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Listing 62 - 20 of 1962 results.

Efficiency of Plastic Fibres Waste on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Mortars in Hot-Dry Conditions

Research Article
Author(s): Khadra Bendjillali, Mohamed Chemrouk
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
This experimental study was aimed at evaluating the effect of plastic fibres waste on the physical and mechanical performances of mortars prepared and conserved under hot-dry conditions. The used fibres are recycled polypropylene fibres coming from industrial waste. Two dosages of fibres are used 0.5 and 1 % by weight. The results showed that the exposition of mortars to hot-dry conditions reduces their long-term mechanical strength and increases their shrinkage. Under hot-dry conditions, the reinforcement of mortars by plastic fibres waste has a positive effect on their flexural and compressive strength. The shrinkage of mortars conserved under these conditions is reduced by the addition of plastic fibres waste.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to enrich the fibres mortars researches. For technico-economical and environmental interests, we used local materials coming from natural and industrial waste, such as the sand and fibres. It is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of hot-dry conditions on the properties of mortars.
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 04-2016 Issue: 4

The Effect of Impulse Denoising on Geometric Based Hyperspectral Unmixing

Research Article
Author(s): Bilal KOCAKUSAKLAR, Nihan KAHRAMAN
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Hyperspectral unmixing is a process to find number of spectral component (called endmember), estimation of endmember signatures and their abundance fractions in each pixel on the scene. Geometric based algorithms are developed for hyperspectral unmixing problem in the literature. The distribution of spectra (points in n-dimensional scatterplot) can be used to estimate endmember signatures geometrically. Impulse denoising before unmixing process can help getting better results for endmember extraction. For this reason, General Prior Algorithm (GAP) is used before unmixing process. Experiments using real data demonstrate that this preprocessing step provided better results for endmember estimation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes better estimation of endmember signatures on geometric based unmixing algorithms by applying spatio-spectral correlation for impulse denoising.
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 05-2016 Issue: 5

Moving Target Tracking in Infrared Image Sequences Based on Differential Kernel Covariance Descriptor

Research Article
Author(s): Burak ALPTEKIN, Hamidullah BINOL, Huseyin CUKUR
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Forward looking infrared (FLIR) imaging has been used in many areas of research and everyday life, but it has been mostly employed in military and security domains. In these fields, remote infrared target tracking is a crucial element for surveillance. However, long-range captured IR image sequences generally have poor contrast, variable illumination, and high background clutter. These challenges make target tracking difficult. This paper suggests a technique for target tracking in different ranges in challenging FLIR image sequences, based on Differential Kernel Covariance Descriptor (DKCD). This new method diminishes rotation and illumination variation effects. The proposed technique calculates the differential kernel matrix of reference target by using various statistical and spatial features such as first and second derivatives, location information, and the intensity value of pixels. Later, the differential covariance matrix is constructed by using different pixel features and applying the appropriate kernel function to the matrix. Thanks to the kernel functions, the algorithm redefines the target's differential spatial features in Hilbert space. This process makes the descriptor non-linear. The predicted position of the target is calculated with the nearest neighbor algorithm in the candidate regions in the sub-frame. The performance of the suggested single target tracking system is then tested on challenging real-life video sequences.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper proposes a new nonlinear descriptor which mainly uses kernel covariance matrix based on difference of features. The technique minimizes the effect of pose variation, illumination, size, and background changes.
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 05-2016 Issue: 5

Improving Cloud System Performances by Adopting Nvram-Based Storage Systems

Research Article
Author(s): Jisun Kim, Yunjoo Park, Sunhwa A. Nam, Hyunkyoung Choi, KyungWoon Cho, Hyokyung Bahn
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
NVRAM is being considered as an additional memory/storage component of future cloud computing systems. This paper investigates how much performance improvement can be obtained if we add NVRAM as the memory/storage media of cloud systems. As NVRAM is put on DDR slots, it is byte-accessible and hence can be used as a memory medium like DRAM. It can also be utilized as swap or journal devices if we use it as a block I/O device. We first consider NVRAM as a storage cache, and then, we measure the performance of systems that additionally use NVRAM as memory, swap, and journal devices. We use two workloads, I/O and memory intensive workloads. Our experiments show that using NVRAM as a journal device performs the best in I/O-intensive workload as it performs journaling I/O on NVRAM instead of slow storage. Using NVRAM as memory or swap devices does not show good results in I/O-intensive workload. However, in case of memory-intensive workload, NVRAM memory significantly improves the performance, and NVRAM swap also gains a certain level of improvement. We expect that our experiments will be helpful in the design of NVRAM-based cloud systems for memory or I/O intensive workload situations.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding the NVRAM’s effectiveness on the performance of future cloud systems. Specifically, we show the effectiveness of NVRAM if it is used as storage cache, main memory, journal device, or swap device in the memory hierarchy of cloud computing systems.
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 6

Structural Design of A Linear-Motion Type Semi-Active Damper by Finite Element Method

Research Article
Author(s): Takahito ADACHI, Kenji TAKAHARA
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to design a structure of a linear-motion type semi-active damper which can reduce the vibration caused by an earthquake. This paper proposes the more effective structure of the linear motion semi-active damper by magnetic-structure interaction analysis of finite element method using ANSYS. The semi-active damper has a simple structure that a linear mover, a magnet bar, reciprocates in coils of a stator. The size of the coils and the size of the magnetic material cover which can produce the maximum damping force are simulated under the condition that the size of the mover is fixed. The electromotive force is calculated based on the change of the produced magnetic field according to the change of the given velocity of the mover in a short time. The damping force is calculated according to the electric current which the electromotive force supplies to the connected resistance. By the simulations, more than 120 [N s/m] of the maximum damping coefficient is acquired in the case that the coil is wound up from 28.0[mm] of the inner diameter to 60.0 [mm] of the outer diameter.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 6

Fuzzy Control of Hydrogen Generation by the Reaction of Activated Aluminum Particles and Water

Research Article
Author(s): Bui Trong Giap, Kenji Takahara, Toshinori Kajiwara, Koji Maekawa
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to design a fuzzy control system for generating hydrogen at a desired level by a reaction between water and activated aluminum particles. The activated aluminum particles are produced shredded aluminum sawdust. It is difficult to characterize the reaction quantitatively because the characteristics of hydrogen generating reaction vary as depending on the samples, the environment of the reaction and so on. The experimental system consists of a fuel cell (FC) of 100[W], a water tank, a reaction vessel, pressure sensors, a water pump, a radiator and a one-chip microcomputer. The fuzzy control system is designed to determine the quantum of water which is supplied to the activated aluminum particles. The error forms a desired value of the pressure of the reaction vessel and the change of the error are chosen as the labels of the fuzzy membership functions. The proposed fuzzy control system is applied to maintain the pressure of the reaction vessel of the developed hydrogen generation system at a certain level. The developed hydrogen generation system is confirmed to provide hydrogen to the FC by experiments under various conditions.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1

Productivity of Farmland Values in Food Crop Production in the Natural Disasters Prone Areas of Imo State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Ohajianya D.O, Okwara M.O, Ugwu J.N, Tim Ashama A., Mbah R.O, Dike N.F
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
This study analyzed productivity of farmland values in food crop production in natural disasters prone areas of Imo State, Nigeria.  The study specifically determined farmland   values, productivity of food crop farmers by farmland values, and factors influencing food crop farmers productivity in the different farmland values. Data were collected with questionnaire from 280 proportionately and randomly selected food crop farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, farmland value model, productivity model, and multiple regression techniques. Results showed that farmland suitability index ranged from < 0.499 to 0.948 with a mean of 0.350.Majority (72.1%) of the farmers cultivated on non-suitable farmlands, 22.9% of them cultivated on marginally suitable farmlands while few (5%) of the farmers cultivated on suitable farmlands, implying that majority of the farmlands cultivated for food crop production in the study area are not suitable. Food crop farmers’ productivity increases with suitability of farmland and the productivity of farmland increases from 1.35 to 2.25 and 3.14 as farmland moves from non-suitable to marginally suitable and suitable values respectively, thus making marginally suitable and suitable farmlands about 48% and 133% higher in farmland  productivity than non-suitable farmlands. Farmland rent, quantity of fertilizer applied, quantity of organic manure applied, education  level, quality of planting materials, and distance of farmland from  farmer’s home have significant influence on marginally suitable farmlands productivity. Farm size, quantity of fertilizer applied, quantity of organic manure applied, farming experience, and quality of planting materials significantly influenced suitable farmlands productivity. Crop farmers cultivating non-suitable farmland should explore measures to improve the fertility of their farmlands or minimize wastage of production resources through reduction in the size of farmlands, cultivated.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents productivity of farmland values in food crop production in the natural disaster prone areas, using farmland value and productivity models. The paper’s major contribution is finding that the majority of farmlands cultivated by the farmers is non-suitable due to the influence of natural disasters.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2

Straw Composting with Biological Agent Inoculation and Application Biofertilizer to Increase Rice Production

Research Article
Author(s): Betty Natalie Fitriatin, Tualar Simarmata, Hersanti ., Tienturmuktini .
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Problems using straw directly include the contamination of germs on the straw from the previous crop.  Alternatives that can be done are giving inoculant of biological decomposers The purpose of the research to test isolates decomposer in the rate of straw decomposition in soil and to test isolates biofertilizer on rice plants in soil treated straw compost. Greenhouse experiment was conducted for selecting isolates and formulations decomposer consortium and biological agents as well as the selection and formulation of biological fertilizers isolates. This experiment was consisted of treatments, i.e. incubation time composting (1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks) and inoculant (formulation A containing microbes T. harzianum, Bacillus subtililis, Cytophaga sp. and Bacillus licheniformis; i2 = Formulation B containing microbes B. subtililis, Cytophaga sp., and B. licheniformis, Streptomyces sp.) The field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of straw compost and biofertilizer inoculants (nitrogen fixation bacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria) on rice. Research at this stage using split plot experimental design was repeated three times. The main plot was the doses of straw compost + biofertilizer consisting of 8 treatments (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 t ha-1 without and with biofertilizer 400 g ha-1). The subplot was doses of  inorganic fertilizer N, P and K consisting of 5 levels   (100%, 90%, 80%, 70% and 60% of recommendations dosages). The results showed that the A formulation containing T. harzianum, B. subtililis, Cytophaga sp. and B. Licheniformis whereas B formulation contains B. subtililis, Cytophaga sp., and B. Licheniformis, Streptomyces sp. B formulation capable of decomposing straw is better than A formulation. Application of straw compost and biofertilizer (5,0  t ha-1 + 400 g ha-1) could increase the yield of rice to 13.3%  and  substitute 20% of inorganic fertilizer (N, P and K).
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated to obtain decomposers consortium formulation which can be effective to straw composting and to study the effect of biofertilizer inoculants on rice plants in soil treated with straw compost.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

Comparative Effect of Organic and In-Organic Fertilizer Treatment on the Growth and Tuberyeild of Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batata L)

Research Article
Author(s): Adeyeye, A.S, Akanbi W.B, Sobola, O.O, Lamidi, W.A, Olalekan, K.K
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The experiment was conducted at the teaching and Research farm of the Federal University Wukari Taraba State, Nigeria to assess, evaluate and compare the effect of organic fertilizers such as poultry manure, cow dung, organic manure and in-organic fertilizers such as NPK and urea on the growth and tuber yield of sweet potato. The recommended rates of cow dung (10t/ha) poultry manure (10t/ha), organic manure (10t/ha) NPK15:15:15 (400kg/ha) and urea (200kgN/ha) were applied as treatment to sweet potato with a control at (0kg/ha). These were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Measurement were taken on the growth and tuber yield at harvest such as the length of primary vein, number of secondary vein number of leaves, number of tuber and tuber weight. Data collected were analyzed using (ANOVA) and the significant means separated using Duncan multiple difference at 5% probability level. The result revealed or showed that numbers of leaves were significant in all the treatments. Application of urea fertilizer produced the highest number of tuber per plant, while tuber weight was not significantly different, but poultry manure application had the higher mean value of (2.34kg). It was concluding that application of poultry manure as organic fertilizer are better and can compare readily with inorganic fertilizer (urea) in the production of sweet potato.
Contribution/ Originality
Sweet potato is one of the most important field crop in the world and many studies have been carried out on the growth, productivity and nutritional properties including the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers applications.The study therefore compares the effectiveness of available organic and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and tuber yield of the crop.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

Performance of Multi-Purpose Cooperatives in the Shiselweni Region of Swaziland

Research Article
Author(s): T.A. Masuku, M.B. Masuku, J.P.B. Mutangira
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
A multi-purpose cooperative is a business that is a mixture of two or more different types of cooperatives. The study examined the performance of multi-purpose cooperatives in Swaziland. The objectives of the study were to; establish the performance of multi-purpose-cooperatives, identify factors influencing the performance of multi-purpose cooperatives, and identify constraints faced by multi-purpose cooperatives. A descriptive research design was used where quantitative and qualitative methods were employed to collect and analyse data. The target population was all registered and active multi-purpose cooperatives in the Shiselweni region. A sample (n=120) was drawn using a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure and it comprised of 80 cooperative members, 35 committee members and 5 cooperative officers who were purposely selected. Face to face personal interviews were used to collect the data. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20). The study found that the performance of multi-purpose cooperatives was influenced by gender and accountability. The study further found that cooperative officers educated and trained cooperative members once a year. Major constraints included poor capital base, most members being too old to perform cooperative activities, and poor record-keeping. The study concluded that cooperatives were not performing well financially, since there were making losses. It is recommended that cooperatives should ensure the financial statements were prepared on time and audited. There is need to encourage young farmers to join multi-purpose cooperative since most of the farmers were old. The frequency of training provided to members need to be improved. The study also recommends that other studies be carried out to cover the whole of Swaziland in order to generalise the findings.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by analyzing the performance of multipurpose Cooperatives. The study not only established the performance of multi-purpose cooperatives, but also identified the factors affecting the performance of multi-purpose cooperatives, especially in Swaziland. The study used primary data, hence it is original.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

Perception of Kogi State University Agricultural Students on Farming as a Career

Research Article
Author(s): Saliu O.J., Onuche . U., Abubakar . H.
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
This study examined the perception of Kogi State University Agricultural Students on farming as a career. Primary data were collected using structured interview schedule to pick 150 students in the study area. Stratified random sampling technique was used to pick 30 students from each level (100-500). Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency count, percentage and mean score on a 3 point likert-type of scale. The result of the study indicated that a large percentage (42.7%) of students were from household size of 4 to 6 which is fairly large for the needed labour force for agricultural activities. Many (56%) of the students had no farming experience before their enrolment into the university. The study further showed that most of the students had negative attitude when they resumed in 100 level mean score (X) (2.30) but are now greatly influenced by agricultural education impacted by trained agricultural experts (X) (2.67). Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) programme had also positively changed the students attitude to farming (2.25). Most respondents (X) (2.58) 86% showed willingness to engage in practical agricultural enterprise if supplied with the necessary agricultural inputs. Also willingness to embark on poultry farming had (X) (2.73), fish farming had ms (2.49), cash crop farming had (X) (2.19) and arable crop farming had (X) (2.12) which represented a popular perception among the respondents. Piggery farming with (X) (1.47) and beekeeping with (X) (1.33) had the least indication of interest by the students. Implementation of government agricultural policies that will ensure regular input and attractive market price could motivate agricultural graduates to embrace farming as a career.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

Reduction of the Carbon Footprint in Agricultural Greenhouses

Research Article
Author(s): John Vourdoubas
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Climate change in the planet is currently creating many environmental, economic and social problems which are probably going to multiply in the near future. Reduction of greenhouse gases emitted from fossil fuels could result in the mitigation of greenhouse effect and the climate change. Agricultural greenhouses consume large amounts of energy mainly derived from fossil fuels, for the cultivation of various crops. Reduction of their carbon footprint is of primary importance to day. In order to investigate the possibilities of reducing their carbon footprint, the energy consumption during their operation has been estimated and the sustainable energy technologies which could be used for substitution of fossil fuels used have been analyzed. It has been found that a modern greenhouse located in Mediterranean region with a covered area of 1,000 m2 and a total annual energy consumption of 200 KWh/m2 emits 76,900 kg CO2 per year. Total elimination of their CO2 emissions could be achieved with the investment of 44,000 € in renewable energy technologies, including solid biomass for heating and solar-PV for power generation and resulting in lower energy cost during their operation. The payback time of the abovementioned investments has been estimated at 4.84 years.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature regarding the improvement of the sustainability in agricultural greenhouses.  It indicates the possibility of using various renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels for covering their energy requirements resulting in zeroing their CO2 emissions due to energy use in them.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

Multi-Environment Variety Testing (Pre-Met) for Irrigated Ecosystem in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)

Research Article
Author(s): Md. Maksudul Haque, M Anisuzzaman, M.M. Emam Ahmed, Partha S Biswas, Md. Ansar Ali
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
A set of 100 IRRI bred advanced breeding lines were tested at Gazipur (as moderate productive control site) and at Habiganj (as high productive site) following row-column design with 2 replications. The breeding lines were highly variable in days to maturity and plant height but not in grain yield. However the interaction effects between genotype and environment (GXE) were significant for all three traits. At Gazipur, the breeding lines yielded with range between 3.3 to 7.3 t/ha with a growth duration range of 138-154 days, while at Habiganj they yielded 5.1-7.9 t/ha with growth duration of 139-159 days. The highest yielding genotype was IR99092-B-B-78 followed by IR13A390, IR99061-B-B-7, IR14D111, etc at Gazipur, while IR13A390 followed by IR100008-91-B yielded the highest at Habiganj site. Based on yield and growth duration, 22 breeding lines showing better performance at Gazipur, 9 lines at Habiganj and 2 lines for both locations were selected for further evaluation.
Contribution/ Originality
Rice is the major staple food for more than half of the world’s population. The study therefore the breeding lines were highly variable in days to maturity and plant height but not in grain yield. However the interaction effects between genotype and environment (GXE) were significant for all three traits.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

A Theoretical Analysis Upon the Environmental Health and Justice Issue: A Case Study for a Comparison Between G20s Unitary and Federal Members

Research Article
Author(s): Soner AKIN, Zehra Gul, Ugur Yildirim
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Environmental health and its ties with carbon emission policies have gradually become a hot topic in environmental agenda of nations. In this study, we discuss the issue as environmental health and justice issue in different types of governmental approaches in public management. In this respect, the comparative position of federal and unitary governments were paid attention and the status about sustainable development prospects were analyzed together through looking at the CO2 emission rates and the workers who are under the effect of those policies, benefiting from disability adjusted life years (DALY) statistics.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the relation between disability adjusted life years and environmental justice policies.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2

Academic Mobility for Engineering and Technology Graduates in Africa: Lessons and Experiences from the Implementation

Research Article
Author(s): Banadda, N., Dintwa, E., Oteyo, I. N., Nampala, P., Vandepitte, L., Adipala, E.
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
This paper was inspired by lessons and experiences arising from the implementation of an on-going academic mobility project supported by the Intra-ACP European Commission Program. Twelve universities (11 in Africa and the University of Gent in Belgium, Europe) in a consortium brokered by the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Africa (RUFORUM) conceived and successfully put a proposal in response to the 2013 Intra-ACP Academic Mobility Call. The project “Mobility for Engineering and Technology Graduates in Africa (METEGA)” is on-going and entails academic mobility of 72 beneficiaries (44 at Masters level, 20 at Doctoral level, and 8 at the staff and faculty level) in sixteen countries of the five sub-regions in Africa. Africa is lagging behind in terms of numbers of graduate students in engineering fields. The METEGA project is one of the 15 partnerships on academic mobility supported by the EU Intra-ACP Academic Mobility Scheme; and constitutes significant a contribution towards increasing the number of graduate students in Africa. The project has provided opportunity to leverage resources among participating universities. The participating universities offered three and nine quality Doctoral and Masters training programs. This project represents a significant effort towards internationalization of higher education in the sciences and has served as an opportunity for graduates and faculty to gain skills, relevant experience as well as learn from the implementation process. This paper presents lessons and experiences of the METEGA project, including institutional and operational issues that can be used to inform future academic mobility arrangements in Africa and elsewhere in the world.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper documents a successful case of academic mobility in Africa in higher education and research which is based on a collaborative engagement among universities. Higher Education Institutions can learn from this example and leverage resources for quality postgraduate training and research.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

A Review of Cross Border Higher Education in Africa: Focus on Graduate Level Training in Engineering and Technology

Research Article
Author(s): Banadda, N., Oteyo, I. N., Nampala, P., Dintwa, E., Adipala, E.
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Cross border education has become part of the options for higher education in countries with inadequate education opportunities. This is based on the fact that education is one of the pillar for economic development and improved living standards. Thus, many nationals from different African countries are taking higher education seriously and are seeking every available opportunity to pursue it. Consequently, this translates to an ever increasing demand for higher education in the continent. Cross border higher education has potential to meet this growing demand and provide more opportunities that can be leveraged to meet the engineering threshold for Africa and provide home grown technological solutions. This paper was motivated by the Mobility for Engineering and Technology Graduates (METEGA) in Africa and similar projects that have seen students move to other countries in the continent for graduate training. The paper presents a review of cross border higher education with a focus on graduate level training in engineering and technology.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper presents useful synthesis on trends in cross border higher education focusing Engineering and Technology. Africa needs more engineers and this paper presents a case for a concerted efforts for stakeholders to address cross border hurdles linked to training quality engineers for Africa.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 4

Occurrence and Anti-Fungal Sensitivity Testing of Candida Species Isolated from Canine Conjunctivitis

Research Article
Author(s): Olabode, H.O.K, Ameh, J.A, Egwu, G.O, Bello, R.H, Nwniyi, F.C
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
Fungal infection in dogs and other domestic pets caused by Candida species have been previously reported. Several available antifungal drugs for treatment of yeast associated infections have been used with diverse effects. This study establishes antifungal susceptibility profile on identified Candida species isolates associated with canine conjunctivitis using disks diffusion method as described by NCCLS (M44-A). The antifungal disks used include Amphotericin-B (20mcg), Nystatin (100units), Itraconazole (10mcg), Ketaconazole (10mcg), Fluconazole (25mcg). The identified Candida species were C. albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. Percentage susceptibility was high in both Amphotericin B (77.27%) and Nystatin (58.18%), while Itraconazole showed (54.54%), Ketoconazole (55.45%) and Fluconazole was least (11.82%). The sensitivity ranking showed Amphothericin B > Nystatin > Itraconazole > Ketoconazole > Fluconazole and increased resistance amongst the Azoles especially Fluconazole (70.90%) in comparison with Polyenes. C. albicans showed the highest resistance (84.51%) to both Fluconazole and ketoconazole (67.61%). C. parapsilosis showed 63.64% and 61.54% percentage resistance to Nystatin and Itraconazole respectively. In conclusion, this finding showed that Amphotericin B and Nystatin were most effective against isolated Candida species. Proper diagnosis of the underlying ailment is necessary in conjunction with routine anti-fungal susceptibility testing to avoid drug abuse and resistance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature of canine Candida species epidemiology and control using conventional cultural, characterization and antifungal sensitivity test methodology. This first preliminary study conducted in Abuja-FCT, Nigeria revealed effectiveness of Amphotericin B and Nystatin on Candida species isolates associated with canine conjunctivitis.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2

Biochemical and Electron Microscopic Changes Induced by Giardia in Experimentally Infected Lambs

Research Article
Author(s): Reham Samir Elmadawy, Mervat E.I. Radwan, Mohamed Abd El-Aziz Mahmoud
Journal: International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research

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Abstract
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Giardia on the biochemical serum constituents of experimentally infected lambs, in addition to studying the  observed alterations accompanying Giardia infection in the intestinal mucosa using scanning electron microscopy. Twenty lambs were allotted into two equal groups, Group A ( non infected) was kept as control negative and Group B (infected) was orally inoculated by 104 Giardia cysts. The biochemical changes were assessed in both groups on 7th. 14th, 21th and 30th days post inoculation (dpi). The study disclosed that Giardia induced a significant drop in the levels of serum electrolytes (chloride,sodium, potassium and calcium), blood glucose, different enzymes (lipase, amylase and  alkaline phosphatase).  Furthermore, the levels of urea, liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), inflammatory marker (C-reactive protein) and oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde) were  elevated, but nitric oxide was declined  by 30th dpi. The scanning electron microscopy of the intestinal mucosa of the infected lambs revealed a notable alteration which was fully explained. All the presented results interpret the pathophysiological effect of Giardia which adversely affects the health status of lambs.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Veterinary Sciences Research » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

A Suction Trap for Sampling Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan Trees

Research Article
Author(s): James D. Dutcher
Journal: International Research Journal of Insect Sciences

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Abstract
Aphids and aphidophagous insects were monitored in a pecan orchard by enumerating the insects collected on leaf samples and suction trap samples. Season long monitoring of the pecan foliage revealed that the aphid abundance prior to the late season outbreak on the leaves increased to higher population levels than could not be explained by the reproductive potential of the aphids. Concomitant season long sampling of the air in the canopy indicated that fecund alate aphids were continuously abundant in the air both before and between the outbreaks on the leaves. The results have important implications for improving scouting methods to predict aphid outbreaks and facilitate insecticide applications for aphid control.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is the first attempt to sample the pecan tree canopy with a suction trap and describe the seasonal long activity of three aphid species and associated beneficial insects in the pecan tree canopy from series of samples.
Agricultural Sciences » International Research Journal of Insect Sciences » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Infection Among HIV Patients Accessing Healthcare at Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Pennap, G. R. I., Oti, V. B.
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections is a sexually transmitted infection worldwide, which has a public health implications especially as a driving force behind the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic. It is known to cause genital ulcer as well as lesions. It is a lifelong recurrent disease with no cure. Due to the lack of documented HSV-2 studies among HIV patients in this study area with an estimated HIV prevalence of 38.7%, there was a need for estimating the seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection in the study population. The sera of 223 consenting HIV positive patients were screened for HSV-2 specific IgG using an ELISA test kit (Cortez Diagnostic, Inc, USA). The chi-square test was performed to identify possible risk factors associated with the viral seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence of the viral infection was 77.6%. Females recorded a prevalence of 84.5% and males 51.0% (p > 0.05). Participants aged ≤ 20 and ≥ 61 years recorded a prevalence of 100%, while the lowest prevalence (66.7%) was observed in those aged 51-60 years (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant association between the seroprevalence of HSV-2 in HIV patients in relation to locality. Patients from the rural setting had a higher prevalence (85.2%) of the infection than those from the urban setting (72.6%) (p ≤ 0.05). However, in this study, marital status, occupation, level of education, antiretroviral therapy (ART) status and CD4 counts, had no statistically significant association with HSV-2 infection (p > 0.05). Awareness campaigns that will promote behavioral change might be the most important strategy to mitigate transmission as most of the infected persons usually show no clinical symptoms. The role of vaccination and condom use among high risk groups may help in combating the transmission.
Contribution/ Originality
This study has contributed in documenting the prevalence of the infection in Keffi using the ELISA test kit and has used the Chi square statistical test. This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated the prevalence of HSV-2 infection in North central, Nigeria. The paper has contributed in logical analysis and in estimating the prevalence and risk factors of the infection in Keffi. The study documented a very high overall prevalence of the infection. It is associated with gender, age and locality and not associated with marital status, occupation, level of education, ART and CD4 counts.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 2