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Listing 53 - 20 of 1962 results.

Prioritization of Museums in Terms of Performance in Attracting Tourists (Case Study: Museum of North of Sistan and Baluchestan Province)

Research Article
Author(s): Hossein Saleh Poodineh, Gholam Reza Miri, Masume Hafez Reza Zadeh
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
interaction with great cultures and civilizations of ancient times up to now, have enabled Iran to provide the most brilliant science and technology at some points of time to the humanity. In the meantime, Sistan and Baluchestan civilization has a history of several thousands of years, but no effort worthy of this glory have been done to introduce and identify its remained works. Given that the role, development and management of museums have changed greatly in the last two decades, museum institutions, increasingly is being visitor-centered. The aim of this study is to prioritize museums of north of Sistan and Baluchistan province in terms of performance in attracting tourists in the region. The research methods is descriptive – analytical, and data collection has been done through field survey and questionnaire completion, i.e. 350 questionnaires have been completed  to assess the Grand Museum of Zahedan, Museum of Zahedan Post-Office, Museum of Zabol Burnt-City (Shahr-e Sukhte) and Anthropology Museum of Zabol. The results of TOPSIS model indicates that the Grand Museum of Zahedan with a score of 0.709 stands in the first place and the Museum of Zahedan Post-Office with 0.235 places at the last of ranking in terms of performance in attracting tourists.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 07-2016 Issue: 7

Reliability and Rationing Cost: Some Analytical Implications for a Power System

Research Article
Author(s): Vijayamohanan Pillai N.
Journal: Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation

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Abstract
The present paper attempts to analyze the implications of the relationship between reliability and rationing cost involved in a power supply system in the framework of the standard inventory analysis, instead of the conventional marginalist approach of welfare economics. The study is substantiated by fitting a normal distribution to the daily internal maximum demand of the Kerala power system during the four-year period from 2010-11 to 2013-14, and also by estimating, based on the techno-economic parameters of a 660 MW thermal power plant, the rationing costs implied in different reliability target criteria.
Contribution/ Originality
This study suggests a new approach to the relationship between reliability and rationing cost involved in a power supply system; it also contributes in the existing literature to the standard inventory analysis by linking it to reliability analysis.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » Asian Journal of Energy Transformation and Conservation » Month: 06-2015 Issue: 1

Character Strengths and Life Satisfaction of Teachers in Ghana

Research Article
Author(s): Edward Abasimi, Gai Xiaosong
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Character strengths are positive traits that are critical in many positive life outcomes.  This study examined the distribution of character strengths and their relationship with life satisfaction among teachers in selected schools in the Builsa District of the Upper East Region in Ghana. Data from a sample of 104 basic and senior high school teachers revealed that the top 7 character strengths of the teachers were gratitude, kindness, fairness, love of learning, honesty, perspective(wisdom) and open mindedness (judgment). There was a strong positive relationship between overall character strengths and satisfaction with life. Creativity, perspective, love, teamwork, prudence, and gratitude were each significantly correlated with life satisfaction. Prudence, humour, modesty/humility, self-regulation and capacity to love and be loved each made unique and significant contribution in explaining life satisfaction with prudence making the largest unique contribution. Implications of the study and directions for future research are discussed.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Peterson and Seligman (2004) character strengths in Ghana and it identified unique distribution of the strengths among teachers. The top 7 strengths indicate teachers scoring high on wisdom and knowledge strengths which is unique from studies using general samples.

Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

The (F/G)-Expansion Method and Travelling Wave Solutions of Nonlinear Evolution Equations

Research Article
Author(s): Ä°brahim Celik
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
The (F/G)-expansion method is firstly proposed, where F=F(ξ) and  G = G(ξ) satisfies a first order ordinary differential equation systems (ODEs). We give the exact travelling wave solutions of the variant Boussinesq equations and the KdV equation and by using (F/G)-expansion method. When some parameters of present method are taken as special values, results of the  -expansion method are also derived. Hence,  -expansion method is sub method of the proposed method. The travelling wave solutions are expressed by three types of functions, which are called the trigonometric functions, the rational functions, and the hyperbolic functions. The present method is direct, short, elementary and effective, and is used for many other nonlinear evolution equations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of  -expansion method. We proposed the (F/G)-expansion method and investigated the exact travelling wave solutions of the variant Boussinesq equations and the KdV equation by using (F/G)-expansion method.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Residential Housing Quality Assessment Based on the Criteria of Sustainable Housing (Case Study: Residential Complex of 100 Units of Region 1 City of Zahedan)

Research Article
Author(s): Farzaneh Saberi, Gholam Reza Miri, Masume Hafez Reza Zadeh
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
The most basic human needs throughout history, is the need for housing. On the other hand, in recent years one of the topics that were of interest to scholars and experts, is the quality of life and environment. Lack of attention to the physical-spatial standards in the design of residential complexes can cause major problems in the field of housing and living conditions. This study examines the criteria for sustainable housing in the city of Zahedan and in a complex-residential area. The statistical population is 19080 people in the city of Zahedan in a residential area, and the sample was calculated using a sample of 318 people, Library and field is the method of studying and using a questionnaire. And to analyze the data, one sample T-test has been used in SPSS software, and to rank the residential complexes of entropy the hierarchical analysis model is used. The results of the one-sample T-test indicates that housing indicators in terms of physical, social and environmental terms are not in good condition. Considering that the average 3 is calculated from the test T, (67/2, 87/2, 49/2) are lower than the basis of the standards. The mean difference in level is more than 99% and it is statistically significant and reliable (Sig = 0.000).
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 6

The Dimensions of Adaption to Marital Violence in Saudi Society “A Field Study on a Sample of the Marital Women’s in Jeddah City”

Research Article
Author(s): Seham Ahmed Al-Azab
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This study aims to determine the role of certain dimensions that compels a wife to adapt with marital violence thus elect to continue in such a turbulent marriage. The study adapted the descriptive approach and the measurement of adaption with marital violence for data collection from a sample of 114 battered women whom members of the Family Protection Foundation situated at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results of major factors that compels a battered wife to adapt with marital violence were: The wife's below average appearance, obesity and below average beauty as to the dimension of the wife's personality aspects. Increased divorced process cost and lengthy divorce process as to the dimension of the divorce process and child custody. The wife's inability to control her children' behaviors, difficulty to fulfill her children' needs, depending on the father for extending such orientation and guidelines to children as to the dimension of caring for children. The wife's family's inadequate support as a result of the family's hard economic condition and lack of social status, the family's rooted conception that the husband has the right to discipline his wife as to the dimension of the family support. Inadequate social security for the wife and her children, the wife's total financial dependence on the husband, inadequate financial support (designated by a competent court) for both of the mother and children after divorce, inadequate financial support from the wife's family as to the dimension of financial dependence on the husband. However, the physical, health, sex and economic violence are the major types of violence adapted by battered wives.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes, in the existing literature, the role of certain dimensions that compels a wife to adapt with marital violence thus elect to continue in such a turbulent marriage in spite of violence.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2

Effect of Domestic Cooking on Physicochemical Parameters, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Var. Marmande)

Research Article
Author(s): Lynda Arkoub-Djermoune, Salima Bellili, Lamia Khenouce, Farida Benmeziane, Khodir Madani, Lila Boulekbache-Makhlouf
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
Most of the vegetables are consumed after being cooked. Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet. This study was performed to investigate the influence of the traditional cooking methods of Algerian people (frying, griddling and baking) on the physicochemical properties (pH, moisture, acidity, Brix, total sugar, ash and non enzymatic browning index), phytochemicals contents (phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, flavonols vitamin C, carotenoids and lycopene) and the antioxidant activity of tomato (S. lycopersicum) cultivated in Algeria. Cooking treatment affect positively their physicochemical properties (pH, acidity, Brix, total sugar, ash and non-enzymatic browning index) except the moisture content which decreases significantly. After cooking, the number of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins increase significantly, nevertheless vitamin C, carotenoids and lycopene contents decrease for all cooked samples. Finally, DPPH and ABTS free radicals scavenging activities increased in cooked tomato extracts, while a slight decrease was recorded in ferric reducing power (FRP) due to the reduction of vitamin C contents. Consequently, the antioxidant activity of tomato depends on the cooking procedure and griddling, frying seems to be the best cooking way that enhances its antioxidant activity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents for the first time to determine the influence of the traditional cooking methods of Algerian people (frying, griddling and baking) on the physicochemical properties, the phytochemicals contents and the antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS and FRP) of Algerian tomato (S. lycopersicum var. Marmande) used in different food preparation.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Appointment of Directors and Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Sub Saharan Africa: Do We Need More Executive or Non-Executive Directors?

Research Article
Author(s): Nwaubani, Anthony Nzeribe
Journal: Journal of Empirical Studies

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Abstract
This study mainly examined the effect of Corporate governance on the performance of deposit money banks in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Specifically, the effect of appointment of more non- executive directors-BNEDDUM on return on assets (ROA) and net interest margin (NIM) of the banks in SSA was determined. Conversely, the work examined the effect of appointment of more executive directors on the ROA and NIM of the banks. Secondary data on six SSA countries and twelve banks collected for the period 2004 to 2016 were used. Panel data regression approach was employed to analyze the data. Fixed effects and Random effects models were adopted based on the results of Hausman tests. The study revealed among others that appointment of more number of non-executive directors has a positive but insignificant effect on ROA. It also indicated a strong positive correlation with both ROA and NIM. A hypothetical appointment of more executive directors showed a positive and significant effect on NIM while indicating the negative and insignificant effect on ROA. The positive effect of BNEDDUM on ROA coupled with its strong positive correlation with ROA and NIM seem to strongly suggest that appointment of more non-executive directors in deposit money banks in SSA is more beneficial to the banks than the appointment of more executive directors. However, the global conflict in the findings associated with appointment of directors is not yet fully resolved. The study recommends that while more non-executive directors may be appointed, banks in SSA must put in place internal control systems which promote a culture of professionalism in management.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates a new approach to attempt to resolve the challenge of causality in the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance by improvising a randomized experiment which made it possible to examine two sets of firms-one which appointed more non-executive directors and another that appointed more executive directors.
Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Thermal, Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Agro Fiber Filled High Density Polyethylene Biocomposites

Research Article
Author(s): Anselm O. Ogah, Karl R. Englund
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
The thermal, mechanical and rheological properties of corncob, rice hull, walnut shell and flax shive agro-wastes/high density polyethylene bio-composites were studied. Results indicated that the fibers showed two and three mass loss steps due to moisture evaporation and decomposition of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin. The flax shive was thermally more stable and showed a decrease in activation energy with increase in conversion rate while the other three fibers showed increase in activation energy with conversion rate. The apparent activation energy values of the fibers was 161±11.06to200±4.69 kJ/mol. Particle size distribution of 60-100 mesh size of the fibers was 0.295 mm to ˂ 0.125 mm. The composites showed remarkable increases in flexural modulus and un-notched Izod impact strength and a decrease in flexural strength compared with the neat HDPE. The rice hull composite showed superior flexural strength of 22.5 MPa. The flax shive composite gave superior flexural modulus of 3.0 GPa and the walnut shell composite gave superior un-notched Izod impact strength of 52.5 J/m.  The complex viscosities of all the composites decreased with increase in frequency. The corncob composite showed higher complex viscosity of 3,600,000 Pas. The walnut shell composite exhibited higher storage modulus of 800,000 GPa at low frequency but decreased with increase in frequency, whereas the other three fiber composites showed increased storage modulus with increase in frequency. Corncob composite showed superior loss modulus of 200,000 GPa. The damping factor of the composites decreased with increasing frequency with walnut shell composites exhibiting superior damping factor. The study has shown that the properties of the composites varied substantially based upon the type of agro fiber utilized.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that corncob, flax shive, rice hull and walnut shell fibers are viable, eco-friendly, alternative raw materials of low cost for the production of HDPE composites. The evaluation and comparison of their thermal, mechanical and rheological properties indicate their potential as engineering materials.

Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 02-2016 Issue: 2

New Features of Sprint Technological Development and Stagnant Causes and Countermeasures of Men’s 100-Meter Sprint in China

Research Article
Author(s): Ke Zhang, Yan-Hua Guo
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
With regards to lower indemnity state of 100-meter sprint in China in recent years, through literature, expert interviews, analysis, comparison and other methods, the author analyzed the new characteristics of contemporary sprint technology. On this basis, from the perspective of our sprint field’s knowledge and understanding of sprint technology in the past, the author analyzed the reasons for floundered state of the men's 100 meters sprint.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 3

Runoff Prediction by Support Vector Machine for Chalous River Basin of Iran

Research Article
Author(s): P. Mirzaee, R. Fazloula
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Runoff is the result from the comprehensive action of climate conditions and drainage area underlying surface. Rainfall, evaporation, temperature, wind speed, solar radiation and relative humidity are the most important factor which effect on runoff. Prediction of runoff amounts is performed using Support Vector Machine (SVM). In this paper, the prediction of runoff for Chalous River basin along the Caspian Sea is investigated. A model based on SVM approach is proposed to runoff, predicated on a total of 8 years daily data sets, including field investigation records for the Chalous River Basin along the southern shoreline of Caspian Sea. This study addresses the question of whether Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach could be used to predict runoff. Results revealed that SVM provides an effective means of efficiently recognizing accurately predicting the runoff and the prediction of the future runoff evolution trend with this model will provide the basis for water regulation and water resources reasonable configuration.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology as well as support vector machine (SVM) to predict runoff amount based on hydrological condition in Chalous river basin from north of Iran. This study addresses the capability of SVM in runoff prediction.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 6

Corporate Funding and Sustainability of Non- Governmental Organizations in Africa

Research Article
Author(s): Danjuma Abdullahi, Yahaya T.K. Baba
Journal: Games Review

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Abstract
The role of NGOs in development cannot be  over emphasized, previous studies only discussed on the NGO’s roles in development without much emphasis on their sustainability. Thus, this study focuses on corporate funding and sustainability of NGOs in Africa. Qualitative research was used, 19 informants were interviewed. The result shows that NGOs in third world face many problems, ranging from funding, lack of time, poverty, illiteracy and lack of mobilization contributed to limited activities of NGOs in third world. The paper recommends increase in participation, investment in education and creation of awareness.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by filling the gap on sustainability of Non- Governmental Organizations in Africa. Previous studies only discussed on development of NGOs.

Economics » Games Review » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Retracted: Applications of Mathematical Modeling for Sensitivity and Sustainability in Supply Chain Flexibility

Research Article
Author(s): G. M. G Farok, M. I.M. Wahab
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
Supply Chain Management (SCM) demands management of complex dependencies for sensitivity and sustainability on contest of teams, departments, drivers and matrices. It requires risk analysis of global partnerships, win-win contracts and sharing agreements with relevant companies. Supply Chain flexibility, drivers and metrics may include measurements for procurement, production, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material handling, packaging and customer service. There are hundreds of sensitivity that can be used to score Supply Chain Management performance. These results would lead to support and accommodate the sustainability which can be influenced by supply strategies and decisions on supply chain flexibility.
Contribution/ Originality
This study derives new formula to obtain a mathematical relationship among supply chain elements. This calculates the strategy of manufacturers, market and supplier for measures global supply chain flexibility.  These writers would be able to explain that this graduate level research is their own contribution and it can be used as a guideline for future researchers.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 02-2016 Issue: 2

To Convalesce Task Scheduling in a Decentralized Cloud Computing Environment

Research Article
Author(s): Arun Sangwan, Gaurav Kumar, Sorabh Gupta
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
With the contempo slump and the immutable crush to deliver more services at a lower cost. Delivery model offers lower cost, and can make quick construction services. IT economics are changing rapidly, and large companies, in particular, looking for new ways to secure capital at a lower cost to maintain the viability of the company. Task scheduling problems are first class related to the overall efficiency of cloud computing facilities. Most developed algorithms for automation planning approach in one parameter of quality of service (QoS). However, if we consider more than one QoS parameter then the problem becomes more challenging. To address the problem, we need to introduce a scheduling strategy for multi-workflows with multiple QoS constrained for cloud computing. We need to introduce an optimized algorithm for task scheduling in cloud computing and its implementation. Furthermore, Load Balancing is a method to distribute workload across one or more servers, network interfaces, hard drives, or other computing resources. Use these components with the load balancing, on the one chamber, grow well in redundancy.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of how to improve task scheduling. In this paper we allocate appropriate services for processing the workflow tasks and schedule the tasks on the services according to the requirements and the cloud environment. Efficient task scheduling method can meet users' demands, and Improve the utilization always come across a good deal of the world environment.

Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Strategies for Addressing Poor Statistical Literacy among Health Scientists and Science Communicators

Research Article
Author(s): Raywat Deonandan
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Statistical literacy (SL) is an aspect of numeracy and a core educational competency.  Overall levels of SL in North American society may be in decline, while evidence abounds of poor SL among researchers globally.  Three strategies are recommended to help address poor SL among scholars and science communicators, with a particular focus on the health and medical sciences: (1) mandatory inclusion of computerized statistical platforms in undergraduate statistics classes; (2) requirement for statistical review in peer-reviewed paper submissions; and (3) the exploration of novel methods of results communication.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 2

Indicators of Sustainability in Vernacular Settlements Hot Dry Region of Iran, [Case Study: Kerman-Meymand]

Research Article
Author(s): Elham Sobhani, Mahlagha Hekmat
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Nowadays, sustainable development theory is one of the most challenging subjects in urbanism field. Old settlements have strong relationship with their environment. Vernacular settlement can provide suitable patterns of sustainable existence, which has been created from generations’ experiences completion. It has the lowest damage to natural system by intelligent usage of natural presents. Warm and dry areas have special climatic features. settlement of such areas were positioned and constructed based on special principals  which were consistent with environmental features and ecological capabilities. These settlements are consistent with natural texture and site ecology and capabilities. It not only imposed no destruction on their environment, but also beyond that, play it's role as a perfection  reaching agent for material. the goal of  this paper is investigation of persistence indexes of vernacular settlement in warm and dry area.  This paper first has a brief review on persistence concepts and following that on sustainable urbanism and urban persistence indexes and after that describe climatic and geographical features of Iran’s warm and dry areas, after that Meymand (as a case study) is analyzed with morphological approach.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first morphological analysis of vernacular settlement in hot- dry area to reach sustainable indicates.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 08-2016 Issue: 8

Acquisition of Personal Assets Through Loan Bank and Commercial Credit: What’s the Best Option?

Research Article
Author(s): Garcia-Santillan, Arturo, Ortigosa-Ortiz, Alexa Andrea, Hernandez-Perez, Sandra Luz, Mora-Montalvo, Noelia, Ramos-Hernandez, Jesica Josefina
Journal: Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research

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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to determine the most viable and beneficial scenario for acquire an asset, specifically a car. For this purpose, the amortizations model was used, which is why the corresponding financial simulation in the amortization charts on both scenarios are presented. The results lead us to think that the financing option offered by the car company is the most suitable and beneficial for the client.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature about the amortization methods. Its contribution is to demonstrate the most viable option for acquire a car, within Mexican context.

Economics » Quarterly Journal of Econometrics Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Javanica Infecting Sunflower by Some Composted Plant or Animal Residues as Soil Amendments in Egypt

Research Article
Author(s): A.E. Ismail
Journal: Review of Plant Studies

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Abstract
Soil amendment with organic composts of plant or animal residues i.e. banana tree (BT), maize stalks (MS), sawdust (SD), rice straw (RS) and cattle dung (CD) at rates 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 % w/w showed significant (P≤ 0.05 and / or 0.01) reduction in numbers of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica larvae in soil, galls and egg-masses on roots as well as the nematode build-up as compared to control. All dosages of BT compost were most effective in reducing numbers of the nematode stages, galls, egg masses and the nematode build-up followed by 1.0% of both MS and SD composts. All doses of organic composts significantly (P≤ 0.05 and / or 0.01) increased growth of sunflower cv. Giza 1. and improvement of sunflower cv. Giza 1 growth. Generally, there were positive significant correlations between doses of composts and reduction percentages in number of larvae in soil, galls, egg-masses and rate of build-up, and (r = 0.9884, 1.045, 0.9844 and 0.9677; respectively) as well as increases in sunflower growth parameters in terms of lengths, fresh and dry weights of both shoots and roots (r = 0.9977, 1.0, 1.0, 0.9391, 0.9967 and 1.0; respectively). Also, there were positive significant relationship between shoot dry weight and each of N, P and K uptake by sunflower shoot (r = 0.9876, 1.0 and 0.9445; respectively), between root dry weight and N uptake (r = 1.0).
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Review of Plant Studies » Month: 12-2015 Issue: 2

Diagnosis of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Systematic Review

Research Article
Author(s): Fatemeh Sayahi, Shohreh Jalaie
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
This review employed to establish frequency usage of clinical markers and diagnostic tests for childhood apraxia of speech. following databases were searched for published papers between 1980 and 2015 looking for clinical studies used the six introduced tests for motor speech performance; Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL and Pubmed. . The review considered articles which for children at or below elementary school age with diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech. Fifty seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies included other developmental motor speech disorders as well as childhood apraxia of speech were excluded. Twenty four articles excluded from the study and thirty three studies were reviewed. Twenty articles were in diagnostic tests and thirteen articles were in clinical markers. The Verbal Motor Production Assessment for Children is the most reliable diagnostic test for diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech, and Inconsistency as well as vowel errors are the most frequent clinical markers.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

In-Vitro Study on the Effect of Endogeic Earthworm on Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB) in Banana- A Preliminary Observation

Research Article
Author(s): Suk-Kuan, Teng, Nor Azwady Abd. Aziz, Muskhazli Mustafa, Rozeita Laboh, Intan Safinar Ismail, Sujithra Devi
Journal: The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology

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Abstract
Blood disease is a wilt disease that greatly affects the banana cultivation. Besides chemicals, the utilization of natural soil-biological entity may provide an alternative in searching for effective and environmental friendly approach against the disease. Endogeic earthworms are known as soil-engineers that modify soil properties that may favor or suppress different microbial populations. In the study, the effect of endogeic earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus on blood disease bacterium (BDB) was evaluated through in-vitro study. Earthworm casts, mucus and worm-worked soil collected were inoculated onto tetrazolium chloride (TZC) medium seeded with BDB at different concentrations. Molecular identification using 16S rRNA primers was then performed to identify the microbial isolates that inhibited BDB. Phylogenetic tree was constructed to determine the similarity among the isolates with Pseudomonas sp. sequences deposited in the GenBank. The results showed that bacterial colonies from earthworm mucus inhibited BDB at 103 and 105 cell/ml. However, no inhibition was observed at higher BDB concentration (107 cell/ml). Similarly, earthworm cast and worm-worked soil did not show inhibition towards BDB. Bacterial isolates obtained from earthworm mucus were classified into the genus Pseudomonas. The study suggested the potential role of P. corethrurus in enhancing the growth of beneficial microorganism in remediating blood disease.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of endogeic earthworm on banana blood disease. Earthworm mucus promoted the growth of beneficial microorganisms that inhibited blood disease bacterium (BDB), suggesting the potential role of endogeic earthworms as biological control for bacterial wilt diseases.

Biological Sciences » The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1