Information and Communication Technology in Classroom Situations in Rural and Urban Areas in Zimbabwe: A Comparative Study on the Use of Digital and Projected Media in Teaching and Learning at Six Secondary Schools in Masvingo
Information and communication technology have taken centre stage of almost every interaction, communication and learning processes among people of this world. This study is a comparative analysis of the usefulness of modern information and communication technology (ICT) in the transmission and movement of information in the teaching and learning processes at high schools in Zimbabwe. In the contemporary times most projected media are computerized and, thus, may require advanced expertise in operating them. It has been also argued that projected media makes learning real, practical, interactive, and above all, more permanent than other teaching and learning aids. The objectives of this study were to establish forms of projected media in use in urban and rural schools in Zimbabwe; to investigate the extent to which these projected media are really of use in these schools; and to establish challenges faced by these schools in their endeavours in the use of projected media. The central argument in the study is that proper use of projected media leads to efficiency and effectiveness in the teaching and learning processes. Research methods involved both a theoretical review and an empirical study based on case studies, making use of comparative and exploratory approaches. The study established that while urban secondary schools have some forms of contemporary projected media, rural secondary schools do not have most of these projected media; the expertise and zeal to use the projected media is very low in both urban and rural schools; and proper use of projected media leads to efficiency and effectiveness in the teaching and learning processes. Among other recommendations, the study recommends continuous professional development of teachers in the use of projected media; and partnerships with stakeholders so that the school has a wider base for resource mobilisation.
The overall aim of this study is to contribute a theoretical framework that will help towards the generation, development and use of ICTs and projected media in both urban and rural secondary schools in Zimbabwe and the world. Our aim is to widen the knowledge base and understanding of the generation, development and utilisation of ICTs and projected media in Zimbabwe and the global community.
J. Siraj-Blatchford and D. C. Siraj-Blatchford, More than computers: Information and communication technology in the early years. London: The British Association of Early Childhood Education, 2003.
M. C. C. Musingafi and S. Zebron, "The role of information and communication technology inrural socio-economic development in Africa," International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research, vol. 1, pp. 38-46, 2014.
M. F. Jimoh, Teaching aids, a panacea for effective instructional delivery. Plateau State: Saints’ Academy, 2010.
F. Marton and S. Booth, Learning and awareness. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
H. Fry, S. Ketteridge, and S. Marshall, Understanding student learning. In Fry, H., Ketteridge, S. and Marshall, S. (Editors). A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education: Enhancing academic practice, 3rd ed. New York: Routledge, 2009.
W. Shumbayaonda and F. Maringe, A guide to school experiences: Module PGDE 306. Harare: Zimbabwe Open University, 2000.
E. B. Awo-Efebo, Effective teaching; principles and practice. Port-Harcourt: Paragrapics, 1999.
Y. Ajayi-Dopemu, Production of instructional media. In Agun, I. and Imogie, I. (Eds). Fundamentals of education technology. Ibadan: Y-Books, 1988.
P. I. Eze, "Instructional media for effective teaching and learning of Christian religious knowledge in senior secondary schools. Academic discourse," An International Journal, vol. 1, pp. 12-22.
E. Ema and D. T. Ajayi, Educational technology: Methods, materials, machines. Jos: Jos University Press Ltd, 2004.
I. T. C. Orakwe, Social studies (Education Basics) for tertiary institutions. Onitsha: Desvic, 2000.
K. Sampath, A. Pannneerselvam, and S. Santhan, Introduction to educational technology, 4th ed. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1998.
V. Oyedele1, J. Rwambiwa, and A. Mamvuto, "Using educational media and technology in teaching and learning processes: A case of trainee teachers at Africa university," Academic Research International, vol. 4, pp. 292-300, 2013.
H. Nováková, "Dissemination, implementation and evaluation of educational materials on biotechnology: Final scientific report 1998 – 2000," EIBE – Czech Republic2000.
L. Kouba, Technology systems in instruction I. Prague: Charles University, 1995.
L. Kouba, Technology systems in instruction II. Prague: Charles University, 1996.
A. Burton and S. Wynn, Making the most of electronic media for teaching and learning. In J. Steele and J. G. Hedberg (Eds). Learning environment technology: Selected papers from LETA 94. Canberra: AJET Publications, 1994.
M. Neo, "Learning with multimedia: Engaging students in constructivist learning," International Journal of Instructional Media, vol. 34, pp. 149-158, 2007.
G. C. Rakes, V. S. Fields, and K. E. Cox, "The influence of teachers' technology use on instructional practices," Journal of Research on Technology in Education, vol. 38, pp. 409- 424, 2006.
R. S. Earle, "The integration of instructional technology into public education: Promises and challenges," ET Magazine, vol. 42, pp. 5-13, 2002.
S. Akram, S. Malik, and K. Malik, "Use of audio visual aids for effective teaching of biology at secondary schools level," Leadership Management, vol. 50, pp. 10597-10605, 2012.
P. Ertmer, "Addressing first and second-order barriers to change: Strategies for technology implementation," Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 47, pp. 47-6, 1999.
N. Bitner and J. Bitner, "Integrating technology into the classroom: Eight keys to success," Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 10, pp. 95-100, 2002.
C. M. Kadzera, "Use of instructional technologies in teacher training colleges in Malawi," PhD Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA, 2006.
A. Asegedom, "Teacher perceptions of educational problems in Ethiopia, quality education in Ethiopia," Vision for the 21st Century: Proceedings of National Conference in Awassa College of Teacher Education. 12-28, July 1998, Awassa, 1998.
H. L. Fuller, "First teach their teachers: Technology support and computer use in academic subjects," Journal of Research on Computing in Education, vol. 32, pp. 511-535, 2000.
S. J. Moore, J. B. Harrison, and M. L. Donaldson, "Who stays in teaching and why? A review of the literature on teacher retention." Available: http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~ngt[Accesseed on August 18, 2014], 2005.
R. Arends, Classroom instruction and management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.
M. Betz, "Information technology and schools: The principal’s role," Educational Technology and Society, vol. 3, pp. 1-19, 2000.
F. Wang and T. C. Reeves, "Why do teachers need to use technology in their classrooms? Issues, problems, and solutions," Computers in the Schools, vol. 20, pp. 49-65, 2006.
M. Afshari, K. Abu Bakar, W. Su Luan, B. Abu Samah, and F. Say Fooi, "School leadership and information communication technology," The Turkish online Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 7, pp. 82-91, 2000.
C. Dawson and G. C. Rakes, "The influence of principals’ technology training on the integration of technology in schools," Journal of Research on Technology in Education, vol. 36, pp. 29-49, 2003.
P. Tearle, "ICT implementation: What makes the difference?," British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 34, pp. 567-583, 2003.
M. Parker, "Staking a claim in the future," Daily Telegraph, vol. 16, June, p. 26, 1999.