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Listing 25 - 20 of 2300 results.

Dry Matter and Nutrient Accumulation of Selected Green Manure Species at Different Ages on Alisols at Areka, Southern Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Mulugeta Habte
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Continuous loss and net removal of soil nutrients from cultivated land causes a serious threat to the overall agricultural productivity. This decline in soil fertility is major constraint to agricultural production and food security in Ethiopian highland farming systems. Since farmers have limited capacity to invest in fertilizers, potential solution to the problem is to use green manure (GM) for their multiple advantages. Thus, the study was conducted to evaluate dry matter production and nutrient concentration from GM at different ages. The treatments were three levels of age (3, 4 and 5) months after planting (MAP), three GM species (Tithoniadiversifolia, Tephrosiavogelii and Crotalaria juncea) and laid out in factorial arrangement in RCBD design with three replications. T. diversifolia produced significantly (p<0.05) higher total above ground biomass (TAGB) at all ages. The TAGB yields of Tephrosiavogelii and Crotalaria juncea were lower by 35.85 and 68.82%, 32.96 and 27.12%, and 28.22 and 31.52% than the TAGB of Tithoniadiversifolia at three, four and five months after planting respectively. Nitrogen and K concentrations of all the GM species were relatively higher whereas P, Ca and Mg were low at all ages.  In general, the study found appreciable dry matter yield and nutrient concentration from all species of different ages.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing information in organic fertilizers. The study provides options for poor farmers who have limited capacity to invest for commercial fertilizers and for those investors primarily engaged in organic farming. The paper provides initial information for researchers and students in further investigations. 
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

G-Force Exposure in a Contact Sport: The Use of Accelerometers to Quantify Physical Stress

Research Article
Author(s): M.P. McHugh, S.Y. Kwiecien, M.P. Hannon, R.J. Stewart
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
GPS-based analyses of movement patterns are inadequate for quantifying the physical stress imposed on athletes in contact sports. Accelerometers may be useful for monitoring such athletes. The purpose of this study was to use triaxial accelerometers to record G-force exposure in Gaelic football players to examine differences in G-force exposure between games and practices and between playing positions. A small triaxial accelerometer with a flash memory chip data logger was fitted to the waistband of players’ shorts. Game and practice data were acquired at 100 Hz (scale ±16G) from 19 club level players (age 25±7 yr). Resultant G-force was: calculated for each data point from the raw accelerometer data collected in all three planes of motion and analyzed by quantifying the time spent above different G-force thresholds.  Player positions were categorized as central (half backs/half forwards/midfield) and peripheral (full back/full forward) with central players typically more involved in continuous running. ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections was used to compare G-force exposure between games vs. practices, and between central vs. peripheral players (practice not position dependent). Differences between games and practices were apparent for time >3G, >4G, and >5G with more time at these thresholds in practices versus games (P=0.003), indicating higher G-force exposure in practices versus games. In games central players had greater time at >2G and >3G (P<0.001). Accelerometry analysis was effective in distinguishing player position-dependent differences in G-force exposure, and differences between games and practices. These differences indicate that the method of analysis of G-force exposure used here may be of utility for quantifying the physical stresses imposed on athletes in contact sports. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that have investigated physical stresses imposed on athletes in contact sports. Triaxial accelerometers can provide important information regarding the physical stress of an athletic exposure. These data may be important for monitoring playing intensity in a game or accumulated stress over a season.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Protective Effect of L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) On Mercury Detoxication and Physiological Aspects of Albino Rats

Research Article
Author(s): Somaya M.Ismail, Hayat A.Ismail, Ghidaa M. Al-Sharif
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of  L-ascorbic acid (A.A.), against  mercury toxicity in albino rats. Twenty four males were divided into three groups. The control was fed a basic diet, whereas the other two groups were treated either by Hg alone (1g HgCl2/Kg food) or Hg-ascorbic acid (1g HgCl2/Kg food + 5% ascorbic acid), respectively, for 35 consecutive days. The following serum parameters were estimated; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), urea, creatinine, uric acid, triglicerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.The present data obtained found that a significant decrease in serum ALP activity in mercury treated group, accompanied by a significant increase in serum ASAT. Furthermore, serum urea concentration was significantly higher in the mercury group compared to the control. However, the concentration of urea and the activity of ALP and ASAT of the Hg+ascorbic acid group were not statistically different from the control. Moreover, no significant variations were recorded concerning ASAT, creatinine and uric acid. The lipid profile; triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly varied between the three groups, despite the observed elevated concentration of triglycerides in Hg+ascorbic acid group. In conclusion, ascorbic acid may partially help in the protection against mercury intoxication and it could also be considered a safe nutritional source.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated protective effect of l-ascorbic acid mercury detoxication and physiological aspects and The paper’s primary contribution is finding that ascorbic acid may partially help in the protection against mercury intoxication and it could also be considered a safe nutritional source.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

A Review of a Community Health Care Workers’ Programme in South Africa

Research Article
Author(s): Siziwe O Ngcwabe, Krishna K Govender
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
 This study explored a Community Health Workers’ (CHW’s) programme from the point of view the CHWs, as well as the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that managed them, by using a mixed-methods approach. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the CHWs, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants and NGO representatives. It became evident that the CHW’s programmes are not contributing effectively to strengthening the health care system, and are merely playing the role of an ‘emergency response’ for patients suffering from HIV. The CHWs’ roles have never been formalised and CHWs are viewed as “volunteers” within the healthcare system, and therefore not given the necessary support. There is also a clear disconnect between the local health facilities and the CHWs’ programmes. Delays in receipt of payments from the Department of Health (DoH) hamper the NGOs’ ability to run viable organisations, which impacts on their ability to deliver desperately needed health related services. The multiplier effect of the aforementioned results, in further delays in the disbursement of stipends to the CHWs, which creates hardships for some of South Africa’s lowest paid workers who, are already shouldering financial and social burdens, which probably compromises the quality of critical services to those most in need. The overall impression is that as SA approaches the end of the second decade of democracy, it is a matter of urgency that primary health care (PHC) is viewed more seriously by the government and, more specifically the DoH.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents by way of a case study, the perceptions of Community Health Care workers and NGOs, on their role and importance in fortifying the health-care system in general and primary health-care specifically.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 11-2014 Issue: 11

An Unified Approach by Implementing the Secured Authentication Protocol Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

Research Article
Author(s): R. Sujatha, M. Lawanya
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is an ad-hoc mobile network and is highly vulnerable to attacks because, it consists of various resource-constrained devices and they communicate via wireless links.  Security of group communication for large mobile wireless sensor network hinges on efficient authentication protocol scheme. Consequently, one of the most primary challenge, on endow with the security services in sensor nodes are key distribution. Secure communications in wireless sensor networks are critical.  As the wireless medium is characterized by its lossy nature, reliable communication cannot be assumed with pair-wise keys, LOCK (Localized Combinatorial Keying) and Structured Graphs etc.  Therefore, security with key distribution is a good factor considered in wireless sensor network communications.  The only requirement for a user is to send information in a reliable manner to the destination; this will be provided only with the security.  In this regard, a novel secured authentication protocol scheme with finger-print scheme provides full security and very good resilience is proposed.  It also has low transaction overhead and reduced less space overhead.  This novel method produces good improvements in the functionality of security.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated in the area of Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks.  Major threats are viewed and addressed with the dynamic password system.  With this dynamic methodology hacking of text-based password is not feasible.
Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Combind Effect of Machining Parameters With Nose Radius of the Custting Tool on Surface Roughness of 304- Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloy Produced by Cnc-Turning Machin

Research Article
Author(s): Galal. H. Senussi
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
It is well known that machining parameters have strong effect on the properties of surface roughness. Many investigations have done on this area. This work studies of combining effect of turning process parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut) with on surface roughness. Where, nose radius of the tool and machining parameters have taken as input variables and the surface roughness (Ra) as response or output. Three experiments were conducted; they were used to investigate the surface roughness resulted by tool corner radiuses of the values: 0.4mm, 0.8mm, and 1.2mm Response surface methodology (R.S.M) is applied as a tool to show the cause and effect of output (response) and input control and relationship between them as a two or three dimensional hyper surface. A three factor with five level central composite rotatable factors design was used.The results showed that R.S.M is a strong tool and capability tool to predict   the   effect   of   machining   parameters   on   surface roughness. Results improved that the five level factorial designs can be employed for developing statistical models to predict surface roughness by controllable machining parameters. Results showed that the combined effect of cutting speed at its higher level, feed rate and depth of cut at their lower values, and large nose radius can result in better surface roughness.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated effecting of four parameters (as input) on one response (surface roughness). To accomplish this, a three factor with five level central composite rotatable factors design was used.
This study originates new formula of combining effect of turning process parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut) with on surface roughness. Where, nose radius of the tool and machining parameters have taken as input variables and the surface roughness (Ra) as response or output. This study documents that R.S.M is a strong tool and capability tool to predict   the   effect   of   machining   parameters   on   surface roughness.

Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Estimation of Cooling Rate and Its Effect on Temperature Dependent Properties in GTA Welded High Carbon Steel Joints

Research Article
Author(s): J. Dutta, Narendranath, S.
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
 An elaborate study has been conducted in this article to estimate the cooling rate of the Gas Tungsten arc (GTA) welded steel butt joints of grade AISI 1090. The temperature dependent thermal parameters has been investigated in connection with developed rate of cooling. Experiment has been carried out ffto determine the thermal cycle formed along the longitudinal direction from weld bead. Implementing experimental temperatures, Adams empirical cooling rate correlation has incorporated to analyze rate of cooling. A correlation has been suggested in this study, derived from thick plate temperature distribution model. To find out the heat loss from the joint, Vinokurov’s empirical combined heat transfer coefficient has been utilized and with it has verified with conventional heat transfer coefficient based on convection and radiation. Cooling rate has been found out to be very rapid at z = 36mm to z = 108mm based on thick plate model and it has completely agreed with the variation of Adams correlation. At higher temperatures above 800ºC, heat loss due to radiation completely dominates the convection and lower temperatures convection heat loss influences much than radiation. Heat loss due to convection and radiation fully justified with the results produced based on cooling rate and rapid cooling near the fusion boundary exists only for 5s-10s.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding the cooling rate and its effect on related thermal properties in Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding of high carbon steel joints. Basically in present analysis, 0.9% C containing high carbon steel (AISI 1090) butt weld joint has been prepared and experimental temperature distribution has been analyzed. The effect of rapid temperature cycle formed and its dynamic effect on temperature dependent properties such as thermal conductivity, rate of cooling based on convection, radiation and evaporation has been studied. Cooling rate has been estimated by ’Thick Plate Model’, due to its close validation with experimental temperature cycle. This study reveals that all the temperature dependent properties are very randomly changing near the heat affected zone within the time range of 5s-10s. This article gives parametric study of effect of cooling rate and temperature dependent parameters developed in GTA welding of butt joints.
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Effects of Cotton Gin Trash Level on the Performance of Desert Lambs in New Halfa Area, Kassala State, Sudan

Research Article
Author(s): Asma H.M Hamed, Amani A. B. Osman, Mohmed E. Elimam
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
An experiment was conducted to evaluate cotton gin trash(CGT) as a feed for Shugor Desert lambs in New Halfa area in the Butana plain, Kassala State, Sudan. Cotton gin trash has high EE and CP and the proximate analysis (%) is 98.67, 18.25, 22.70, 38.35, 8.20 and 12.50 for DM, EE, CF, CP, ash and NFE, respectively. These residues cause environmental problem when it is not well exploited. Fifteen Shugor Desert lambs about 8-10 month old weighing 26.5 kg in average were divided to three groups and fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous rations with 0, 10% and 20% CGT for 6 weeks. Daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.05) with increasing CGT in rations (1.12, 1.30 and 1.37 kg at 0, 10 and 20% CGT, respectively).Final body weight increased with CGT in rations, but not significantly (P≥ 0.05) and were 34.66,34.76 and 36.90 kg , respectively. Weight gain increased with increasing CGT in rations, but not significantly(P≥ 0.05).They were 7.72, 7.78 and 9.98 kg at 0,10 and 20%CGT, respectively. Feed conversion ratio improved with increasing CGT in rations and were 7.80, 6.54 and 6.03 at 0,10 and 20%CGT, respectively. The results showed that CGT had good nutritive value and improved sheep feed intake, performance and feed conversion ratio and should be promoted.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of different levels of cotton gin trash on the performance of Sudanese desert lambs.The papers primary contribution is finding that cotton cotton gin trash had good nutritive value and improved sheep feed intake, performance and feed conversion ratio.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Effects of Age at Fattening On Butana Camel Males Carcass Characteristics in the Sudan

Research Article
Author(s): Asma Himmed Mohammed Hamed, Mohamed Elamin Elimam, Solafa I.A.O.
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Twelve male Butana camels were bought from Gadarif livestock market at 2, 3 and 4 years old (four in each age group) and fattened for eight weeks in the Animal Production Research Station in Gadarif, Gadarif State, Sudan. They were weighed before the morning meal at the beginning of the experiment and then weekly. The animals were fed sorghum stover ad lib in two equal meals at 8.00 am and 4.00 pm Each animal was daily offered 2.0 kg concentrates. The animals were fed for two weeks as a preliminary period before fattening for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment the animals were fasted overnight, weighed and then slaughtered. Blood was collected and head, neck and legs were removed and weighed.  The animals were then skinned, eviscerated and body components were removed and weighed separately. The gastro intestinal tract was weighed full and empty. The hot carcass was weighed with the kidneys intact and then one carcass side was divided into 6 whole sale cuts and the cuts were then dissected into muscle, bone and fat. Data was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance for a completely randomized design using SPSS program. The means were compared using least significant difference (LSD). Slaughter weight, EBW and hot carcass weight increased with age at fattening and were significantly (P< 0.05) lighter at 2 years old. Dressing percentages on LBW and EBW increased with age at fattening and were higher on EBW. They were least at 2 years old and highest at 4 years old. There was significant difference between 2 and 4 years old and between 3 and 4 years old on EBW. All body components weight increased with age at fattening, except lungs, heart and spleen. Mean weights of blood, head, liver, stomach and intestines were significantly (P< 0.05) higher at 4 years than at 2 years old, but not significantly (P> 0.05) different between 3 and 4 years old. Hides, fore legs and hind legs weights were significantly (P< 0.05) heavier at 3 and 4 years old than at 2 years old. Lungs weight increased up to 3 years and then declined. All body components weight as percentage of EBW increased with age, except lungs, spleen, kidneys and heart and was not significantly different among age groups.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of age at fattening on carcass characteristics of Camelus dromedarius. It contributes in the existing literature. The papers primary contribution is finding that slaughter weight, EBW and hot carcass weight increased with age at fattening in Camelus dromedarius.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Effect of Common Acids and Anions on the Extraction of Iron (Ii) from Aqueous Solutions into Chloroform Solution Of 4,4´-(1e,1e´)-1,1´-(Ethane-1,2-Diylbis(Azan-1-Yl-1ylidene))Bis(5-Methyl-2-Phenyl-2,3-Dihydro-1h-Pyrazol-3-Ol)

Research Article
Author(s): Jackson Godwin, Azibaola Kesieye Inengite, Uche John Chukwu
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
The effect of common acids, anions, and auxiliary complexing agents in the solvent extraction of Fe2+ from aqueous solutions into chloroform solutions of  4,4´-(1E,1E´)-1,1´-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(azan-1-yl-1ylidene))bis(5-methyl-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-ol) (H2BuEtP) alone and in the presence of  of  1-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) butan-1-one (HBuP) was studied. Colorimetric method of analysis using 1,10-phenanthroline was used to determine concentrations of Fe2+ in aqueous solutions after extraction and percentage extraction determined by difference. Separation factors βXY were calculated using data from previous studies using same organic phases to determine theoretical conditions for separating Fe2+ from Ni2+, Pb2+, and UO22+.  All acids gave > 90% extraction of Fe2+ at most concentrations with HNO3 and H3PO4 giving the highest percentage extraction of 99.93% at 0.01M and 0.1M respectively in the mixed ligands H2BuEtP/HBuP organic system. H3PO4 also gave best extraction of 99.3% at 0.1M in ligand H2BuEtP alone system. Although all anions used for study also gave > 90% extraction of Fe2+ at different concentration in both types of organic phases, CHCOO-, PO43-, Br- and tartrate ions gave the best extraction of Fe2+ with H2BuEtP. Acids and anions behave as salting out agents or masking agents at different concentrations. Calculated separation factors βXY indicated that it was theoretically possible to separate Fe2+ from Ni2+ with H3PO4 only and Fe2+ from Pb2+ with H3PO4, HCl, and EDTA with H2BuEtP alone.  With mixed ligands H2BuEtP/HBuP, calculated separation factors βXY showed that it was possible to separate Fe2+ from Ni2+ with HNO3 and H3PO4, Fe2+ from Pb2+ with HCl and oxalate, and Fe2+from U(VI) with CHCOOH, PO43-, Br- and oxalate. The number of batches of extraction n needed to achieve 99.9% separations are also calculated and shown.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature for the extraction of Fe(II) from aqueous media and offer theoretical prove of acids, anions and auxiliary complexing agents, their concentrations and the batches of extractions  n required for the separation of Fe(II) from Ni(II), Pb(II) and U(VI) based on separation factors βXY.
Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 6

Study on the Factors Influencing Residential Location Choice of the Garments Workers of Mirpur, Dhaka City

Research Article
Author(s): Shammi Shawal, Jannatul Ferdous
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
Bangladesh is a developing country with huge population and huge scarcity of resources. Its economy is largely dependent on ready-mate-garment industry. So garments industries as well as garments workers are very much important for our economy. Dhaka being the capital city, a large number of garment factories is situated here. But the majority of garment workers earn less than the living wage, which is the minimum requirement to provide a family with food, shelter and education. They can hardly find a suitable residence for them and are compelled to live in congested, unhygienic and sub-human condition. The development of a country is not possible by only developing the middle and upper class people depriving the lower class who occupy a major part of the economy. So, it’s the need of the day to solve the problems of the housing condition of the garments workers. Therefore, this study emphasizes on the factors influencing residential location choice of the garment workers of Dhaka city.  The target group is the residents of Mirpur 1. House rent, availability of utility facilities, monthly household income, distance from workplace, social security, dependence on family decision, size of dwelling unit, communal living, availability of community facilities - these have been pointed out as important factors in residential location choice of the garment workers by questionnaire survey. The study also investigated the priority among the pointed factors so that it could help the policy makers and developers to take any types of housing development project for the workers. If we can ensure a better residence and better facilities for them, their potentiality will increase and in the long run we can reap greater benefit from them.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of the factors influencing the residential location choice of garment workers of Dhaka City and the relative priority of those factors. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the workers cannot afford standard housing on their own with their minimum wage.
Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 6

Mirpur Benarasi Palli of Bangladesh: Living and Livelihood of Weavers

Research Article
Author(s): Jannatul Ferdous, Shammi Shawal, Tasfia Tasnim Badhon
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
Bangladesh has a rich and ancient tradition of fabric-based cottage industry. Benarasi Palli and its famous Benarasi Saree is one of the most ancient traditions of Bangladesh. This industry has been bringing name and fame for our country for a very long time. This tradition has mainly come from Benaras in India. The weavers of Mirpur Benarasi Palli migrated from Benaras, India. There are also some Bangladeshi weavers and most of the traders are Bangladeshi. Benarasi is mainly associated for bridal costume. Presently this industry does not get proper attention but it has a great demand in local and international market. Our neighboring country export Benarasi products and we have the potential to export it too. Though the business of Benarasi Saree is very profitable, life-style of the weavers does not represent it. Besides, a clear discrimination in living condition of traders and weavers are visible there. There also lies discrimination in distribution of profit between traders and weavers. So it is very important to know about the present condition of Benarasi Palli and condition of the weavers who work hard to make the beautiful Benerasi Sarees.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the living and livelihood condition of the weavers of Mirpur Benarasi Palli. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that there lies a discrimination between the weavers and the traders and the weavers are deprived from what they actually deserve.
Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 6

Effect of Supplementation with Olive Oil on Some Properties of Bio-Yoghurt

Research Article
Author(s): El-Tahra M. A. Ammar, Ismail, M. M., El-Shazly, A. K., Eid, M. Z.
Journal: The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology

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Abstract
The effect of fortification with olive oil on yoghurt quality was investigated. Control yoghurt was made using classic yoghurt culture and whole milk. Other four yoghurt treatments were made by ABT-5 culture and whole milk fortified with 0, 1, 2, and 4% virgin olive oil. The sixth treatment was prepared using ABT culture and skim milk with 4% virgin olive oil. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C) of yoghurt for 15 d. Samples of yoghurt with added olive oil to whole milk showed a slight decrease in titratable acidity during the 180 min of fermentation. Adding of olive oil had no clear effect on coagulation time and curd tension whereas decreased the syneresis of yoghurt. Acidity, TS, fat and TVFA contents of yoghurt supplemented with olive oil were higher than those of control whereas the contents of TN and WSN were similar in both. Yoghurt samples fortified with olive oil had less numbers of TVBC. The addition of olive oil improved the viability of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. The bifidobacteria counts were sufficient to yield numbers of beneficial organisms that were higher than the accepted threshold (106 cfu.g-1) for a probiotic effect. Also, olive oil adding improved the body, texture and flavor of the yoghurt.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates new formula for production of bio-yoghurt. Fortification of yoghurt made using ABT culture with olive oil increased the nutritional and health value.
Biological Sciences » The Asia Journal of Applied Microbiology » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Web Pages Categorization Based on Classification & Outlier Analysis through FSVM

Research Article
Author(s): Geeta R.B., Shobha R.B., Shashikumar G. Totad, Prasad Reddy PVGD
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
The performance of Support Vector Machine is higher than traditional algorithms. The training process of SVM is sensitive to the outliers in the training set. Here in this Paper, a new approach called, Web Pages Categorization based on Classification and Outlier Analysis (WPC-COA), is proposed that uses a polynomial Kernel function to map web page tuples to high dimensional feature space. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses a new methodology which helps in mapping web page tuples with various attributes such as frequency, time spent on each page, in-degree, out-degree and level of a web page to high dimensional feature space. The paper’s primary contribution is to categorize web pages based on classification and outlier analysis using Polynomial Kernel function.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

The Influence of Probiotics and Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Growth Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

Research Article
Author(s): MA Miah, MMH Sarker, MR Das, A Mustari, MS Islam
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
10 days old “Cobb 500” broiler chicks were used to investigate the influence of probiotics and growth promoter supplementation on growth performance and different hemato-biochemical parameters of broilers. They were randomly divided into three equal groups (n=10). Group A was considered as control, fed only with commercial ration and group B and group C were supplemented with probiotics and growth promoter respectively for the period of 21 days. Body weights were measured at 7 days interval and selective organ weights, total erythrocyte count(TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), AST and ALT values were measured at the end of experiment. Results revealed that body weight was increased significantly (p <0.05) in treated groups and the highest body weight was recorded in group B. Significant (p>0.05) differences were found among groups of A, B, and C in the weight of breast meat, liver, Leg meat and spleen. All weights were increased significantly (p>0.05) both in probiotics and antibiotic growth promoter treated groups as compared to that of control group. TEC and Hb concentration were increased significantly (p<0.05) in birds of group B compared to those of birds in control and treated group C.  Highest PCV was also recorded in group B but all the values were more or less similar and statistically insignificant (p>0.05). Biochemical parameters like AST were increased significantly (p<0.05) in treated groups of group B and C. Whereas ALT values decreased significantly (p<0.05) in treated groups in similar pattern in comparison to control group. Based on the results it could be concluded that probiotics supplementation shows better significant effect on growth performance and certain hemato-biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. 
Contribution/ Originality
The study strengthens the existing literatures and documents that probiotics are better alternative feed supplementation in broiler industry. 
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Physico-Chemical Properties of Honey Produced In Masha, Gesha, and Sheko Districts in Southwestern Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Awraris Getachew, Hailemariam Gizaw, Dejen Assefa, Zerihun Tajebe
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The qualities of 36 selected honey samples from three locations of Southwest Ethiopia (Masha, Gesha and Sheko districts) were evaluated for six physico-chemical attributes namely total acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), reducing sugars, sucrose, moisture and mineral content. The samples of honey were analyzed following the techniques proposed by the Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia (QSAE), European Union (EU) and Codex standards for honey. The results obtained showed that the overall analysis of honey total acidity, HMF, reducing sugars, sucrose, moisture and mineral content were found to be 28.32 ± 14.14 meq/kg,  19.52 ± 9.41mg/kg, 66.79 ± 6.96 %, 4.46 ± 2.59 %, 22.86 ± 1.03 % and 0.22 ± 0.16 %, respectively. Almost all quality parameters of honey found to meet national and international honey specifications but not moisture for all samples and sucrose in the case of Gesha district. Therefore, further research is suggested to optimize the moisture content of honey in humid and sub-humid areas of the region.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature to fill the gap of the current state of knowledge in physico-chemical properties of honey produced in humid and sub-humid areas of southwest Ethiopia.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Characteristics of Bread and Biscuit Made With Wheat and Rice Flour Composites

Research Article
Author(s): Ivan Svec, Marie Hruskova
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
Technological quality changes of wheat flour were studied in relation to its partial replacement (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30%) by white rice flour (RF). In dependence on level added, RF lowered water absorption up to about 10%. Dough stability was multiplied reversely as well as its overmixing tolerance – softening degree of dough lessened from 60 Brabender units (BU) for wheat flour to 20 BU for wheat-rice flour blend 70:30. Baking quality of flour composites was worsened owing to changes in dough elasticity and extensibility (i.e. dough machinability), summarised by extensigraph energy (as an area under curve) decrease from 140 cm2 to 70 cm2 comparing the same samples. Gelatinisation temperatures and amylograph maxima reversely increased – optimal values were recorded for wheat:rice composite 80:20 yet (viscosity between 575 – 790 BU). Fermentation process was affected equivocally – gases volumes had increased up to about 11% because of glucosidase present in RF, but dough volumes lowered due to gluten net weakening. It resulted into lowering of control bread volume to a half for the bread containing 30% of RF (from 319 to 154 ml/100 g, respectively). Bread crumb chewiness was affected seriously; bread samples higher level of RF than 20% were less acceptable (fall of crumb penetration from 10.6 mm to 2.2 mm). Quality changes of biscuits containing RF were of smaller extent – the substitution of 5% caused specific volume increase about ca 15% (from 143 to 203 ml/100 g). Sizes of other fortified biscuits were gradually diminished to level of the wheat control ones.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents white rice flour effect on chemical composition and rheological behaviour of wheat flour. Within Europe, laboratory prepared wheat-rice bread and biscuits represent innovation in bakery products manufacturing. Study brings knowledge of 15% and 10% of rice flour in bread and biscuits recipe should be accepted by consumers.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

The Role of Bank Loans in Monetary Policy Transmission in Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Yu Hsing
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
This study examines whether the bank lending channel holds for Malaysia based on a simultaneous-equation model consisting of the demand for and supply of bank loans. The three-stage least squares method to employed to estimate regression parameters. There is evidence of the bank lending channel for Malaysia because bank loan supply reacts negatively to the interbank rate and because monetary easing to purchase government bonds leads to more bank deposits and bank loan supply. In addition, depreciation of the Malaysian ringgit or a higher world interest rate results in a decrease in bank loan supply.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper’s primary contribution is to include the exchange rate and the foreign interest rate in bank loan supply, to employ a three-stage least squares method to estimate bank loan demand and supply separately, and to prove the effectiveness of monetary policy transmission.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 04-2014 Issue: 4

The Bounds of Time Lag and Chemotherapeutic Efficacy in the Control of HIV/AIDS

Research Article
Author(s): Rotich K. Titus, Lagat C. Robert
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
The current use of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) strategy to control Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is inefficient in eradicating HIV/AIDS due to inadequate understanding of the dynamics relating to interaction between the immune system components and HIV. As a result, a pool of potential transmitters is continuously created and thus HIV has remained a pandemic. In this paper, we formulate a mathematical model using differential equations to study the effects of time lag τ>0 due to cellular latency and pharmacological delays and chemotherapy on the control strategy of AIDS epidemic. Equilibrium points of the model are computed and used to determine the reproductive ratio〖 R〗_0. This important threshold parameter is then used to determine the critical bounds of time lag τ∈[τ_min,τ_min]  and therapeutic window C_p∈[MEC,MTC] that is, the bounds; above Minimum Effect Concentration (MEC) and below Minimum Toxic Concentration (MTC), where drug plasma concentration C_p should lie for effective maintenance of low levels of viral load and reduction of drug toxicity. The mathematical model gives qualitative understanding of HIV prognostic information which is a means of rejuvenating the existing Antiretroviral drugs (ARV’s). Numerical simulations show that a stable and persistent endemic equilibrium state of low viral load is achieved when these thresholds τ∈[0,25] and C_p∈[0.79,0.91] are satisfied. This persistent equilibrium state will lead to eventual eradication of HIV/AIDS.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes the first logical analysis on the effect of intracellular delay of HIV viral infection on drug efficacy. The study originates new formula for finding the optimal therapeutic window [MEC,MTC]=[0.79,0.91] of HAART necessary to control the reproductive ratio R_0 of HIV to less than one and evade the risk of drug toxicity. 
Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 6

Alternative Way of Statistical Data Analysis: L-Moments and Tl-Moments of Probability Distribution

Research Article
Author(s): Diana Bilkova
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
This paper deals with an alternative method to characterize some probability distribution, i.e. L-moments and TL-moments. Moments and cumulants were commonly used for this purpose before. Moment method of parameter estimation is indeed very simple, but it is very inaccurate, especially if there are the moments of the third or higher order. These problems mainly occur in the case of small samples. Maximum likelihood method has been considered as the most accurate method of parameter estimation for a long time. Using the method of L-momednts gives more accurate results than using the maximum likelihood method in many cases when estimating parameters of probability distribution. The method of TL-moments brings still more accurate results than the method of L-moments. This paper deals with these three methods of parameter estimation and with the comparison of their accuracy. Three-parametric lognormal curves constitute basic probability distribution. They were used as the model distribution of income in the Czech Repubublic in 1992, 1996, 2002 and 2004−2007.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature and it develops the theory of estimation of parameters of continuous probability distributions in the case of large economic data sets. This study originates some new formulas, proofs and derivations, which were not published at all. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the use of the method of TL-moments on economic data.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 1