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The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) set limit of 200 faecal coliforms/ 100ml for bacterial contamination of surface water has frequently been exceeded due to agricultural runoff as nonpoint pollution. The study evaluated the effects of cattle rearers and or farmers, and cattle rearing on faecal contamination of water from River Sokoto. Water samples from six designated points on River Sokoto were assessed on monthly basis for faecal coliform and faecal streptococci from January to December, 2014 using faecal coliform/faecal streptococci ratio (FC/FS). The six points studied were namely P1, a point 5 metres away from farmland; P2, a point close to farmland; P3, a point close to residents along the riverside; P4, a point on stream drainage immediately from Sokoto Cement factory; P5, a point on the stream close to the river and P6, a point 5 metres away on the river. Very high mean concentrations of FC and FS were recorded at all sampling points with values exceeding surface water standards of 200 faecal coliform/100ml. While the highest mean FC value of 18,525 MPN/100ml (29.1%) was recorded at P3, the least value of 7,592 MPN/100ml (11.9%) was obtained at P2. Mean FS was recorded highest (2,350 MPN/100ml) at P5 (21.8%) and lowest (625 MPN/100ml) at P4 (5.8%). Mean FC/FS ratios of sampled water P1, P5 and P6 were < 4 (3.78, 3.95 and 3.95 respectively) indicating domestic animal contamination. However, P4 had the highest mean FC/FS ratio > 4 (11.53) indicating human contamination; P2 and P3 also had values > 4 (5.66 and 7.34 respectively) also pointing to human contamination. The FC/FS ratio identified domestic animal contamination sources but did not differentiate between domestic animal and human sources of contamination. Thus the limitatation of its use more as a regulatory tool than a diagnostic tool in identifying contamination sources. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by ascertaining the use of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci ratio in the determination of sources of contamination of surface water for good water quality.
Present case study was carried out during 2013, to assess the microbiological quality of three freshwater fishes (Hoplosternum littorale, Cichlasoma bimaculatum and Hoplias malabaricus) offered for sale at two local markets in region 6. Fishes were examined for microbial quality and compared to the recommended levels of U.S Food and Drug Association (FDA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for fish and fisheries product. The results revealed based on the statistical test CHI-SQAURE that the microbial levels for the three freshwater fishes deviated significantly from U.S FDA and EPA expected standard. ANOVA done on the results further showed that there was no significant difference in coliform level among fish species and markets and for E. coli level, there was also no significant difference except at p<0.01. In conclusion, the three freshwater fishes offered for sale at local markets were not of acceptable standard based on U.S FDA and EPA Acceptable level and thus implores risk to human health. Contribution/ Originality
This case study contributes towards the validation of microbial assessment of freshwater fishes in Guyana. The contribution as highly significant in the area of food microbiology.
Iron, lead, copper, chromium and cadmium concentrations were determined in the flesh, gills and liver of fish (Synodontis batesonda) samples collected at ten different points along River Galma in Zaria, Kaduna State using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Except for the concentration of iron (Fe) in the liver, the concentrations of all the metals analysed in the three organs depict the pattern: gills > liver > flesh. The concentrations of these heavy metals in fish gills and liver is much higher than that in flesh. The profile mean metals concentration in the flesh is Fe > Pb> Cu > Cr > Cd, while in the gills and liver is Fe > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. Iron and lead are the most abundant elements in the fish samples studied. The concentrations of the metals in this study were lower than the maximum permissible limits of NESREA and WHO. Stringent measures need to be enforced by the authority on illicit discharge of industrial and domestic wastes into the river. Contribution/ Originality
This Study will invariably aid in maintaining the fish species population of the river and sustain the employment status of the local fishermen by portraying the heavy metal concentrations of the fish that could lead to the reduction of biodiversity. Also, the control of this pollution in Galma River will guarantee abundant and readily available fish necessary for the essential protein needs of the local population and beyond.
International oil prices have been falling irreversibly. This is due to a complex structural phenomenon which is analyzed in the introductory part of this article; we then move on to the study of some of the nations that have gambled a significant part of their internal growth on petroleum production. As a result, they have seen the imperative need to restructure their strategies in order to ensure a consolidated revenue base. The problem is primarily reflected in those economies that have not known how to diversify their productive sectors and international markets, or they have not invested enough in the basic infrastructure, cutting-edge technology, and the research and development required to reduce their vulnerability and economic dependence on the trade of certain raw materials in the global economic system. Latin America demonstrates various cases of this kind, such as Venezuela and Mexico (traditionally oil countries), or Brazil and Argentina (recently venturing into the oil market). The objective of this article is to discuss the main challenges faced by each of these countries, to identify their similarities and differences, and finally, to propose strategies that could be implemented for the sustainable development of their economies. This is a descriptive, correlational, and explanatory investigation with a purely qualitative focus. Analysis of each case is carried out purely in a current timeframe. The information used for the study is based on the most recent international reports and global circumstances of the countries in question. This investigation took place in the year 2015 over a five-month period. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the impact of the oil prices decline, particularly in Latin America. As it is a very recent phenomena, the critical analysis of core oil economies in the region contributes to the perspectives of midterm strategies for their governments to follow.
The threat to lives and property by flood is now becoming very frequent and almost an annual event in many Nigerian urban centres, claiming many lives and property worth several billions of Naira in each occurrence. Although, several studies have traced the causes of the menace to human factors and topography, it has been predicted that the crisis is likely to be exacerbated by climate change with many of the sub-Sahara African countries most vulnerable. This has generated research interest among the scholars. The focus of most of these studies, however, seems to have skewed towards the urban paradigm, typologies, governance and behavioural control only, leaving the input of building professionals virtually untouched. As a prelude to amplifying the role of architects in the fight against the menace, this paper presents the science of climate change and its consequences with emphasis on flood disaster. It holds that integration of control and mitigation of flood risk into an overall design of buildings and other man-made enclosures is essential for the nation to cope with the challenge. It then discusses some of the ways these design goals can be accomplished. It closes by recommending the means by which the strategies can be propagated to the stakeholders. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies that examine the role of architects in the control and management of flood disaster in the urban centres of the developing nations. It particularly discusses some of the ways flood disasters can be mitigated architecturally.
In this investigation in the first step, the Cu thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by means of DC magnetron sputtering method in fixed conditions.Then, for preparation of CuO thin films the thermal oxidation of Cu films under the oxygen flow at 300ºC for 4 h were done in electrical furnace.In the second step the Ag thin films have been deposited on CuO thin films by means of DC magnetron sputtering method in fixed conditions. Then they have been annealed at different temperatures such as 100°C, 200°C and 300°C for 4 hours. The effect of annealing temperatures on the structural and morphological properties of the films was investigated by different analysis, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The XRD analysis showed three peaks belongs to Ag (111), Ag2O (200) and CuO (-111).The AFM analysis exhibited that, annealing temperature influenced the surface morphology of the films. Contribution/ Originality
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common malignancy, which usually develops on top of cirrhosis of viral origin; it is responsible for more than one million deaths worldwide per year. Aim: This study was conducted to identify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HCC patients attended Menofia oncology unit in the duration from 2003-2012, Egypt. Methodology: A retrospective analysis of records of 1500 HCC patients attended the Menofia oncology unit .The results: Of the 1500 studied HCC patients, 74.4% (1116) were male, and mean age was 54.98 years. HCV, HBV infection was reported to be 69.8 %, 17.2%, respectively, and 18.6 % were positive for Bilharziasis. Cirrhosis was present in (58.93%) of patients and was classified as Child-A (64.47%), Child-B (26.53 %) and Child-C (9 %). Hepatocellular carcinoma was multifocal/ diffuse in (51.26 %) of patients. 59.8% of patients were presented with metastatic disease. As regard to therapy; (59.6 %) of patients received palliative treatment, meanwhile about 28.1%, 12.3 % underwent other lines of treatment, no treatment, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, we concluded that most of HCC patients presented at Menofia oncology unit were of advanced stage and poor survival. More effort is needed to discover early HCC cases with high risk factors. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, Egyptian Patients with HCC. This study uses a new estimation methodology.
This paper examines the issue of the street child, which has become a menacing characteristic of the modern society with all its vaunted air of sophistication, pride and civilization. Streetism is a worldwide phenomenon. Haunted by poverty, abuse and brutality at home, many teenagers seek comfort in the streets. But the freedom offered by the streets is actually no freedom as the boys become bullies with funny aliases like “Macho” and “Poison” while the girls are either lured or coerced into prostitution with its attendant negative consequences which range from contending with unwanted pregnancies, engaging in abortion to contracting sexually transmitted diseases. In spite of the daunting nature of streetism as a social malaise this paper contends that it is not insurmountable. This is the artistic significance of Kabria’s family and MUTE, the non-government organization saddled with the rehabilitation of street girls. The paper concludes, however, that a lasting panacea to the problem of streetism lies in bringing love back to the family unit, parent’s control of their urge for a robust procreation and responsible government, which should not be found wanting in doing the needful to support planned parenthood organizations, equip welfare homes and equipping law enforcement agencies to create an enabling environment for all citizens. Contribution/ Originality
The main contribution of this Article is in the area of greater awareness of the need for all in society to contribute to the eradication of streetism in all its ramifications before it becomes an uncontrollable epidemic
Much research has been done about the determinants of child labour, both at the national and international level but unfortunately very less research has been done about parents’ opinion on child labour and their education. In order to fill this gap we have done a household survey in Kashmir valley and have identified 88 parents whose young blood is working for the fortitude of their family. Our study found that adverse social and economic conditions force parents to engage their children in the labour market, notwithstanding their altruistic attitude towards their children for a while. We also observed that parents expect that it is the government that should play a pivotal role in the education of working children. Contribution/ Originality
The paper is first of its kind where we have tried to investigate various issues of child labour from the main actors who are actually taking the decision of their children whether they should work or join the school. We find even though majority of parents are altruistic towards their children but due to certain socio economic circumstances they are forced to engage their young blood in the labour market. If these families will be financially supported equal to what their children are earning from labour market they are ready to enrol their wards in schools and in this way the child labour problem in the study area will be reduced.
The study examined digitization and its usage by academic libraries to preserve and facilitate access to information sources. Case study method of research was adopted. A total number of 250 questionnaire was used through the administration of questionnaires, one hundred and seventy five (175) questionnaires were properly completed and returned for analysis, this enable the researchers to arrive at the findings and to reach conclusion in the study. The study identified that digitization could be used as means to enhancing access by making available information to present and future users of the library. This was obtained from the data collected where it was shown that digitization make access to information resources easier as recorded in the responses of 113 (64.57%) obtained from the respondents. It was also established that digitization of library resources is highly relevant as recorded in the responses of 147 (84%). From the study only highly demanded books should be digitized in the library as responded by 67 (38.29%) from staff in the library, followed by other textbooks. The benefits of digitization in the library as a means of providing access to the materials in the library and the means of preservation as recorded from the responses of 93(53.14%) was established. The study established that digitization of information resources is relevant to library services as recorded in the responses of 147 (84%). Printed materials could only be designed for the use of one reader while digital materials could be accessed by thousands of readers simultaneously provided the equipment are put in place in the library. Contribution/ Originality
Mobile learning is part of a new learning landscape created by the availability of technologies supporting flexible, accessible, personalized education. With the increasing demand of over enrolment of students in higher learning institutions (HLI) around the world teaching of large classes has become an issue that requires close attention. This study was conducted to generate evidence for proposing solutions on how to mainstream mobile ICT technology and facilities in teaching and learning in expanding large classes in the higher learning institutions in Tanzania. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Random sampling was used for the selection of respondents. Study population consisted of 120 first to fifth year students. Generally, the findings of the study showed that most students (90.7%) are capable of using ICT facilities, 90% of the students agreed that the ICT facilities in the university need to be updated to suffice the demand posed by large classes as well as catch up with the increasing pace of Information and Communication Technology. The majority 96.9% use internet for studying purposes. Moreover, a small number of respondents 14% pointed out that the ICT facilities used are excellent. Furthermore, the results highlighted the challenges faced by students when taught in large classes.Based on the findings the HLI management can improve upon usage of mobile ICT technology in teaching large classes by increasing the ICT budget, setting clear rules to ensure students are taught using ICT facilities and include laptop/computer as a mandatory faculty requirement to students. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on teaching large classes through mobile ICT in Tanzania where, little empirical evidence on the use of information technology exists. Additionally, it sought to find an innovative way to mainstream ICT as a solution to address the problem of teaching large classes.
Continuous professional development (CPD) courses enable teachers to keep up with the latest developments in the field of teaching and learning. However the modus operandi of conducting and delivering CPD courses is constantly questioned. The purpose of this research is to explore the issues related to the conducting and delivery of a CPD course. For the purpose of this study, three teachers who attended a CPD course were chosen. An interview protocol with ten open-ended questions was used to solicit information related to their experience in conducting an in-house course in their respective schools. The responses from the open-ended questions revealed that the teachers were unable to render the same experience to their colleagues due to a variety of reasons such as time factor, priority given by the school administrators and a lack of confidence. The findings suggest that the course organisers should stipulate the amount of time every school should allocate when conducting in-house courses and sufficient time should be allocated to teachers attending CPD to practise what they have learnt before they are asked to conduct an in-house course. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which investigates the challenges faced by teachers who attend Continuous Professional Courses. The study documents the dilemma faced by teachers who had attended a CPD and need to pass on the newly acquired knowledge and skills to their colleagues.
Nigeria over the years have concurrently operated deficit budget, though there have been various studies on the relationship between budget deficit and macroeconomic variables but the relationship between budget deficit and consumer welfare have not really been researched into in Nigeria. The study investigated the relationship between budget deficit syndrome and consumer welfare in Nigeria for the period 1985-2014. The data were analyzed with the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square Approach (FMOLS). The time series properties of the data were tested by ADF unit root and johansen co-integration test. A uni-directional causal relation existed between consumer welfare and budget deficit while bi-directional causality existed between consumer welfare and indirect tax. The empirical findings revealed a minimal positive and insignificant impact of the budget deficit on consumer welfare, as a 1 per cent increased in budget deficit caused less than 1per cent (0.008) increased in consumer welfare. The study thereby concluded that budget deficit did not have significant influence on consumer welfare during the period under study. It is therefore necessary for the government to build fiscal strategy by promoting fiscal prudency and disciplines that will reduce wastage and linkages in the system which will be geared toward the consumer welfare gain. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on budget deficit as it affects the consumer welfare and it provides empirical linkages between budget deficit, consumer welfare, inflation, indirect tax and interest rate. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the relationship between budget deficit and consumer welfare in Nigeria which was inadequately investigated in previous studies.
The study is motivated by the desire to investigate the determinants of share price movement given its fluctuation and oscillation over time. The study made use of secondary data sourced from the Central bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) for period between 1991 and 2013. Using an appropriate analytical tool such as the ordinary least square (OLS) research technique; our study revealed that none of the selected factors have impacted positively on foreign portfolio investment in Nigeria except for market capitalization that was positive and statistically significant as well. Therefore, the study recommended that the on-going reform in the Nigerian capital market be sustained, especially in the area of investors’ protection and confidence, infrastructural development, and accounting disclosure requirements. Contribution/ Originality
This study has contributed to the existing literatures that stated inflation as a good determinant of share price movement from another perspective that shows and empirically proved that the exchange rate is a more viable determinant of the movement of share prices.
The environmental concern is very important because the interest of a clean environment is among the most important pillars of sustainable development. Therefore, the amount of waste we produce is the result of our unsustainable lifestyle. Most of the waste produced by human can be treated by incineration, composting or landfill. However, all these methods cause air, water and soil pollution, which is harmful to human health, plants, and animals. Therefore, developed countries promote the 3R principle (waste reduction, reuse, and recycling) which have less negative effects on the environment. However, being responsible towards waste minimization is directly linked to how a society is educated to see it. As well, being responsible is something that can be taught and learned and this can be achieved if countries are learning from the others who are achieving better in waste minimization. For that, this study had a look in several experiences in different countries such as: Austria, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland, USA, Japan and China to profit from various international experiences in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) and learn some useful lessons for Algeria. This research used a descriptive study to show the situation of MSWM in Algeria and in other different countries and then it discussed some initiatives made by different governments to conclude some recommendations for Algeria. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the management of municipal solid waste in Algeria, moreover, it discussed the useful methods used in developed countries in order to consider those methods as useful experiences that can be used in Algeria.
Attention towards the agrirural social enterprise (SE) in Taiwan has increased, and optimisation for organisational performance has become crucial. Numerous agrirural service organisations have demonstrated their transforming intentions and potentials. In this study, a new self-report SE performance questionnaire, which is easy to administer and empirically valid, was developed. To explore the perceived performance of agrirural SE potential entrants, the agrirural SE performance can be assessed on the basis of four dimensions: personal issues, the social aspect, the business side, and service programmes. The results revealed that the length of time of engaging in SE predicted the three dimensions: personal issues, the social aspect, and the business side. The experience in operation function predicted the perceived performance of personal issues; the experiences in finance and accounting (F&A) and information system functions predicted the perceived performance of the social aspect and business side; and the experience in F&A function predicted the perceived performance of service programmes. Contribution/ Originality
A new self-report SE performance questionnaire, which is easy to administer and empirically valid, was developed.
The study aimed to determine the effect of the correlation between the universities and institutions of the Palestinian civil society, it discuss’ and analyzes the academic community which are about (120) non-profit association. However, questionnaires were distributed on only (95) of these non- profit organizations, and (80) questionnaire were given back, and so, samples were taken in a comprehensive destination style, and were used in the analysis of packets Statistical Social Sciences (SPSS) program and had the following processors: frequencies, percentages, averages, test T for the independent samples, and the contrast unilateral analysis, the equation Cronbach’s alpha to extract the reliability coefficient, however, the results show that it is necessary to prepare human resources scientifically, technically and administratively in relation to work reality, as well as, the participation of the Universities in the community initiatives, and the creation of twinning between universities and local facilities.The study also recommended the need to provide free or reduce educational fees for humanitarian associations and suggests universities to adopt physical funding for the ideas of students in community of work and to increase the financial aids for the ads through the official university sites activities with local institutions and also to work on the development of economic and social development plans participating universities and facilities local. Contribution/ Originality
The accountancy profession is responsible for providing, auditing, and analyzing financial and non-financial information needs of a broad range of decision makers. The accountancy profession’s ability to satisfy users’ information needs and also to testify this information protects the public interest and contributes to the economy. Since accountants are providers, auditors, and analysts of information, they significantly impact the business environment, and the overall society. Therefore, accountants’ qualifications and skills need to be upgraded and evaluated periodically. This upgrading and evaluation need some sort of references or standards. This paper measures the gap between the Syrian accounting qualifications (curricula and skills) and the international accounting education based on International Education Standards, specifically on IES 2 and IES 3 as a benchmark. Results indicate a large gap in terms of IES 2, and a medium gap in terms of IES 3. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by using the International Education Standards as a benchmark for measuring the gap between these standards and the Syrian accountants’ qualifications.
Aleiro dam in Aleiro Local Government of Kebbi state (Nigeria) constructed in 2010 is not only used for irrigation purposes but also serves the ecological needs of the local communities. This study was carried out during the year 2010-11, in order to assess the physico-chemical quality of water in the dam reservoir. The water samples were collected for a period of 6 months (monthly basis), from the three marked channels and were subjected to physico-chemical analysis. The results indicated that water quality is up to the standards accepted by WHO and FAO. The water is suitable for irrigation as required values for the concentration of sodium, magnesium, calcium and other elements are within the approved range suggested by FAO. Contribution/ Originality
This research contributes towards the assessment of freshwater bodies in Nigeria. The contribution is highly significant in the area of basic climate change impact.
Food colorants are widely added to food in order to attract the consumer. Recent researches have incriminated these additives for causing some problems to human health. This study was conducted to determinate the physiological effects of some natural (curcumin, carrotin and curcumin) and synthetic (tetrazine, sunset yellow and erythosine) food colorants on some hematological and biochemical parameters of male albino rats (rattus norvegicus, spraguedawlay strain). Results revealed that administration of synthetic food colorants decreased the percentage of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glutathione secretion (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SoD), and plasma immune-system and significantly increased plasma lipid lipoprotein, total cholesterol (LDL-C), lipid peroxidase, blood glucose, plasma urea and creatinine and increased activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Hence, it is recommended to avoid adding synthetic colorants as additive to foodstuff, while natural colorants seemed to be the best choice as food colorants. Contribution/ Originality
This study is emphasizing the adverse effects of the synthetic food colorants on human health as previously reported in the literature.