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Journal of Food Technology Research

June 2016, Volume 3, 2, pp 63-71

Effect of Temperature and Time on the Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Wheat – Cocoyam Flour Using Response Surface Methodology

Peluola-Adeyemi, O.A


Obi, T.E


Ugbogu, D.I

Peluola-Adeyemi, O.A 1 ,

Obi, T.E 2
Ugbogu, D.I 1 
  1. Department of Food Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria 1

  2. Department of Chemical Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, Nigeria 2

Pages: 63-71

DOI: 10.18488/journal.58/2016.3.2/

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This  study  investigated  the  effect  of  baking  temperature  and  time  on the  physical  properties  of  bread  from  10% cocoyam  and  90% wheat  flour. A central composite  rotatable  experimental  design  with  two  factors  and  five  levels  were  used. The   independent  factors  were  baking  temperature (174.82 – 251.18oC) and  baking  time (30 – 45min). The responses were specific loaf volume (Y1), crumb moisture (Y2), crumb hardness (Y3) and overall acceptability (Y4). Thirteen (13)  baking  trials  were  performed  with  five  center  points  and  eight  non  center  points. The specific  loaf  volume (3.35 – 3.9cm3/g), crumb  moisture  content (32.1 – 35%), crumb  hardness (70 – 70.48N) and overall  acceptability (4.85 – 8) varied  significantly (P<0.05) with the  baking  temperature  and  time. The panelists preferred the bread baked at 186oC for 45min.

Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the effect of baking temperature and time on the physical properties of bread from wheat- cocoyam flour using response surface methodology and revealed that acceptable bread can be obtained from 90% wheat flour and 10% cocoyam flour at the baking temperature of 1860C for 45mins.


Bread, 90% Wheat flour, 10% Cocoyam flour, Temperature, Time, Response surface methodology.



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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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