usage pattern of youth in Sikkim, India. Fourteen common internet activities have been identified and through a survey the usage of these activities were analysed. It has been found that more or less all the activities are used by the youth population of Sikkim. The most popular activity is use of emails and social networking sites while blogging and video calling is not that popular. Also it has been found that 67% of the users use internet for more than 3 hours per day. Hence, there is a serious risk of “internet addiction”.
Contribution/ Originality


Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: inpmonth-0000 Issue: 0

Incorporating Islamic Ethic Elements into Marketing Mix Paradigm

Research Article
Author(s): Nazree Shafin, Rozilah Kasim
Journal: Financial Risk and Management Reviews

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Abstract
To consider the extent to which the dynamism of ethic elements from four commendable characteristics of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) fits within existing marketing mix framework thinking in strengthening marketing mix approach of Islamic business. This can be achieved through analyzing selected elements of Islamic ethic features, that are derived from the four (4) commendable characteristics of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH): Siddiq (Truthfulness), Amanah (Trustworthiness), Fathanah (Wisdom), and Tabligh (Advocacy), abbreviated as “SAFT to be incorporate as a catalyst to strengthen the marketing mix approach and thus propose a practical Islamic Marketing Mix as a competitive marketing tactic. Analytical and comparative analyses are used and study reveals four ethic elements in Islamic perspective that can be potential elements in developing a practical Islamic Marketing Mix for any business whether Islamic or non-Islamic.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes in the developing theories pertaining to Islamic religious teaching of moral behavior (Ethics) within business in practicing marketing mix approach – at the heart of which is the idea that incorporating Islamic ethic in business’ marketing mix approach could make the approach more efficient.
Economics » Financial Risk and Management Reviews » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Characterisation of Propagation Loss for a 3G Cellular Network in a Crowded Market Area Using CCIR Model

Research Article
Author(s): Simeon Ozuomba, Enyenihi, Johnson, Ngwu Chinyere Rosemary
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
In this paper, the propagation loss for 1800 MHz cellular network in a crowded market is studied and characterized using the Comit´e International des Radio-Communication, (CCIR) propagation loss model. Empirical measurement of the received signal strength in the market was conducted using CellMapper android app installed on Samsung Galaxy S4 phone. The CCIR model was configured with three different percentages of covered areas (PB). The model was optimized using the root means square error (RMSE) method and also by tuning the PB value. The un-tuned CCIR model gave an RMSE value of 9.23 dB which is above the acceptable upper limit of 6 dB for propagation loss prediction models. On the other hand, the PB-tuned CCIR model gave the best prediction result with an RMSE value of 2.177 dB and prediction accuracy of 98.11 % which is better than the performance of all the RMSE-tuned CCIR models. The results showed that apart from using an RMSE value to tune the CCIR propagation loss model, adjustment of some other key parameters of the model can as well provide a better prediction performance. However, the choice of the parameter to be tuned depends on the specific nature of the case study area.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is the development of an alternative approach for optimizing the CCIR model by adjusting the percentage of covered area rather than using the root mean square error (RMSE). The paper demonstrated that the proposed method can give better propagation prediction performance than the RMSE-based optimization approach.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Development of Web Application for University of Uyo Post UTME Examination Timetable

Research Article
Author(s): Enyenihi, Henry Johnson, Ngwu Chinyere Rosemary, Eduediuyai, Dan
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
In this paper a web application for Post Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (Post UTME) timetable for University of Uyo (UNIUYO) was presented. The system includes a web-based mapping system for visualizing the Post UTME examination venues on a Google base map. The system interfaces with the Google map server using a comma separated version interface file that contains the spatial data of the items to be visualized on the Google base map. An evolutionary software development model was used in the development of the web application. The system was implementation using Macromedia Dreamweaver, Cascaded Style Sheet (CSS), MYSQL Database Management System, HTML language, PHP server-side scripting language, Apache web server and Google Maps application programming interface. The application was hosted locally and sample Post UTME examination timetable data from UNIUYO were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Post UTME timetable web application.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have developed a map mashup timetable web application for the Post Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (Post UTME). The web application uses Google base map to visualize the Post UTME timetable venues on a map and also gives direction for the users.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

An Analysis of Chinas Poverty Research Based on CiteSpace

Research Article
Author(s): WU Fengyang
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This paper uses CiteSpace to comprehensively grasp the situation of poverty research through the keyword co-occurrence and cluster by extracting the literature information in China during 1998-2017. The results show that the literature on poverty in China has different kinds of hotspots, which changed from rural areas, poverty alleviation and economic growth to multidimensional poverty, industrial poverty alleviation, and precise poverty alleviation. The researches mostly focus on subjects of poverty, poverty alleviation, sustainable development, and so on. This paper also finds that the number of research is huge, but the targeted research and field research is not enough. In the future, deep research on precise poverty alleviation will become a new trend.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first analysis of the hotspots and frontiers of poverty research in China with the information visualization tool - CiteSpace. And this study has summarized the trends of research content and research paradigm based on the analysis.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Determination of Refractivity Gradient and Modified Refractivity Gradient for Cross River State

Research Article
Author(s): Kalu, Constance, Idorenyin Markson, Enyenihi, Henry Johnson
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
In this paper, determination of refractivity gradient and modified refractivity gradient for Cross River state was carried out. The year 2013 Radiosonde meteorological data from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) was used. Refractivity, modified refractivity, refractivity gradient and modified refractivity gradient were computed. The results showed that in the year 2013, Cross River state had maximum modified refractivity gradient (dM/dz) of 114.9 (M -units/Km) and it occurred in December whereas the minimum modified refractivity gradient (dM/dz) on 81.9 (M–units/Km) and it occurred in October . Also, in the year 2013, the maximum refractivity gradient (dN/dz) was -42.1 (N-units/Km) and it occurred in December whereas the minimum refractivity gradient (dN/dz) was -75.1 (N-units/Km) and it occurred in October. The standard refractivity gradient of -39 N-units and standard modified refractivity gradient of 118 M-units occurred in December at altitude of 103 meters. In all the months the atmospheric condition was in the normal state except in the month of October where superrefraction occurred.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the modified refractivity gradient for Cross River state. Available related studies on Cross River State were mainly on refractivity gradient.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Impact of the Optimal Tilt Angle on the Solar Photovoltaic Array Size and Cost for a 100 kWh Solar Power System in Imo State

Research Article
Author(s): Ozuomba, Simeon, Iniobong Edifon Abasi-Obot, Idorenyin Markson
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
In this paper the impact of adjusting the optimal tilt angle of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on monthly bases was studied and compared to that of the annually-fixed optimal tilt angle. PVSyst software was used to determine the optimal tilt angle for each month for a given case study site in Imo state in Nigeria. Mathematical models for computing the required PV array power to meet the daily energy demand of 100 kWh were presented. Addition parameters considered in the study were the PV array number of modules as well as PV array area and cost. For the case study 100 kWh daily energy demand, the selected PV module had a peak power rating of 100W, with a unit cost of N 18,000 and with dimensions that gave an area of 0.65945m^2. The results showed that there is about 4 % (annual average) reduction in the required PV array power when the monthly adjustment of the optimal tilt angle is used. December had the highest percentage reduction in the required PV array power. The reduction in the PV array power resulted in the corresponding reduction in the number of PV modules needed to provide the required power, as well as a reduction in PV array area and cost.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the impact of the optimal tilt angle on the solar photovoltaic array size and cost for the solar power system in Imo state, Nigeria.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Social, Economical and Environmental Issues of Floriculture Sector Development in Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Tadele Yeshiwas Tizazu, Melkamu Alemayehu Workie
Journal: Review of Plant Studies

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Abstract
The floriculture sector is a new agricultural industry in Ethiopia. The sector created job opportunities for thousands of people especially women and generates huge amount of foreign exchange earnings to the country. However, it’s social and environmental issues associated with the development of the sector are not yet well documented. The present review was therefore initiated with the objective to summarize and the sector development and document the issues raised associated with its development in the country. According to the review results the floriculture industry is suffering from insufficient infrastructure system necessary for further development of the industry which should be solved with the respective stakeholders. Moreover, the industry is accused from negative environmental and social impacts which may have negative impacts for future development of the industry. Continuous awareness trainings on health and safety issues through respective stakeholders and regular monitoring in the implementation of guidelines and roles regarding environmental protection is recommended to sustain the further improvement of the industry in Ethiopia.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to give an insight for the potential investors of the sector and for the government to design intervention strategies for further development of the industry in the country.
Agricultural Sciences » Review of Plant Studies » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Influense of Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) for Stenting Propagation of Cut Rose

Research Article
Author(s): Tadele Yeshiwas Tizazu, Melkamu Alemayehu Workie, Getachew Alemayehu Damot
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Growth promoting hormones like auxins are now a day commercially used for rooting of many ornamental plants including roses in propagation industries of many countries. Their effects are however influenced by environmental conditions, types of plants, the rooting media and the concentrations used. This research was therefore mainly conducted to evaluate the effects of different IBA concentrations on growth and development of stenting-propagated roses. The experiment was laid down in completely randomized design with four replications in the propagation house of Tana Flora PLC. The performance of rose cuttings treated with 1500 ppm of IBA was the best in all growth parameters including shoot length, Root length, toot number etc. which can be recommended to propagate roses by stenting method in the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have been investigated for the improvement of the rooting capacity, growth and development of stenting-propagation of cut rose flowers treating with IBA-Hormone. Therefore, the present finding will contribute to flower growers and propagators through providing ideal concentration of IBA Hormone.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Child Labour and Protection: An Exploration of Vulnerable Children in Lagos State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Olakunle Michael FOLAMI, Olufunke Justina ARUNA, Timothy IHIMOYAN, David Olabode OLATUNJI
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
In recent times, there are increases in the incidence of child labor in Lagos State. Many children worked in informal sectors of the economy such as market, construction sites, beer parlors, and motor parks. Many were on the streets hawking and begging for alms. Economic doldrums, lack of parental care and forced migration were linked with the rampant in child labor in Lagos State. The problem is the Child’s Rights Act promulgated by the Lagos State government has become so ineffective. This study therefore, sets to examine the reasons for surge in child labor in recent times in Lagos State. It investigates government’s efforts in the protection of children. The study also examines parental roles in providing and nurturing children. Anomie and Social Structure Theory was used in this study to explain the reason why many children engaged in labor. This study was conducted in two areas with highest cases of child labor in Lagos State, namely: Oshodi, and Lagos Island. Qualitative method of data collection was used in this study. In-depth interviews were conducted among one hundred and ninety-eight child laborers, and fourteen welfare officers. This study found that many child laborers were abandoned by their parents, guardians and relatives. Many were truants, victims of breaking home, poverty, polygamy and forced migration. This study concluded that government should provide welfare services for children who are between Age 0 and 18. The number of children per family should also be limited to 3.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on child labor and law on the protection of children.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2018 Issue: 4

Forecasting Equity Index Volatility: Empirical Evidence from Japan, UK and USA Data

Research Article
Author(s): Divine N. Obodoechi, Anthony Orji, Onyinye I. Anthony-Orji
Journal: Financial Risk and Management Reviews

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Abstract
Using non-linear models to forecast volatility for three equity index samples, this study examines weekly returns of three indices; Dow Jones Industrial index, FTSE 100 index, and Nikkei 225 index. The sample covers a twenty year sample period. The study employs an in sample and out of sample volatility forecast using standard symmetric loss functions in order to identify an appropriate model that best forecast volatility. Using the mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), the study finds the EGARCH model to outperform the ARCH, and GARCH model in forecasting volatility.
Contribution/ Originality
This is among the first studies that found EGARCH model to outperform the ARCH, and GARCH model in forecasting volatility using a combination of Japan, UK and US data.
Economics » Financial Risk and Management Reviews » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Monitoring of Surface Soil Quality Parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh

Research Article
Author(s): Md. Simul Bhuyan, Md. Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md. Enamul Hoque, Abu Sayeed Muhammad Sharif, Md. Shafiqul Islam
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
The present study was carried out to monitor and assess the surface soil quality parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh. The soil samples were collected from Kanchpur Bridge and Atlapur during rainy and winter season. Soil texture is an important tool that aids in organic matter retention, minerals dispersal, microbial biomass, and other soil properties. The soil of the study area was recorded sandy loam and loam. The concentrations of soil parameters ranged for EC: 65.7 ?S/cm-99.83 ?S/cm; pH: 6.67-6.97; organic matter: 0.43%-0.66%; and organic carbon: 0.23%-0.35% in the soil of the Sitalakshya River. Most of the parameters showed no substantial variations in respect of sites and seasons (p>0.05) except electrical conductivity and pH (p<0.05). Statistical analysis like correlation matrix exposed the close relationship between organic matter and organic carbon. The soil of the Sitalakshya River has low nutrient contents that are not enough for the plants and organisms. Rapid industrialization and the huge establishment of brickfields are the major factors behind this less productive ecosystem. The river must be protected from further deterioration by taking fruitful management plan. This preliminary study will be a useful tool in the conservation plan. This will also help the future researchers who want to work on the river.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of the soil quality parameters of the Sitalakshya River. The study demonstrated the preliminary ecosystem condition of the river. This will provide baseline information for researchers and policymaker in the conservation issue.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Intention to Use E-Recruitment System: Empirical Evidence from Jobseekers in the Advertising Industry in Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Chuah Kee Woon, Jugindar Singh Kartar Singh
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Advancements in technology have a massive impact on the workplace including recruitment of staff. The aim of this study was to examine jobseekers’ behavior towards e-recruitment system usage by jobseekers in Malaysia. The study population was jobseekers intending to apply for jobs in the advertising industry. This was a quantitative study and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information from a sample of 100 jobseekers. The SPSS statistical tool was used to generate descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results revealed that perceived usefulness was the key determinant of e-recruitment adoption. However, the impact of perceived information content quality (PICQ) and perceived search engine optimization (PSEO) was insignificant. The implications of this study are that recruitment agencies and human resources practitioners need to focus on the perceived usefulness of the e-recruitment system to attract and create the desire in jobseekers to use e-recruitment system.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated jobseekers intention to use e-recruitment system in Malaysia. This study provides insights for human resources practitioners on the effective use of e-recruitment system to attract a greater pool of applicants.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 02-2019 Issue: 2

Disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflows and Economic Growth in a Developing Economy: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Onyinye I. Anthony-Orji , Anthony Orji, Jonathan E. Ogbuabor, Emmanuel O. Nwosu
Journal: Journal of Empirical Studies

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Abstract
This study estimates the impact of Foreign Capital Inflows on economic growth in Nigeria from 1986Q1 – 2014Q4. For empirical analysis, the paper adopts the Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag- Unrestricted Error Correction Model (ARDL-UECM). Empirical evidence from the ARDL-bounds Co-integration Test shows there is co-integration between Economic Growth (proxied by Growth rate of Real Gross Domestic Product) and Foreign Capital Inflows (disaggregated into Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Portfolio Investment and Workers’ Remittances) in Nigeria. The results also show that apart from remittances, other components of Foreign Capital Inflows have significant impact on Economic Growth in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that Government should, alongside other economic activities, provide an enabling economic environment for more Foreign Capital Inflows. Also the financial sector should be improved so that workers’ remittances can be efficiently tracked through the banking channels and also put to productive use. This is how to minimize the negative impact of workers’ remittance inflows into Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature as one of the recent empirical papers that focus on the disaggregated impact of Foreign Capital Inflows on economic growth in Nigeria using the framework of the Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag- Unrestricted Error Correction Model (ARDL-UECM).
Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Social Media for Higher Education: A Cross Sectional Study among Teachers in India and Sri Lanka

Research Article
Author(s): A Chamaru De Alwis, Simmy Kurian, M.K Dinithi Padmasiri, Hareesh N. Ramanathan, Pearly Saira Chacko
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The literature bound the usage of social media by professionals and the present study posits to investigate teachers in higher education who are sophisticated users of social media today. Currently, the usages of social media by faculty personal is increasing, although their usage of social media for teaching is lacked. It is not apparent that who use social media in the classroom yet. Thereby, in line with the UTAUT-Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model, the purpose of the present study has derived as to investigate the effects of social media in terms of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions on behavior intention and finally on use behavior in teaching and learning activities. In addition, the study inspects the barriers that inhibit the minds of the management faculty in the use of it. The survey was conducted using standard questionnaire as online forms and printed copies. In this study, B-school faculty were considered as the population. The sampling method is used for the study is snowball sampling and 400 samples used for the study. One–Sample t-test was used for analyzing the data. Overall, the study found that there is a clear difference in the usage of social media by Indian faculty and Sri Lankan faculty.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature as this is the first attempt which compared the usage of social media in higher education of teachers in India and Sri Lanka as a cross sectional study.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2018 Issue: 4

Impact of Telecommunications Market Liberalization on Labor Productivity in Economic Community of West African States

Research Article
Author(s): Kwami Ossadzifo Wonyra
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This research establishes an indirect link between the liberalization of telecommunications services and labor productivity based on the causal chain following Francois (2002) and Wang (2006). Estimates are based on Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) countries data for the period of 2002-2012. The results show that the degree of competition has a significant effect on the performance of telecom services, which in turn significantly affects the labor productivity. There is no correlation between the openness of telecom services and the degree of competition. As policy implication, on the basis of our results, the regulation in the telecommunications sector needs to be strengthened in order to reduce operators' monopoly power. Thus, we will witness a great penetration of telecommunications services in the ECOWAS countries. In doing so the goal of universal service access would be achieved and the productivity of the work factor will improve accelerating economic growth.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the impact the liberalization of trade in telecommunications services in African economies. Unlike other studies that analyze the impact on the growth economy, this article analyzes the impact of the liberalization of the sector on labor productivity in the ECOWAS zone.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Urban Population Growth and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Richardson Kojo Edeme, Nnadi Paschal Chibuzo
Journal: Journal of Empirical Studies

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Abstract
It is believed that the increasing urban population has led to rapid forest decline and degradation of the environment. This paper examines the impact of urban population growth on environmental sustainability using Nigeria data from 1981-2017. The variables used are urban population growth, fossil fuel consumption, carbon emissions, food production index, arable land, and agricultural raw material exports with renewable energy consumption and forest reserves as explanatory variables. Autoregressive lag model was used to determine the impact of urban population on renewable energy consumption and forest reserves, which are proxies for sustainable environment. From the findings, urban population growth had significant impact on environmental sustainability while real gross domestic product does not have significant impact on renewable energy consumption and forestry. Findings also show that urban population growth increase renewable energy consumption but decrease forest reserves. A basic policy in this direction is effective curtailing in the rate of population growth and depletion of forest reserves.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in existing literature by examining the influence of urban population growth on several sustainable environment variables such as fossil fuel consumption, carbon emissions, renewable energy consumption and forest reserves.
Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1