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Located at the boundaries of Europe and Asia, Turkey is home to an extraordinary variety of domestic animal species and breeds that include bees, camels, cats, cattle, dogs, domestic fowl, donkeys, ducks, goats, geese, horses, mules, pigs, rabbits, sheep, silkworms, water buffalo and several species of domestic birds (partridge, pheasant, pigeon and ostrich). In addition to the clearly distinct Angora and Van cat breeds a short-haired nondescript cat breed is found throughout Turkey. As well as private household ownership, Angora cats have been raised at Ankara Zoo which has belonged to the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock since 1939. The Van cat is raised at the Van Cat Research Centre at Yuzuncu Yil University in Van Province which also has a small clinic for the cats. There is a risk of extinction for the Angora and Van breeds but none for the short-haired nondescript type. This paper reviews social aspects, the genetic resources and conservation status of the native cat breeds of Turkey.
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Technical-Economic Efficiencies of Snakehead Seed Production Under Impacts of Climate Change in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
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This study was carried out from February to December 2014 by interviewing 75 farmers who operate snakehead seed production in An Giang, Dong Thap and Hau Giang provinces, Vietnam. The results showed that the total area for production was 629.01±756.77 m2, whereas the volume for nursing was 582.10±119.81 m3 for pond system and 1,019.56±736.66 m3 for combining pond – hapa system). Each hatchery used 44.26±22.63 pairs of broodstock/breeding cycle and produced whole year. The quantity of seed per cycle of pond system was a half of that figure of other system while seed productivity per m3 was much lower. Snakehead seed was mainly sold to seed traders in the Delta (82.3%). With average production cost of 47.81±16.23 thousand Vietnam dong (VND)/m3, each farm in pond system could reach the total net profit of 49.83±18.74 thousand VND/m3, equivalent to 328 million VND/year. These corresponding numbers of pond – hapa system were 106.98±86.25; 196.12±87.45 thousand VND/m3, equal to 1.75 billion VND/year. Factors of climate change affecting snakehead seed production involved rainfall change, droughts, water and air temperature increase, salinity intrusion which caused diseases easier (36%), affected seed production in general (31%), bad water quality (10%), .... To reduce the impacts of climate change to production, the farmer in snakehead seed production often changed selling market, suspended production of seeds, used better brookstocks by choosing them more carefully and a number of other measures.
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the impact of climate change on snakehead seed production. The paper's primary contribution is finding that which and how climate phenomenon has effected on seed production as well as suggesting some adaptive methods for them.