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This study presents the effect of temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and evaporation on solar energy in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria. The data was recorded every 5 minutes daily and monthly, covering 2008 – 2014, in The Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Meteorological Logging Unit. The MATLAB software used in the analysis of the data reveal a direct relationship between solar radiation and temperature and evaporation, and an inverse relationship with rainfall and relative humidity. The mean atmospheric temperature is 26.02oC, while solar energy varies between 47.07 mJm-2 month-1 and 113.99 mJm-2month-1 with a mean of 87.87 mJm-2month-1. During the rainy season (April – September), the mean monthly solar energy is 86.69mJm-2month-1, while in the dry season (October – March), the mean is 89.05mJm-2month-1. The amount of evaporation per temperature ranges from 2.92 mm/oC to 4.47 mm/oC with a mean annual of 3.57 mm/oC. In the rainy season, this value varies from 2.79 mm/oC to 3.79 mm/oC. In the dry season months, the variation is from 3.12 mm/oC to 4.47 mm/oC. The rainfall-to-evaporation ratio of 5.71 in rainy month demonstrates that about the amount of rainfall is recorded for the amount of water evaporated. This correlates with the fact that humidity is high. The results of this work could be used in the design and construction of solar energy technologies to provide energy. Moreover, the results could also provide input for climate risk information, local and national planning and decision-making for sustainable development in the areas of agriculture, aviation, health, and weather forecasting. Contribution/ Originality
The most enigmatic problems with the nearly 200 salt domes pierced in the Persian Gulf and in the Zagros Mountain Ranges (ZMR) in southern Iran, a unique morphology in the world, have been the matter of this study, which is based on a combination of field work, enhancement of satellite and aerial photographs etc. In the ZMR, structural anomalies are frequently associated with similar facies distribution patterns. In the eastern portion of the region, emergent salt plugs of Infra-Cambrian age exhibit the same alignment patterns. Such trends bear no apparent genetic relationship to the Tertiary folding responsible for the present Zagros fold belt, but rather indicate their affinity with linear basement features which are readily observable on Land sat imagery and aerial photographs. Bending of anticlines in the competent cover rock, combined with minor strike-slip faults and horizontal displacements of parts of folded structures, strongly point to the presence of these basement faults. The salt plugs, which have pierced cover rocks of up to 10000 m thick, are distributed on the Arabian Platform along regional basement faults. The area of diapir outcrops is bounded by the Oman Line to the east and by the Kazerun fault to the west. Pieces of the basement have been brought up to the surface on some of the salt domes. The fragments were transported by rotational ascent of the Hormuz Salt Formation to the present and former land surfaces. The recognition of features related to basement tectonics and realization of their implication in the control and modification of geological processes are important adjuncts to the search for hydrocarbon accumulations in this region. To our best knowledge, data of basement faults in the study area are scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine basement faults and their relation to salt dome distribution. Considering the fold axes bending, the trend of the salt plugs and also the distribution of epicenters of the last century, n umerous new basement faults are introduced in this paper. Contribution/ Originality
Ramsar area is located across and between Alborze Mountain and Caspine Sea in North of Iran. About 30 spas are located south of the Ramsar and Sadatshar town. They are almost in between 20 to 70 m elevation. Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks and alluvial deposit are exposed around the Ramsar area. In tertiary, acidic Plutonism was active and intrusion into the Paleozoic and Cenozoic formations. Quaternary and Alluvium deposits are exposed and extending on the Jurassic formations in Ramsar plain and have thickness lower than 10 m in show springs. The annual precipitation in the Ramsar region is 976 mm.There has not any proper Thermal spring management in Ramsar area yet. This could post some serious problem on improper management of Thermal spring sites, where its environment has been put into jeopardy. This study aims to provide a way to classify the Thermal springs in Ramsar area. The result of this study help in the classification of Thermal spring sites for official planning improvement of administration and sustainable development of natural resources of the area.The study makes use of the Department of Applied Geosciences in Islamic Azad University. GIS data of a total of 9 Thermal springs in the attempt to set up a classification system of Thermal springs in Ramsar area. These data include surface temperature, conductivity, alkalinity, acidity, TDS, pH values, H2S, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, SiO2, SO4 contents, their locations, usages and other relevant information.The surface temperature of Thermal springs are between 19oC – 65oC and Na-K-Cageothermometer shows estimated reservoir temperature range from 25 o C – 195 o C. Most of the water from these Thermal springs is relatively turbidness and their composition is sodium choloride. The Thermal springs in this area generally exhibit high SiO2 and Na content; strong smell of sulfur.In addition, there are 9 Thermal springs that show high concentration of Cl, Ca, Na, K and Mg.There are three major criteria used in the classification system in this study, temperature, pH and their usage. On the basis of temperature, there are three classes of Thermal springs in Ramsar area: hyper thermal spring (10 %, 50-99o C); thermal spring (80%, 30-50o C). There is one class achieved on the basis of pH values: all of Thermal springs exhibit weak acids. There are 4 types of usage classification: swimming pools, Tourism, space heating and drying of organic materials. Contribution/ Originality
Tribal and minority populations’ square measure progressively exposed to risk factors as a results of urbanization. The study was conducted within the Rakhain community in Cox’s Bazar district, Bangladesh, with the aims of deciding the patterns of unsafe drinking and their socio demographic characteristics. This cross-sectional study was done among 287 Rakhain people. Informations were collected by face to face interview using pretested structured form. Seriously sick, lunatic person and who weren't interesting to involve were excluded from the study. Substance use was significantly high among the age group of 35-44 years. Their mean age was 40.66 (±11.275) years. Majority of the respondents was male 148(52%), married 222(77.4%) and educated up to primary level 179(62.4%). The very best proportion 68(23.7%) of the respondents were housewife and day labourer and lowest was jobless 26(9.1%). Their average monthly family financial gain was 17874.56 (±7208.553) Taka. More than fifty percent Rakhain consumed beer as hazardous drinking. Statistically important association was found between their pattern of drinking and socio-demographic characteristics (p <0.001). Hence improvement of educational and employment status of tribals strongly needed. It’s dreadfully necessary of interventions to promote knowledge, awareness, and health skill among the ethnic Rakhain tribes to guide a healthy life. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated to find out the areas where interventions are needed. Findings of this study will help policy makers to prepare appropriate policy to bring healthy Rakhain community which is an ethnic tribal community residing in coastal area of Bangladesh.
Rickets, a condition caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, has a myriad of presentations and affects children all over the world. Infants who are exclusively breastfed by mothers who are vitamin D deficient are affected, particularly in the absence of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. While breast feeding is encouraged, breast milk is deficient in vitamin D thus; exclusively breastfed infants require vitamin D supplementation. This case describes a three-week-old male infant with a continuum of rickets, which went undiagnosed from the initial presentation of noisy, difficult breathing and snoring at the pediatric emergency department. This case emphasizes that rickets may not always have a classical presentation. Contribution/ Originality
In the current framework of behavioral corporate finance, this article studies the relationship between the managers’ overconfidence and firm performance through the financing structure in the Tunisian context. Our model seeks to identify if the financing structure as a mediating variable between the performance and overconfidence. The empirical study is based on a sample of 56 firm managers for the year 2014. The results of the conducted regressions confirm the existence of a mediating effect of the financing structure on the relationship between overconfidence and the performance of Tunisian firms. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the indirect impact of overconfidence on the performance of Tunisian firms through their financing structure; it is based on a new methodology that uses the theory of Baron and Kenny (1986) by utilising mediating variables to assess the relationship between the firm’s overconfidence and performance.
This study investigated the effect of baking temperature and time on the physical properties of bread from 10% cocoyam and 90% wheat flour. A central composite rotatable experimental design with two factors and five levels were used. The independent factors were baking temperature (174.82 – 251.18oC) and baking time (30 – 45min). The responses were specific loaf volume (Y1), crumb moisture (Y2), crumb hardness (Y3) and overall acceptability (Y4). Thirteen (13) baking trials were performed with five center points and eight non center points. The specific loaf volume (3.35 – 3.9cm3/g), crumb moisture content (32.1 – 35%), crumb hardness (70 – 70.48N) and overall acceptability (4.85 – 8) varied significantly (P<0.05) with the baking temperature and time. The panelists preferred the bread baked at 186oC for 45min. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the effect of baking temperature and time on the physical properties of bread from wheat- cocoyam flour using response surface methodology and revealed that acceptable bread can be obtained from 90% wheat flour and 10% cocoyam flour at the baking temperature of 1860C for 45mins.
The formalism of the one-dimensional detonation theory taking into account both thermal losses and the theory of branched chain processes was applied to hydrogen oxidation in the presence of hydrocarbon additive. It is shown that accounting for both reactions of termination of the active centers of combustion via molecules of hydrocarbon additive, and chain oxidation of hydrocarbon additive allows qualitative interpreting of the main features of the process. They are both passing of detonation velocity through a maximum at an increase in content of the additive in lean mix and the existence of two detonation limits on the concentration of the additive. Contribution/ Originality
This study originates a new approximate analytical formula interpreting the main features of the detonation velocities and limits in lean hydrogen – air mixtures.
Soil losses and erosion are the primary concerns that decrease soil fertility, deposition materials in waterways, flooding, environmental pollution, and declining dam capacity. The aim of this study is zonation of soil erosion hazard and sediment yield in central Zab basin in southwest of West-Azerbaijan province in Iran. The Sardasht dam construction is established on its main branches that estimate amount of soil erosion and sedimentation of behind the dam is necessary. Hence EPM model have been used to soil erosion hazard mapping using series of GIS data, Landsat ETM+ satellite images, aerial photos in GIS environment. Required layers information was used in this research including slope, aspect, lithology, soil, land use, rainfall, and river erosion. Hence, GIS databases and their weighting of each map layers were extracted according to the hydrologic units. Also, GIS database was prepared based on EPM model to extract of erosion and sedimentation maps The obtained result using EPM model showed that south and southwest parts of central Zab basin near the Sardasht Dam construction are very highly eroded due to their soil erosion and lithology while the northern parts of case study are moderately eroded because of the intensive land cover. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to determine the dominant erosion features in the mountainous catchment using satellite data and GIS techniques. This study documents can be used to estimate the amount of sediment reaching the dams, natural resource management and land use planning.
This study investigated the factors that influence mathematics teachers’ perceptions of ICT in mathematics teaching in Kenyan secondary schools. Participants for the study came from a population of mathematics teachers in Nairobi and Nyandarua counties in Kenya. The results revealed that mathematics teachers’ perceived roles of ICT in the classroom were positive with a large proportion of teachers agreeing that ICT plays a significant role in the teaching-learning process. Additionally, demographic factors such as age, school type, teachers’ educational level, principal’s subject major, and so on were significantly related to mathematics teachers’ perceptions of the roles of ICT in the classroom. The Internet and ownership of laptop computer were found to be useful in shaping mathematics teachers’ perceptions; however, this was not true for the availability of computer labs, technology resources, and location of the school (rural or urban). Additionally, limited time to integrate ICT in the lessons and inadequate ICT training in mathematics related software were found to limit mathematics perceptions of the positive roles of ICT in mathematics teaching. The study recommends that mathematics teachers need to be trained on the relevant mathematics software, be provided with reliable Internet connection, and encouraged to acquire laptop computers for instructional use. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated teachers’ perceptions of Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in mathematics education. Limited studies have investigated this research problem in the African context. The study used the Chi-square statistics as a lens of identifying the variables in the study.
In this work, the unsteady flow of an incompressible couple stress fluid between two parallel plates is studied. Slip boundary conditions are applied on the two plates and vanishing couple stress condition at the boundaries is assumed. The upper plate is suddenly moved with time dependent velocity while the other plate is fixed. The problem is solved analytically in the Laplace domain through the use of Laplace transform technique. The inverse transform of the fluid velocity is obtained numerically. The velocity profiles for different times and different physical parameters are plotted and the numerical results are discussed. Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to the field of couple stress fluids by applying the more realistic slip condition to Couette flow of an incompressible couple stress fluid. It is found that the time, the couple stress coefficient and the slip parameters have significant effect on the flow field.
During the last two decades, sports medicine is increased and experienced a stage of rapid development, especially in such areas as the study of strength, endurance, sports injuries and psychology. Study of ongoing changes when performing exercises at the cellular and molecular levels led to the development of new areas in the sports science as known as genetic medicine that deals with the genetic basis of athletic phenotype. Around 66 % of the variance in athlete status is explained by genetic factors, the remaining variance is due to other factors such as training, nutrition, equipment, motivation, sleeping and epigenetics. Over the last two decades, at least 155 genetic markers (located in almost all chromosomes and mtDNA) were associated with elite athlete status (93 genetic markers with endurance and 62 markers with power/force). The number of identified genetic markers associated with sports activity, grew at a rate exponentially: in 1997 – 5 genes; in 2000 – 24 genes; in 2004 – 101 genes. During the last 19 years, found that at least 120 of genetic markers associated with elite athlete status (77 genetic markers related to endurance and 43 genetic marker settings capacity/power). Of the polymorphisms associated with sports endurance, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and alpha actinin-3 (ACTN3) polymorphisms have been the most frequently studied, and meta-analyses have confirmed the associations. ACTN3 is absent in approximately 18% of European population, 25-29% of Japanese population and overall about 1.5 billion people in all countries. Therefore, to date, available genetic tests based on small sample sizes and the selected analytical methodology can lead to erroneous associations and to reassess the size of the effect, and of course, the use of such limited data does not allow us to predict athletic ability with high accuracy. Contribution/ Originality
An adaptive algorithm for compressing the color images is proposed. This technique uses a combination of simple and computationally easy operations. The two main steps consist of decomposition of data and data compression. The result is a practical scheme that achieves good compression while providing fast decompression. The approach has performance comparable to and often better than, existing architecture. This paper gives the overview of an adaptive lossless compression scheme. This scheme uses a new technique to predict a pixel by matching neighboring pixel, an adaptive color difference estimation scheme to remove the color spectral redundancy while handling red and blue samples and an adaptive codeword generation technique to encode the prediction residues. The technique lossless image compression plays an important role in image transmission and storage for high quality. At present, both the compression ratio and processing speed should be considered in a real time multimedia system. Lossless compression algorithm is used for this technique. A low Complexity predictive model is proposed using the correlation of pixels and color components. Also a color space transform is used and good decoration is obtained in our algorithm. The compared experimental results have shown that our algorithm has a noticeably better performance than traditional algorithms. Contribution/ Originality
Sunlight is a limitless form of renewable and clean energy which is amply accessible. Economic consumption of solar energy can boundlessly fulfil the energy demand. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are acknowledged as third generation solar cell technology because of their environmental friendliness, cost effectiveness, simple fabrication and capability to be manufactured on huge substrates. The prospective for development of various Dye sensitized solar cell components is massive. We have under taken a series of investigations on the photovoltaic performance enhancement of DSSCs. In this work, effect of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in N719 dye solution as a co-adsorbent and low cost additive was investigated. The cells were fabricated with and without the addition of CDCA. The co-adsorbent significantly improved the photovoltage open circuit (Voc), photocurrent density (Jsc) and the solar energy power conversion efficiency (). The impedance spectroscopy is also discussed in the paper. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of CDCA additive on ruthenium dye. The paper compares the results from existing data and shows an enhancement in the photovoltaic properties in the results section. The impedance spectroscopy included is studied for the first time for the dye with chenodeoxycholic acid.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of employee engagement with mediating variabel rapport to improve employee performance of nurses at Advent Hospital in Indonesia. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the effect between employee engangement, interpersonal relationship and performance were examined. Data were obtained through a questionnaire. Using proporsionate random cluster sampling, there were 418 respondents answered the questionnaire a. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using principal component analysis and principal axis factoring (PAF) found that among four dimensions of interpersonal relationship, rapport is driven factor of interpersonal relationship. The results indicated that satisfaction negatively affect rapport, commitment has positive relationship toward rapport, advocacy has positive influence toward rapport, satisfaction has negative influence toward employee performance, commitment has positive relationship toward employee performance, advocacy has positive influence toward employee performance. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of employee engagement which is satisfaction, commitment and advocacy with mediating variable interpersonal relationship which is rapport, bonding, breadth and affinity. Using exploratory factor analysis, rapport is driven factor of interpersonal relationship toward employee performance.
The reinforcement of corporate governance in Japan is one of the pillars of Japan’s growth strategy which companies have to regain "the power to earn". In this respect, the influence of the introduction of outside director on performance of Japanese companies still remains controversial. This research reached one conclusion by introducing a new viewpoint. Especially, we examine how outside director is associated with earnings persistence in Japanese listed companies. Many prior researches agree that company profitability tend to move to the average over time. Earnings persistence is a concept of time series tendency of earnings. Prior research developed some empirical measurements of earnings persistence. If outside director has positive impact on the profitability, then earnings persistence of companies with higher proportion of outside director are higher than that of companies with lower proportion of outside director. Our data used for this study are from Nikkei Economic Electronic Databank System (NIKKEI NEEDS) by Nikkei Media Marketing, Inc. NIKKEI NEEDS has data for all listed companies on stock markets of Japan. We focus on all companies listed on the first or second section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and select 13,376 firm-years in the period from 2003 to 2014. We test the effect of outside directors on performance using the empirical model used by many accounting studies. Our results indicate that outside director has positive impact on the profitability in critical situations, while he or she has little positive and negative impact on the profitability normal situations. We conclude that impact of outside director on corporate performance is narrow in Japan. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that outside director has positive impact on the profitability in critical situations, while he or she has little positive and negative impact on the profitability normal situations. We conclude that impact of outside director on corporate performance is narrow in Japan.
Recently, as an interest in strongly contagious infectious diseases such as MERS increases, proper infectious disease management systems using ICT have been discussed. Particularly in Korea, the process-centered measures on the basis of ICT infrastructure and the internet of things are under discussion. However, studies on these are very rare. This study aims to propose an infectious disease management system in which ICT is incorporated into each process of the spread of infectious diseases. The scope of analysis is limited to the infectious diseases that flow from a country into the other country through air transportation. The process encompassing from the entry to the eradication of an infectious disease is classified into 5 stages (airport, transportation of patients, medical institutions, self-isolation, and waste disposal), and a journey map is suggested. Subsequently, an efficient infectious disease management system in which ICT is introduced to each stage is proposed. This study has significance in that it has unprecedentedly analyzed the entire spreading process of infectious disease from the process-centered perspective, and is expected to suggest a new convergence direction of ICT. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to construct the effective infectious disease management system and provide a new direction for the convergence of ICT in future.
As the number of services that use spectrum such as IoT and commercial drones are increasing rapidly every year, it has become very important to efficiently allocate the spectrum resources. Advanced countries are shifting towards open spectrum system which provides the suitable environment for using radio wave and pursue new technological service innovation. Global companies such as Amazon, DHL, and Google are already investing a lot of resources into the commercial drone technology and made significant contributions. Korea’s commercial drone industry, on the other hand, had limited growth because commercial drones are strictly regulated. In this respect, the purpose of this paper is to derive a policy measure for open spectrum to foster the Korean commercial drone industry. The research was conducted as follows: (i) Literature review of open spectrum and commercial drone industry and (ii) Expert interview on key issues. Following implications have been drawn from case studies in other countries and the expert interview: (i) Establishing data-based open spectrum management system, (ii) Designing a plan to develop new service using spectrum in middle and long term, (iii) Selecting spectrum band width exclusive for open spectrum and drone for international compatibility (iv) The need for a unified agency which can manage and regulate drone industry. These results imply that in order to foster the commercial drone industry, it needs a collaboration with the field of spectrum, and an international standard. The contribution of this study is to provide a strategic guideline for the countries that are in the early stage of developing commercial drone industry, and establish policy and legal guidelines to help foster commercial drone industry. Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is to provide strategic guidelines for the countries that are in the early stage of developing commercial drone industry, and establish policy and legal guidelines to help foster commercial drone industry. This study uses an expert interview to investigate key issues.
Manufacturing System has been evolved over the years to accommodate major design variations. To respond to these high frequency variations and to stay competitive, there is a need of having such type of manufacturing system that could cope with market trends and design changes efficiently. Product’s design and its manufacturing capabilities are closely related, thus the manufacturing system should be customized to cater all the design changes with suitable manufacturing capabilities. Reconfigurable Manufacturing system has been recommended for the turbulent market conditions because of its flexible and changeable nature. This research work is based on the co-generated model in which optimal machine configurations are generated through the application of optimization technique. Based on these configurations, system is tested for reconfiguration in case of production changeovers. Considering the relevant change drivers the degree of reconfigurability in any case of application can be achieved through proposed algorithm. A case study has been presented to illustrate the application of proposed model based on the technological constraints. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of reconfiguration in a manufacturing system. Considering the parameters mentioned in eq.1 makes this approach generic, reliable and cost effective. Selection of operation and its sequence has given better flexibility and scalability through the application of MOGA. Actual resources (machining and assembly setups) can be obtained using this approach by measuring extent of reconfiguration for production changeovers.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional profile, phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of aqueous and acetonic extract of Withania coagulans by standard chemical analysis methods. Proximate analysis revealed that aqueous extract of W. coagulans is a rich source of soluble solids (16.1 ± 1.5 %), fiber (15.5 ± 0.1 %), pH (11.5 ± 0.19 %), ash (11.2 ± 0.2 %), sugar (9.7 ± 0.1 %) and ascorbic acid (9.7 ± 0.1 mg/100ml). Phytochemicals detected were flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrate & sugar, phenolic compounds, proteins & amino acids, tannins, gum and mucilage while phytosterols were absent. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of plant extract was determined against ten pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli,Bacilluscereus, Staphylococcus aureus,Clostridium, Escherichia coli (Human), Bacillus subtilius, Xanthomonas, Salmonella typhi,Salmonella heidelberg and Klebsiella pneumonia) and five fungal strains (Penicillium, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Entomola and Aspergillus flavus) using the agar well diffusion method. The acetonic extract of W. coagulans indicated highest antibacterial activity (12 mm) against Clostridium and Salmonella heidelberg and lowest action (5 mm) against E. coli (Human.). Highest antifungal activity (10 mm) was recorded against Alternaria alternata and Penicillium while Aspergillus niger showed lowest zone of inhibition (6 mm). Streptomycin was used as a control. The acetonic extract of W. coagulans exhibited highest free radical [(1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH)]) scavenging activity (72 %) at concentration of 30 mg/ml, with an IC50 value (18µg/ml) as compared to control (4µg/ml). The presence of bioactive compounds, nutrients and biochemical screening indicated that the seeds of W. coagulans can serve as a potential source of useful drugs for the treatment of various pathologies. Contribution/ Originality