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Listing 96 - 20 of 1962 results.

Causes, Dissemination Channels, and Consequences of Corruption in Zimbabwe: Searching for a Kryptonite Solution

Research Article
Author(s): Joe Muzurura
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The term corruption is a multidimensional phenomenon that encompasses abuse of power, misappropriation of public resources, fraud, bribes, collusion, and other rent-seeking activities undertaken for private gain, monetary and non-monetary. Applying a logit model to a survey of 100 individuals and 50 small-to-medium-sized private firms, this study investigates the causes, dissemination channels, and consequences of corruption in Zimbabwe for the period 1998 to 2018. Opportunity perceptions, political instability, weak public institutions, excessive market regulations, red tape, cultural tolerance, competition, poverty, risk capital, business uncertainties, high taxation rates, the existence of a shadow economy, and the level of education were found to be the main causes of corruption. The channels of its dissemination are primarily the monetary and fiscal policies that implement macro-controls. This study therefore recommends the adoption of policies that reduce excessive market regulations for private exchanges, ensure the rule of law, restore macroeconomic stability, enhance regulatory quality and efficiency, develop robust and transparent public institutions, and minimize the discretionary powers of bureaucrats and politicians. Furthermore, to improve accountability, Zimbabwe should implement policies that ensure the forfeiture and repatriation of the proceeds of corruption, early detection of corruption, and prosecution of perpetrators, without fear or favor. Finally, severe penalties should be imposed on all cases of corruption, regardless of how petty, as preventive and deterrent measures.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the causes and consequences of corruption in Zimbabwe. Unlike similar studies that rely on cross sectional surveys, this study pioneers the application of binary choice models, in the form of the logit regression model, to examine the causes and dissemination channels of corruption.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Cyber-Crime and its Effects on E-Commerce Technologies

Research Article
Author(s): Richard Apau, Felix Nti Koranteng, Samuel Adu Gyamfi
Journal: Journal of Information

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Abstract
Adoption and use of e-commerce technologies continue to rise because they provide access to global markets, offer a competitive advantage and increase the effectiveness of businesses. Safety and trust are important factors that affect users' intentions and use of e-commerce technologies. Considering the upsurge of cyber-crime activities and the paucity of research in this domain particularly in developing countries, this paper investigated how cyber-crime perceptions affect users' intention to conduct business via e-commerce technologies. Using a survey approach, an online questionnaire was distributed and data from 476 participants was rigorously analyzed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling. The paper extends the theory of reasoned action with relevant constructs; trust and cyber-crime perceptions. The relationships between the constructs were based on deductive reasoning from prior studies. The hypothesized model explained 33.1% of the variance in Attitude Towards Behavior and 41.5% of Consumers Intention to Purchase. The results indicate that trust in internet medium, attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and cyber-crime perceptions are significant predictors of intention to purchase using e-commerce. There was, however, no significant relationships between Trust of Ecommerce Sellers and Cyber Crime Perceptions as well as Trust of Ecommerce Sellers and Consumers Purchase Intention. The findings elucidate businesses and stakeholders on the impacts of trust and cyber-crime perceptions on users' purchase intentions. It also inspires e-commerce technology developers to incorporate security features that reduce the vulnerability of these systems. Finally, the findings for this study are limited to respondents from Ghana hence future analysis could explore other countries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the effects of cybercrime on e-commerce technologies from the perspective of a developing country. In fact, the first study in Ghana, which attempts to examine consumers’ perception of cybercrime on their purchase intentions using electronic commerce technologies.
Computer Sciences » Journal of Information » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Optimization of Biodiesel Development from Non-Edible Indigenous Feedstocks in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Nwoko, Christopher Ikpe Amadi, Nkwoada, Amarachi Udoka, Ogu, Helen Ugochi
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This study investigated the transesterification of Rubber seeds (Hevea brasiliensis), Avocado Pear seeds (Gratissima persea), and Nipa Palm Kennel seeds (Nypa frutican) locally sourced from Nigeria as an adsorbate for the esterification reaction of oleic acid with methanol. Reaction was catalysed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) to form methoxide oleate (biodiesel) adsorption from aqueous solution in batch model for the production of biodiesel. The results obtained showed that rubber seeds oil (RSO), Avocado pear seeds oil (APO) and Nipa palm kernel seed oil (NPKO) oil gave maximum biodiesel yields at 0.9 % w/v, 0.1 % w/v and 0.1 % w/v catalyst concentration respectively. Their biodiesel yields were 88.0 %, 92.0 % and 96.7% respectively. They recovered biodiesel were characterized as an alternative fuel via specific gravity, viscosity, acid value, flash point and cloud point. The results obtained showed that the specific gravity for RSO (0.886 kg/m3), APO (0.876 kg/m3) and NPKO (0.850 kg/m3) were fairly significant at temperature of 25 oC to other conventional petroleum diesel ASTM D 975, standard biodiesel ASTM D975, and standard biodiesel ASTM 6751 and EN14214.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on Nigeria local plants capable of producing biodiesel via catalysed trans-esterification reaction.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Potential Economic Benefit and Producers’ Willingness to Adopt Bt-Brinjal in Bangladesh: An Ex-Ante Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Md. Abdullah Al Mamun, Mohammad Jahangir Alam, Dilshad Zahan Ethen, Swarup Barua
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Introduction of genetic engineering in agriculture is a recent idea of native scientists. Scientists from Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI) are working on developing an FSB resistant brinjal variety namely Bt-brinjal in collaboration with Cornel University, USA. In addition, this study was attempted to find out the potential economic benefit and producers’ willingness to adopt Bt-brinjal. A total of 80 respondents were randomly selected from Gazipur and Jamalpur districts. Descriptive statistics and Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze data. Yield gain and reduction in insecticide use data give the result as Bt-brinjal will increase yield by 65.76 percent and 44.87 percent and reduce pesticide cost by 71 percent and 70.36 percent compared to local OPV and Hybrid brinjal respectively. 98 percent of farmers will produce Bt-brinjal if they reduce insecticide use but 65 percent will not produce it if there are any health-related issues. Mass advertisement is also a significant factor of adoption (63.75 percent). It was found that the marketing channel for Bt and non-Bt brinjal is same. For this producers’ adoption of Bt-brinjal is related to the potential benefit and harmlessness of the technology. Results also showed that adoption is significantly influenced by education, own land size, no. of spray per season, season of growing brinjal (p<.01) and household size, type of growing brinjal (p<.05) respectively. Though voice against GM crops was also very loud but the Bangladesh government is very much eager to introduce this technology to the market and give the benefits to its consumers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated potential economic benefit and producer willingness to adopt of Bt-brinjal in Bangladesh. This study was an ex-ante analysis related to Bt-brinjal adoption in Bangladesh. Hence; this is an original contribution in this field.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2019 Issue: 3

Initiatives for Accomplishing the TIMSS 500 CenterPoint through Curricula, Teachers' Development and Instructional Strategies

Research Article
Author(s): Masooma Ali Al-Mutawah, Ruby Thomas, Abdulghani Al-Hattami, Nisha Preji, Maha Al-Enizi
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is one of the most influential assessments of student achievement conducted every four years. It provides reliable data on mathematics and science achievements in grade 4 and grade 8 as well as information about instructional curricular and teaching-learning process. This helps to make decisions on policy development and identify areas of progress. This research delivers evidence on factors that influence the improvement in the scores of TIMSS examination in 2015 compared to 2011 in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Since the Kingdom experienced a major reformation in mathematics and science education, this research analyzes the improvement in students’ skills and knowledge by comparing the same cohort results in 2011 and 2015 in mathematics as well as science. This research is also trying to identify other factors, as benchmarked by the Bahrain Numeracy Strategy (BNS) such as school environment, teacher education, teacher’s professional development, and classroom contexts for learning and instructional support which backed the improvement. This research provides initiatives to be taken to accomplish TIMSS Center Point 500 in the coming TIMSS examination in 2019 or later.
Contribution/ Originality
This research provides initiatives to be taken to cross TIMSS Center Point 500 in the coming TIMSS examinations in the Kingdom of Bahrain by analyzing the factors such as curriculum development, instructional strategies, school infrastructure, teacher’s education and professional development, classroom contexts for developing a learning environment.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Impact of Social Media on Social Value Systems among University Students in Saudi Arabia

Research Article
Author(s): Hanan A. Aljehani
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The present study aims to investigate the impact of social media on the value system (especially citizenship, time respect, others' privacy respect, family communication, and communication values) among the students of the College of Education, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University. It utilized the descriptive approach and applied a 40-item questionnaire covering (5) domains to a randomly selected sample of (142) students. Results revealed a positive impact of social media on citizenship and communication values, a moderately negative impact on time respect, and a poor impact on others' privacy respect and on family communication. There were no statistically significant differences in the impact of social media on the value system due to (specialization, family's economic status, time spent on social media, and preferred social media). The study results call for benefiting from the positive impacts of social media and sensitizing students to the negative ones, especially time respect and its optimal use, as well as conducting qualitative studies on the reasons for spending too much time on social media.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by identifying the impact of social media on the value system among the students of the College of Education, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia. It explores the impact of social media on student values e.g. citizenship, time respect, others' privacy respect, social communication, family communication, and communication values.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Out-of-Field Social Studies Teaching through Sustainable Culture-Based Pedagogy: A Filipino Perspective

Research Article
Author(s): Nina Mea S. Pacana, Charmen D. Ramos, Maryland N. Catarata, Reynaldo B. Inocian
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Quality of the instructional process is at stake when taught by out-of-field teachers. The current study identified the problems met by such teachers who teach across their specialization in the teaching of social studies. These Out-of-field social studies teachers encounter several issues in the preparation and administration of their lessons. This study first identified this specialization-workload mismatch and investigated what coping mechanisms can be introduced for the survival of these teachers in and out-of-field-teaching environment. The study employed a qualitative phenomenological research methodology and conducted an in-depth interview using open-ended questions, in order to generate the eidetic insights of the issues. Ethical considerations were administered to protect the confidentiality of the research participants. The data collected were translated and analyzed, resulting in the unveiling of themes and concepts from the narratives of the research participants. In the light of these findings, a Heideggerian interpretive analysis catapulted the creation of a Culture-based BAYLE Teaching Model (BTM) for that could be a solution to the out-of-field teaching individuals. The study recommends the introduction of BTM in all schools facing out-of-field issues.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes a pioneering mechanism in responding to the problem of out-of-field social studies teaching in the workplace using Heidggerian interpretivism. This study recommends crafting of a culture-based model of innovative instructional delivery known as the Bayle Teaching Model–a legacy of the Philippines to cultural global education.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 3

Antecedent and Consequences of Risk Perception on Tourist Decision Making towards the Sustainable Medical Tourism Development in Bangladesh

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammad Rashed Hasan Polas, Mohamad Sahidullah, Mohammad Imtiaz Hossain, Asif Mahbub Karim, Sudesh Prabhakaran, Arif Md. Khan
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
In order to learn more about the antecedents and consequences of tourist decision making in the medical tourism industry, this study reveals how risk perception influences the tourist decision making of medical tourism development. Then, we test the hypothesis by collecting survey data of 226 from respondents of different hospitals at Dhaka in Bangladesh who came for medical treatment there. Moreover, we hypothesize that tourist experience, tourist attitude, and media influence increases tourist decision making with the mediating effect of risk perception. The findings confirm a positive significant relationship between tourist experience and media influence on risk perception. A positive direct relationship between media influence and tourist decision making was also found. Then, we examine how risk perception mediates this relationship with tourist decision making which is found positive. However, this study didn’t find any significant relationship between tourist attitude and risk perception, in contrast with the earlier findings. Our results extend previous research by not only highlighting the importance of medical tourism in shaping the host destination’s strategic behavior but also indicating how each dimension of medical tourism influences on enhancing the tourist decision.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the relationship between tourist experience, tourist attitude and medical influence on risk perception towards tourist decision making for the sustainable development of medical tourism through empirical analysis and analyses whether tourist become satisfied through risk perception.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

The Effects of Country-Level Governance and Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from Hospitality Firms in ASEAN-5

Research Article
Author(s): Jing-Hui Kwan, Wee-Yeap Lau
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Despite the proliferation of research on cash holdings, the effects of external factors on corporate cash policy are little known. There are only a handful of studies have examined the relationship between issues related to institutional factors and cash holdings to date. Many studies have examined the effects of internal, as opposed to external factors on firms’ cash holdings behaviours. External factors, such as institutional environment have mostly been neglected in the extant literature, despite the fact that institutional factors have a direct effect on firms’ behaviours and strategic choices. This paper inspects the relationships between country governance and corporate cash holdings. This paper presents a cross-country study using 1274 firm-year observations from 2001 to 2013 from public listed hospitality firms in ASEAN-5 to test the impact of corporate governance on cash holdings. The relationship between external governance mechanism and cash holdings behaviour of firms at country-level are studied. The results show positive and significant relationship between the country-level control of corruption, regulatory quality, the rule of law, and corporate liquidity. However, there is no significant relationship between country-level political stability, voice and accountability and corporate liquidity. Further investigation was carried out to test the effect of tourism crisis and corporate liquidity. The results shall benefit various parties including the legislators and policy makers. Not only it serves as a strategic deterrence, but also helps firms to gauge opportunities.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to a growing body of cash literature by demonstrating how corporate cash holdings are influenced by country governance. Although enhancing governance mechanisms at the firm level is important in alleviating agency problems within the firm, improving the governance mechanism at the country-level first can be equally important.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2019 Issue: 3

Evaluation of Repellency of Plant-Derived Insecticide against Brinjal and Pepper Pest Populations

Research Article
Author(s): Enayat Aziz, Abdul Ghaffar Khoso
Journal: International Research Journal of Insect Sciences

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Abstract
The study was carried out on the Evaluation of repellency of plant-derived insecticide against brinjal and pepper pest populations. Two crops brinjal and pepper were sown separately and sprayed with Neem Seed Extract against whitefly, jassid, aphid, borer and predators. The population was significantly higher 3.70 whitefly/ leaf on brinjal variety F1-advanta-305 as compared to PPL 3.10/ leaf and Black long 3.31/ leaf respectively recorded on 20th January. Similarly, the population was relatively higher was 2.86, 2.72 and 2.44 jassid/ leaf on F1-advanta-305, PPL and Black long varieties respectively on 25th January. Aphid population was slightly higher 2.79, 2.39 and 2.26/ leaf on Black long, F1-advanta-305 and PPL varieties respectively. Likewise, the predator population was higher 2.26, 1.99 and 1.94/ plant on brinjal varieties of F1-advanta-305, Black long and PLL respectively on 4th February. The population was significantly higher 6.33, 5.28 and 4.8 whiteflies/ leaf on Talhari, Moro chilly and Mirch shehzadi respectively on pepper varieties on 25th January. Similarly, the jassid population was relatively higher 1.89, 1.83 and 1.79/ leaf on Moro chilly, Talhari and Mirch shehzadi respectively on 19th February. The population was higher 3.24, 3.04 and 2.58 aphids/ leaf on Talhari, Moro chilly and Mirch shezadi varieties respectively on 25th January. The predators’ population was higher 1.61, 1.53 and 1.33/ plant on Moro chilly, Talhari and Mirch shezadi varieties respectively on 9th February. Since pest population increased beyond ETL on 25th January. Therefore 2% neem seed extract was applied. These applications kept the pest population below ETL.
Contribution/ Originality
The study was carried out on the Evaluation of repellency of plant-derived insecticide against brinjal and pepper pest populations.
Agricultural Sciences » International Research Journal of Insect Sciences » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Impact of Forecasting Techniques and Market Demand Scenarios on Multi-Product, Multi-Period Aggregate Production Planning

Research Article
Author(s): Sharmin Akter Urmee, Taibaton Nesa Shimu, Md. Mashum Billal
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
Customer demands fluctuate over a different time horizon and if forecasted with same forecasting method shows errors in production planning. A linear programming mathematical model is reformulated in this paper for aggregate production planning (APP) to find the best-suited forecasting techniques for different market demand scenarios. The model is reformulated as a linear programming model and solved using excel solver to minimize relevant costs (backorder cost, inventory cost, and regular time production cost) while meeting the forecasted demand. The system performance is evaluated on the basis of service level (SL) and inventory level (IL). A case studied from a silk industry of Bangladesh used here to define three demand scenario High, Peak and Few. For each of them, the service level and inventory level was compared with the inclusion of simple moving average (SMA), weighted moving average (WMA) and simple exponential smoothing (SES) forecasting methods in the APP model. We found from the computations that for High and Few scenarios SMA is best in terms of SL and IL but for Peak scenario, WMA is best in terms of IL.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is reformulating the linear programming mathematical model including regular time production cost in the objective function, using the WMA and SES as forecasting techniques, and using the Excel Solver for solving the APP model which are different from other works.
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 1

The Mediating Effect of Financial Self-Efficacy on the Financial Literacy-Behavior Relationship: A Case of Generation Y Professionals

Research Article
Author(s): Dipendra Singh, Albert A. Barreda, Yoshimasa Kageyama, Nripendra Singh
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
A comprehensive financial literacy questionnaire surveyed prospective psychological constructs as antecedents (financial literacy, economic perception, financial self-confidence, financial behavior, and personal financial performance) of applying financial self-efficacy in a large sample of working students in the hospitality and tourism industry. It is expected that financial literacy and economic perception are key antecedents of financial self-efficacy, which in turns may influence financial behaviors and personal financial performance in shaping a working student’s future skills for designing effective financial plans. For this purpose, the structural equations model was empirically tested. Moreover, the mediating indirect effects of financial self-efficacy in the relationships between financial literacy and economic environment on financial behavior and financial performance were tested through a two-phase methodological analysis. This study contributes to the literature by investigating the effects of financial self-efficacy, financial literacy and economic perception on personal financial behavior. The significance of the contribution is to propose and examine empirically a theory-based model of financial self-efficacy and financial behavior-performance in a service context among Generation Yers.
Contribution/ Originality
The financial efficacy model presented is applicable to different contexts, while the significant power of economic perception and financial knowledge shapes the formation of an adequate financial behavior and performance. This research not only tests the direct relationship of the constructs but also test the mediating power of financial self-efficacy.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Determinants of Corporate Tax Avoidance Strategies among Multinational Corporations in Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Fazliza Mohd Kasim, Natrah Saad
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
Tax avoidance has been widely discussed around the globe, particularly among multinational corporations (MNCs). The MNCs are reported to have better opportunities to engage in aggressive tax planning techniques. Hence, this study examines the determinants of MNCs tax avoidance strategies by looking at their effective tax rates (ETRs). This study utilized the tax return form data from the Inland Revenue Board Malaysia (IRBM) to model ETRs of the MNCs in Malaysia, as a proxy of the tax avoidance. Regression analysis was performed in order to meet the objectives of the study. The findings suggest that MNCs in Malaysia can be associated with the tax avoidance since their ETRs are below the statutory tax rates (STRs) as stipulated under the Income Tax Act 1967. The results also suggest that firm’s size, profitability, extensiveness of foreign operation, capital intensity and leverage are the determinants of the tax avoidance of MNCs in Malaysia. The findings would assist the policymakers on the selection criteria of audit cases by focusing on MNCs with high profitability, extensive foreign operation, capital intensity and high leverage.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the literature by examining the determinants of MNCs tax avoidance strategies by looking at their effective tax rates (ETRs).
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

Study on the Effect of Foreign Investment on Anhuis Industrial Structure Optimization

Research Article
Author(s): Xuan Ji
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
With the deepening implementation of the strategy of the rise of central China, the degree of opening up of Anhui Province has increased year by year. It is of great significance to study the impact of foreign direct investment in the optimization of industrial structure in Anhui Province and how to achieve efficient economic development during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. Using the method of empirical analysis, the time series data from 1997 to 2014 reflects the characteristics of the actual utilization of foreign direct investment and industrial restructuring in Anhui Province. There are significant differences in the contribution of the three industries to the added value of each industry. From the short-term effect, the actual use of foreign direct investment in the secondary industry contributes the most to its added value. From the long-term effect, the actual use of foreign direct investment in the second industry contributes the most to the current added value. Foreign direct investment has promoted the industrial structure of Anhui Province to a certain extent, but it has aggravated the imbalance of the industrial structure at the same time.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that foreign direct investment has promoted the evolution of the industrial proportion of Anhui Province from the first industry dominance to the second industry dominance, and also promoted the upgrading of the industrial structure.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 2

The Influence of the Addition of Nickel on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Bronze Alloy

Research Article
Author(s): Oluwadare B. S., Adebayo A., Stephen J. T.
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
This paper describes an investigation of the influence of the addition of Nickel on the mechanical properties of aluminium bronze alloy. The investigation began by casting the specimens in a crucible pit furnace. Sand casting was utilised and was discovered to be more effective because it is inexpensive and easy to use during the production of aluminium bronze alloy. Five different samples of the aluminium bronze alloyed with 0% to 4% nickel were added into the furnace in accordance with their melting points. Nickel has the highest melting point of 1453°C, while copper, aluminium and zinc have melting points of 1084°C, 660°C and 419°C respectively. The mixture was manually stirred for around 5 minutes to ensure proper mixing of the alloying materials. After casting, both tensile and hardness tests were carried out on the machined, sectioned and ground specimens. An increment was observed in the samples’ hardness as the percentage composition of nickel increased while the tensile strength initially increased and then decreased. It was also observed from the results that the tensile stress for each specimen increased with strain.
Contribution/ Originality
The current study investigates the effect of adding a range of percentage compositions of nickel to aluminium alloy.
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 06-2019 Issue: 1

The Difference in the Structure of the Functional Readiness of the Football Players with Different Abilities

Research Article
Author(s): Dao Chanh Thuc, Vang Cong Danh
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
This study on the functional readiness of football players in the different game roles of the teams of Vietnam's first and second championships is revealed. The criteria for the readiness of football players are indicators such as maximum oxygen consumption and physical performance. Functional status of the players is determined in the research laboratory of HCM State Physical Culture Academy. The difference in the structure of the functional readiness of the players with different abilities of different playing roles (goalkeeper, center and wing, central midfield and wing and attack) is revealed. The results of this study show that the greatest level of aerobic performance is characteristic of wing players and midfield players. But, especially important is aerobic performance for the flank, or, the wing players who perform the greatest amount of work on the field. It has been established that the VO2max of wing defenders is in the range from 64.32 to 65.32 ml/min kg-1.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by studying on the functional readiness of football players in the different game roles of the teams of Vietnam's first and second championships is revealed.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Governance-Led Intellectual Capital Disclosure: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

Research Article
Author(s): Shujaat Mubarik, Navaz Naghavi, Muhammad Faraz Mubarik
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The study objective is to empirically examine the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) and corporate governance with a specific focus on the role of family ownership. Secondary data of 99 Pakistan Stock Exchange listed manufacturing firms pertaining to the 2008?2017 period were obtained from the annual statements of these companies. Owing to the non-linear role of family ownership in corporate governance, quadratic regression was employed to estimate the relationship between the degree of IC disclosure and various attributes of corporate governance. Study findings confirm that the relationship between ICD and family ownership follows the familiar inverted U-shaped curve, whereby the degree of IC disclosure tends to decrease once family ownership exceeds 22.64%. Moreover, analysis results depict a significantly positive impact of board independence, presence of an audit committee, and foreign ownership on ICD. Conversely, CEO duality was found to be negatively associated with the degree of ICD. In further analyses, IC disclosure was disaggregated into three major dimensions, namely internal capital, external capital, and human capital, yielding congruent findings. Thus, for effective IC disclosure, the study findings indicate that it is necessary to improve the governance mechanisms. It would also be beneficial for firms to restrict the family ownership to a certain level in order keep the information disclosure optimal. Since these recommendations are based on analyses of secondary data pertaining to a limited number of indicators of corporate governance pertaining to Pakistani manufacturing firms, any generalizations should be attempted with care.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by finding the threshold level of family ownership through a quadratic regression which provides unique insight for the relationship between corporate governance and ICD.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2019 Issue: 3

Problems of Bilateral Trade Deficit between Bangladesh and India: A 2SLS Regression Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Muntasir Murshed, Syed Margub Elahi
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study investigates the factors that determined the bilateral trade deficit of Bangladesh against India. The results of the Johansen cointegration test indicated that there were long-term associations between the trade deficit of Bangladesh real income levels, and the bilateral RER of both countries. Results from the two-stage least squares regression analyses indicated that a 1% increase in the real income levels of Bangladesh and India aggravated the bilateral trade deficit of Bangladesh by 4.61% and 3.98% respectively while a 1% real appreciation of the bilateral real exchange rate was found to reduce the deficit by almost 6%, ceteris paribus. Results also showed that Bangladesh faced persistent deficits in its bilateral trade balance against India due to its exports being comparatively less elastic than its imports engagements with India. The paper also sheds light on the anti-dumping policy pursued by India that has contributed to the unbalanced trade between the two economies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by analyzing the elasticities of Bangladesh’s imports from and exports to India. It is relevant from the perspective of policy implications to understand the degrees of responsiveness of Bangladesh’s import demand and export supply leading to the nation’s trade deficit with India.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 05-2019 Issue: 4

Market Integration and Seasonal Price Variation of High-Value Vegetable Crops in Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh

Research Article
Author(s): Shah Johir Rayhan, Md Jahurul Islam, Mohammad Mizanul Haque Kazal, M. Kamruzzaman
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The present study analyzed the spatial price integration and seasonal price variations of brinjal and yard-long bean in the Chittagong hill districts of Bangladesh. Secondary data were amassed from the Department of Agricultural Marketing (DAM) for the time period of 2006-2015. Correlation coefficient and Engle-Granger (EG) co-integration tests were used as a tool for analyzing price integration among selected district markets. For the estimation of seasonal price variation, ratio to moving average method was adopted for the study. The findings of the study from this observed evaluation of spatial price linkage through correlation coefficients and co-integration among the selected markets of Bangladesh considering the wholesale price of selected vegetables indicated that these markets were well integrated but not strongly integrated. That means the Chittagong market for each commodity was significantly integrated but not significantly highly integrated because of not as much developed transportation system in the hilly areas. The average seasonal variation of price of brinjal was found to be the maximum in the month of October and the minimum in the month of March. The average seasonal price variation of yard long bean was utmost in February and lowest in the month of June. The outcome of the present study could benefit the farmers and market actors monetarily if the production and marketing system of vegetables are well developed.
Contribution/ Originality
Since vegetables are inexpensively and socially important, the spatial price integration among the different vegetable market has not been discussed so far and analyzed for the intended study area where enormous prospects of vegetable production are present. This research is one of the very few researches which attempt to explore the potentiality of value addition practices, market integration and price variation of vegetables in CHT’s Bangladesh.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2019 Issue: 3

Money Supply and Inflation Rate in Nigeria: The Missing Link

Research Article
Author(s): Udo Emmanuel Smauel, Ben Etim Udoh, Abner Ishaku Prince, Okoh, Johnson Ifeanyi, Okolo Marvis Ndu
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Conventionally and theoretically increase in money supply according to the quantity theory of money triggers a high inflation rate in developed and emerging economies. The reality in Nigeria contravenes the quantity theory of money. This study investigates the missing link in Nigeria from January 2010 to December 2018 by applying the Johansen co-integration, Granger causality tests and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) on the monthly data. The findings indicated that money supply does not cause inflation. Inflation is caused by non-monetary factors of political instability, corruption, poor basic infrastructure among others. Money supply and inflation co-integrate in the long-term. The causality test proposed a uni-directional flow from inflation to the money supply. Bi-directional causality was not observed in this study. The VECM result indicated that disequilibrium caused in the previous year can converge back to equilibrium in the current year. The general findings of the study disagreed with the quantity theory of money. The study recommends that non-monetary factors of political instability, corruption, poor basic infrastructure among others were responsible for the missing link. These factors should be checked and put in perspective to achieve low inflation at a single digit in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the extant literature by using monthly M3 and M2 money supply data, and the implicit price deflator to GDP to measure inflation, the GDP and monetary policy rate. This study investigates the missing link between money supply and inflation rate in Nigeria by using the data from January 2010 to December 2018. The above serves as a hug contribution which most studies used M2 money supply and annualized time-series data.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2019 Issue: 3