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The aim of this paper is to examine the spatial distribution of poverty in order to show the effects of poverty rate of a region on the poverty of other rural regions of Hamadan province by making use of spatial econometric approach. The statistical population of the study included 383 rural households participating in the survey of household expenditure and income in 2012 is nine cities of Hamedan province. To analyze the data and to provide the poverty map, Spatial Econometrics and Matlab software and GIS were used as research tools. Initially, the poverty line and the estimated volume of poverty and deprivation were calculated and then, by measuring its volume, the distribution of poverty of the regions and its influence in the cities of the province were provided. Moran’s I-statistic was obtained for poverty equals 0.211 which is significant at the 1% level and shows spatial autocorrelation. Poverty is not distributed equally in rural regions of Hamadan province and the geographical location of households living in the rural areas is effective on poverty. The results of the research showed that in calculating the model by Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) methods and spatial errors due to the spatial dependence in error terms, spatial error methods is better results than the OLS method. Variables such as average household size (+), gender of household head (-) and the proportion of households with housing (-) are statistically significant in identifying the poor people at less than 1% level and the type of jobs (+) at the 5% level respectively. Contribution/ Originality
In Iran had not been carried out any specific statistical analysis about the spatial distribution of poverty in rural areas. This study is one of few studies which have investigated the effective factors on poverty and to determine poverty map in rural areas with the use of spatial econometric approach.
Bamboo deforestation has become a serious problem in Ethiopia threatening the bamboo biodiversity and the people who depend on bamboo income. Previous studies mostly emphasize on mechanical, physical and biological characterization of the lowland bamboo. Earlier studies rarely relay on measuring the trend and magnitude of bamboo deforestation. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to examine the rate and magnitude of bamboo deforestation and identify the driving factors of LU/LC change. Data for the study were obtained from geographic information system (GIS) with ground verification. To supplement the GIS and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) result, a random sample of 384 households was interviewed. In addition, key informants interview and focus group discussions were held to validate the required data. The result generally revealed the declining state of bamboo forest over the past 26 years. The 2006 year’s NDVI value shows that a household owned 3.846 hectares of forest land. The result indicated a decline in forest to 2.027 hectare in 2012. The result showed 52.704 percent decline in forest land cover. Moreover, the survey result indicated that from 2009-2013, about a 0.014 hectares of bamboo forest was converted to agricultural land. On average, a household has converted an average of 0.081 hectares of forestland into agriculture land. Our evidence also shows that the lowland bamboo forest cover in the region has devastated due to anthropogenic and natural factors. This result implies that if the same trend continues, the available bamboo stock will vanish in shorter period of time. Therefore, quick rehabilitation and mass bamboo restocking policy shall be designed by the regional government in order to regenerate and conserve the lowland bamboo resources. Contribution/ Originality
This study has used appropriate research methodology and hopped to contribute to the bamboo based existing literature.
Classification of the p-subgroups of the finite group of order 12 was done using Cauchy’s Lagrange’s and Sylow’s Theorems up to Isomorphism subgroups and related to the Dihedral group of order 20 (D2n) in Chemical Bonding. Contribution/ Originality
This paper examines the causal relationship between four different measures of education and income in Turkey using time series data for the period 1971-2013. The four measures are: (a) gross primary-school enrolment, (b) gross secondary-school enrolment, (c) gross higher-school enrolment and (d) government expenditure on education relative to total government expenditure. The analysis employs a Toda and Yamamoto (1995) approach to Granger non-causality. The empirical findings indicate evidence of a unidirectional causality running from secondary-school enrolment to GDP per capita and higher-school enrolment to GDP per capita. The results also indicate that primary education and government spending on education do not Granger cause economic growth and vice versa. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the relationship between education and growth. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the causal relationship between four different measures of education and GDP per capita in Turkey using time series data for the period 1971-2013.
Four metabolisability trials on captive Wigeons were conducted comparing a complete pelleted diet with others where Taraxacum officinalis and Zostera noltii were added. The daily dry matter (DM) intake of Wigeons varied from 54.4 to 65.5 g/day and the amount of nutrients received from the four diets was similar. The nitrogen (N) content of droppings statistically diminished when Wigeons were fed diets containing Zostera noltii. Correlation among cell wall components (CWC) of droppings and that of intakes was always highly significant and positive. The DM metabolisability of the four diets was 42-51 %. The crude protein (CP) metabolisability varied significantly from 21 % for the diet with Taraxacum to 39 % for that with the Zostera collected in June. The metabolizabilities of CWC also differed significantly among diets. The apparent metabolizabilities of ash with the Zostera diets were significantly higher when compared to those of two other diets. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the metabolic responses of captive Wigeons (Anas penelope) to four different diets and compared the results of nutritional aspects to those of their wild counterparts.
There is an outcry in local authorities regarding human capital flight and poor service delivery. The ability of local authorities to retain qualified personnel is reportedly low. To recruit and retain experienced, educated and dedicated personnel requires that local authorities' practice retention strategies. By retaining talent local authorities may improve their productivity as well as achieve acceptable levels of service delivery. Some of the retention strategies recommended in this paper include, induction, and training, effective communication, a good human resource function, acknowledgement of achievement and concessionary loans. The paper exposes an extensive literature search. Literature on turnover and retention was studied at length and then appropriate retention strategies to retain talent were formulated. Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature on human resource management in Zimbabwe Local Authorities. The paper primarily contributes issues that are relevant to the Zimbabwean situation. The paper is one of the very few studies which have investigated causes of departures by employees in Zimbabwe Local Authorities.
The diffusion equation is solved in two dimensions to obtain the concentration by using separation of variables under the variation of eddy diffusivity which depend on the vertical height in unstable case. Comparing between the predicted and the observed concentrations data of Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) taken on the Copenhagen in Denmark is done. The statistical method is used to know the best model. One finds that there is agreement between the present, Laplace and separation predicted normalized crosswind integrated concentrations with the observed normalized crosswind integrated concentrations than the predicted Gaussian model. Contribution/ Originality
The levels and health risks of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were evaluated in twenty-nine commercial fish species collected from markets in Monrovia, Liberia. A mixture of HNO3, HClO4 and H2SO4 was used for complete oxidation of organic tissue. Total mercury was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption technique using an automatic Mercury Analyzer; while the concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Estimation of the dietary exposure of the consumers to these metals were determined based on data from the American Food Consumption Index and the associated health risks were evaluated by comparing intakes with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes (PTWIs). The hazard quotient and total hazard index for the tested metals in all the species were less than the USEPA guideline value of 1, suggesting that the consumption of the tested fish species has no adverse health effects considering exposure to the tested metals. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on heavy metal toxicity in commercial fish species and associated health risks to fish consuming populace. It is the first work of such nature covering a wide variety of fish species consumed in Monrovia, Liberia and thus provides a basis for future studies.
Male sexual dysfunction (MSD) might be produced by multifactorial determinants which include psychological disorders, androgen deficiencies, chronic medical conditions, vascular insufficiency, penile disease, pelvic surgery, neurological disorders, drugs, life style, aging and systemic diseases. This study sought to assess the antioxidant properties of the water-extractable component of the leaves of Black plum (Vitex doniana) and bark of Kola nut (Cola nitida),evaluate their effect on pro-oxidant generated lipid peroxidation in rat’s testes; and examine the effect on arginase which is among the major enzymes associated with Erectile dysfunction. The results of the total phenol, total flavonoid of aqueous extracts of Cola nitida and Vitex doniana revealed that Cola nitida (10.64 mgGAE/g) had significantly (P<0.05) more total phenol content than Vitex doniana (4.68 mgGAE/g). The result also revealed that Vitex doniana (2.1 mgQE/g) had significantly (P<0.05) higher total flavonoid content than Cola nitida (1.3 mgQE/g). Also, Vitex doniana (20.24 mgAEE/g) had significantly (p<0.05) higher reducing property than Cola nitida (17.43 mgAEE/g). The results of the 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS*) radical mopping up capacity of the water extractable component of Vitex doniana and Cola nitida also showed that the extracts are able to scavenge ABTS* radicals, however, Vitex doniana (1.8 Mmol TEAC/100g) had significantly (P<0.05) higher ABTS* mopping up capability than Cola nitida (1.2 Mmol TEAC/100g). Furthermore, the DPPH* result revealed that Cola nitida and Vitex doniana extracts scavenged DPPH* radicals in a concentration-dependent pattern. However, Vitex doniana (IC50 = 1.28mg/ml) had a significantly (P<0.05) higher DPPH* mopping up capability than Cola nitida (IC50 = 0.83 mg/ml). Both extracts were able to inhibit FeSO4-generated lipid peroxidation at a dose-dependent manner; however, Vitex doniana (IC50 = 1.07 mg/ml) had a higher inhibitory action of Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation than Cola nitida (IC50 = 1.01 mg/ml). Vitex doniana (IC50 = 0.38mg/ml) has the higher arginase inhibitory activity than Cola nitida (IC50 = 0.34mg/ml). High phenolic content and strong antioxidant properties could be part of the mechanisms through which the water extractable phytochemicals of Cola nitida (bark) and Vitex doniana (leaves) exhibits its preventive measure of erectile function. However, Vitex doniana displayed a stronger effect on Male reproductive function than Cola nitida. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature that water extractable phytochemical of Cola nitida and Vitex doniana are rich in phenolic compounds and exhibited both anti-arginase and antioxidant activity with Vitex doniana displaying a stronger male sexual function than Cola nitida. These herbs showed potential as a functional food/nutraceutical in the managing of male reproductive malfunction such as Erectile dysfunction as it exhibited inhibitory activity on the key enzyme (arginase) linked to this dysfunction. Therefore, this could be part of the possible mechanisms through which the extracts exert their aphrodisiac properties by inhibiting arginase activities and preventing oxidative stress generated erectile malfunctioning.
interaction with great cultures and civilizations of ancient times up to now, have enabled Iran to provide the most brilliant science and technology at some points of time to the humanity. In the meantime, Sistan and Baluchestan civilization has a history of several thousands of years, but no effort worthy of this glory have been done to introduce and identify its remained works. Given that the role, development and management of museums have changed greatly in the last two decades, museum institutions, increasingly is being visitor-centered. The aim of this study is to prioritize museums of north of Sistan and Baluchistan province in terms of performance in attracting tourists in the region. The research methods is descriptive – analytical, and data collection has been done through field survey and questionnaire completion, i.e. 350 questionnaires have been completed to assess the Grand Museum of Zahedan, Museum of Zahedan Post-Office, Museum of Zabol Burnt-City (Shahr-e Sukhte) and Anthropology Museum of Zabol. The results of TOPSIS model indicates that the Grand Museum of Zahedan with a score of 0.709 stands in the first place and the Museum of Zahedan Post-Office with 0.235 places at the last of ranking in terms of performance in attracting tourists. Contribution/ Originality
The present paper attempts to analyze the implications of the relationship between reliability and rationing cost involved in a power supply system in the framework of the standard inventory analysis, instead of the conventional marginalist approach of welfare economics. The study is substantiated by fitting a normal distribution to the daily internal maximum demand of the Kerala power system during the four-year period from 2010-11 to 2013-14, and also by estimating, based on the techno-economic parameters of a 660 MW thermal power plant, the rationing costs implied in different reliability target criteria. Contribution/ Originality
This study suggests a new approach to the relationship between reliability and rationing cost involved in a power supply system; it also contributes in the existing literature to the standard inventory analysis by linking it to reliability analysis.
Character strengths are positive traits that are critical in many positive life outcomes. This study examined the distribution of character strengths and their relationship with life satisfaction among teachers in selected schools in the Builsa District of the Upper East Region in Ghana. Data from a sample of 104 basic and senior high school teachers revealed that the top 7 character strengths of the teachers were gratitude, kindness, fairness, love of learning, honesty, perspective(wisdom) and open mindedness (judgment). There was a strong positive relationship between overall character strengths and satisfaction with life. Creativity, perspective, love, teamwork, prudence, and gratitude were each significantly correlated with life satisfaction. Prudence, humour, modesty/humility, self-regulation and capacity to love and be loved each made unique and significant contribution in explaining life satisfaction with prudence making the largest unique contribution. Implications of the study and directions for future research are discussed. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Peterson and Seligman (2004) character strengths in Ghana and it identified unique distribution of the strengths among teachers. The top 7 strengths indicate teachers scoring high on wisdom and knowledge strengths which is unique from studies using general samples.
The (F/G)-expansion method is firstly proposed, where F=F(ξ) and G = G(ξ) satisfies a first order ordinary differential equation systems (ODEs). We give the exact travelling wave solutions of the variant Boussinesq equations and the KdV equation and by using (F/G)-expansion method. When some parameters of present method are taken as special values, results of the -expansion method are also derived. Hence, -expansion method is sub method of the proposed method. The travelling wave solutions are expressed by three types of functions, which are called the trigonometric functions, the rational functions, and the hyperbolic functions. The present method is direct, short, elementary and effective, and is used for many other nonlinear evolution equations. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of -expansion method. We proposed the (F/G)-expansion method and investigated the exact travelling wave solutions of the variant Boussinesq equations and the KdV equation by using (F/G)-expansion method.
The most basic human needs throughout history, is the need for housing. On the other hand, in recent years one of the topics that were of interest to scholars and experts, is the quality of life and environment. Lack of attention to the physical-spatial standards in the design of residential complexes can cause major problems in the field of housing and living conditions. This study examines the criteria for sustainable housing in the city of Zahedan and in a complex-residential area. The statistical population is 19080 people in the city of Zahedan in a residential area, and the sample was calculated using a sample of 318 people, Library and field is the method of studying and using a questionnaire. And to analyze the data, one sample T-test has been used in SPSS software, and to rank the residential complexes of entropy the hierarchical analysis model is used. The results of the one-sample T-test indicates that housing indicators in terms of physical, social and environmental terms are not in good condition. Considering that the average 3 is calculated from the test T, (67/2, 87/2, 49/2) are lower than the basis of the standards. The mean difference in level is more than 99% and it is statistically significant and reliable (Sig = 0.000). Contribution/ Originality
This study aims to determine the role of certain dimensions that compels a wife to adapt with marital violence thus elect to continue in such a turbulent marriage. The study adapted the descriptive approach and the measurement of adaption with marital violence for data collection from a sample of 114 battered women whom members of the Family Protection Foundation situated at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results of major factors that compels a battered wife to adapt with marital violence were: The wife's below average appearance, obesity and below average beauty as to the dimension of the wife's personality aspects. Increased divorced process cost and lengthy divorce process as to the dimension of the divorce process and child custody. The wife's inability to control her children' behaviors, difficulty to fulfill her children' needs, depending on the father for extending such orientation and guidelines to children as to the dimension of caring for children. The wife's family's inadequate support as a result of the family's hard economic condition and lack of social status, the family's rooted conception that the husband has the right to discipline his wife as to the dimension of the family support. Inadequate social security for the wife and her children, the wife's total financial dependence on the husband, inadequate financial support (designated by a competent court) for both of the mother and children after divorce, inadequate financial support from the wife's family as to the dimension of financial dependence on the husband. However, the physical, health, sex and economic violence are the major types of violence adapted by battered wives. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes, in the existing literature, the role of certain dimensions that compels a wife to adapt with marital violence thus elect to continue in such a turbulent marriage in spite of violence. Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2
Effect of Domestic Cooking on Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Var. Marmande)
Most of the vegetables are consumed after being cooked. Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet. This study was performed to investigate the influence of the traditional cooking methods of Algerian people (frying, griddling and baking) on the physicochemical properties (pH, moisture, acidity, Brix, total sugar, ash and non enzymatic browning index), phytochemicals contents (phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, flavonols vitamin C, carotenoids and lycopene) and the antioxidant activity of tomato (S. lycopersicum) cultivated in Algeria. Cooking treatment affect positively their physicochemical properties (pH, acidity, Brix, total sugar, ash and non-enzymatic browning index) except the moisture content which decreases significantly. After cooking, the number of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins increase significantly, nevertheless vitamin C, carotenoids and lycopene contents decrease for all cooked samples. Finally, DPPH and ABTS free radicals scavenging activities increased in cooked tomato extracts, while a slight decrease was recorded in ferric reducing power (FRP) due to the reduction of vitamin C contents. Consequently, the antioxidant activity of tomato depends on the cooking procedure and griddling, frying seems to be the best cooking way that enhances its antioxidant activity. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents for the first time to determine the influence of the traditional cooking methods of Algerian people (frying, griddling and baking) on the physicochemical properties, the phytochemicals contents and the antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS and FRP) of Algerian tomato (S. lycopersicum var. Marmande) used in different food preparation. Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1
Appointment of Directors and Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Sub Saharan Africa: Do We Need More Executive or Non-Executive Directors?
This study mainly examined the effect of Corporate governance on the performance of deposit money banks in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Specifically, the effect of appointment of more non- executive directors-BNEDDUM on return on assets (ROA) and net interest margin (NIM) of the banks in SSA was determined. Conversely, the work examined the effect of appointment of more executive directors on the ROA and NIM of the banks. Secondary data on six SSA countries and twelve banks collected for the period 2004 to 2016 were used. Panel data regression approach was employed to analyze the data. Fixed effects and Random effects models were adopted based on the results of Hausman tests. The study revealed among others that appointment of more number of non-executive directors has a positive but insignificant effect on ROA. It also indicated a strong positive correlation with both ROA and NIM. A hypothetical appointment of more executive directors showed a positive and significant effect on NIM while indicating the negative and insignificant effect on ROA. The positive effect of BNEDDUM on ROA coupled with its strong positive correlation with ROA and NIM seem to strongly suggest that appointment of more non-executive directors in deposit money banks in SSA is more beneficial to the banks than the appointment of more executive directors. However, the global conflict in the findings associated with appointment of directors is not yet fully resolved. The study recommends that while more non-executive directors may be appointed, banks in SSA must put in place internal control systems which promote a culture of professionalism in management. Contribution/ Originality
This study originates a new approach to attempt to resolve the challenge of causality in the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance by improvising a randomized experiment which made it possible to examine two sets of firms-one which appointed more non-executive directors and another that appointed more executive directors. Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1
Thermal, Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Agro Fiber Filled High Density Polyethylene Biocomposites
Anselm O. Ogah, Karl R. Englund
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research
The thermal, mechanical and rheological properties of corncob, rice hull, walnut shell and flax shive agro-wastes/high density polyethylene bio-composites were studied. Results indicated that the fibers showed two and three mass loss steps due to moisture evaporation and decomposition of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin. The flax shive was thermally more stable and showed a decrease in activation energy with increase in conversion rate while the other three fibers showed increase in activation energy with conversion rate. The apparent activation energy values of the fibers was 161±11.06to200±4.69 kJ/mol. Particle size distribution of 60-100 mesh size of the fibers was 0.295 mm to ˂ 0.125 mm. The composites showed remarkable increases in flexural modulus and un-notched Izod impact strength and a decrease in flexural strength compared with the neat HDPE. The rice hull composite showed superior flexural strength of 22.5 MPa. The flax shive composite gave superior flexural modulus of 3.0 GPa and the walnut shell composite gave superior un-notched Izod impact strength of 52.5 J/m. The complex viscosities of all the composites decreased with increase in frequency. The corncob composite showed higher complex viscosity of 3,600,000 Pas. The walnut shell composite exhibited higher storage modulus of 800,000 GPa at low frequency but decreased with increase in frequency, whereas the other three fiber composites showed increased storage modulus with increase in frequency. Corncob composite showed superior loss modulus of 200,000 GPa. The damping factor of the composites decreased with increasing frequency with walnut shell composites exhibiting superior damping factor. The study has shown that the properties of the composites varied substantially based upon the type of agro fiber utilized. Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that corncob, flax shive, rice hull and walnut shell fibers are viable, eco-friendly, alternative raw materials of low cost for the production of HDPE composites. The evaluation and comparison of their thermal, mechanical and rheological properties indicate their potential as engineering materials.
With regards to lower indemnity state of 100-meter sprint in China in recent years, through literature, expert interviews, analysis, comparison and other methods, the author analyzed the new characteristics of contemporary sprint technology. On this basis, from the perspective of our sprint field’s knowledge and understanding of sprint technology in the past, the author analyzed the reasons for floundered state of the men's 100 meters sprint. Contribution/ Originality
Runoff is the result from the comprehensive action of climate conditions and drainage area underlying surface. Rainfall, evaporation, temperature, wind speed, solar radiation and relative humidity are the most important factor which effect on runoff. Prediction of runoff amounts is performed using Support Vector Machine (SVM). In this paper, the prediction of runoff for Chalous River basin along the Caspian Sea is investigated. A model based on SVM approach is proposed to runoff, predicated on a total of 8 years daily data sets, including field investigation records for the Chalous River Basin along the southern shoreline of Caspian Sea. This study addresses the question of whether Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach could be used to predict runoff. Results revealed that SVM provides an effective means of efficiently recognizing accurately predicting the runoff and the prediction of the future runoff evolution trend with this model will provide the basis for water regulation and water resources reasonable configuration. Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology as well as support vector machine (SVM) to predict runoff amount based on hydrological condition in Chalous river basin from north of Iran. This study addresses the capability of SVM in runoff prediction.