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Listing 71 - 20 of 2005 results.

Period Monotonicity for Weight-Homogeneous Differential Systems

Research Article
Author(s): Khalil I.T. Al-Dosary, Hishyar Kh. Abdullah
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
In this article, integrability, center, and monotonicity of associated period function for  -quasi-homogeneous vector fields are investigated. We are concerned with family of vector field given by sum, finite or infinite number of quasi-homogeneous polynomials not necessarily to be sharing the same weights. The investigation is done by utilizing method of computing focal values. As an application of the result, a particular family of (p, q)-quasi-homogeneous vector field is studied to find conditions for center, monotonicity and consequently an explicit form for the associated period function.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 02-2017 Issue: 2

The Impact of Al-Yarmouk University on the Commercial Uses Types (Retail Activities) of Shafeeq Irshedat Street (University Street in Irbid City- Jordan)

Research Article
Author(s): Atef Ali NUSAIR, Khlaif GHARAYBEH, Tasnim JARADAT, Esraa Al-ZUBI
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
The distribution of commercial land uses in the city has a highly importance, also the type of these commercial uses, how, where and why they concentrated in a specific areas with various patterns is an important subject. This study aims to analyze the ground floor commercial uses types and retail activities which take place in Shafeeq Irshedat street, one of the most popular streets in Irbid city called also the University Street , regarding to the existence of Al-Yarmouk University on the east side of the street, and to show if there is a relationship and an impact of Al-Yarmouk University on these retail types , in another word if there is a concentration of activities which relate and serve especially the student’s needs. The findings of the study showed that there are various retail types, with highly percentage of 17% for uses related to student’s services including (educational centers, cultural centers, language centers, bookshops, 24-hour copying and printing services etc...), however other uses like computer shops, restaurants and cafes were serving also mainly the students category. It was concluded that Al-Yarmouk University impacts the retail activity in University Street causing student’s related activities in common to be found in the street with 59%. Therefore, many recommendations were mentioned at the end of the research.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of internal structure of Irbid city, with special concentration on The Impact of Al-Yarmouk University Retail activities of Shafeeq Irshedat Street. This study uses new estimation methodology depending on Comprehensive surveying to the Retail types  in this street,(17% related to student’s services).

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 4

The Influence of Personality Traits on Entrepreneurial Intention

Research Article
Author(s): Ozgur DEMIRTAS, Mustafa KARACA, A. Hakan OZDEMIR
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Within the context of research on person-to-organization fit, it is suggested that the better the match between individuals’ attitudes, values, knowledge, skills, abilities and personality with the organization, the higher the individual and organizational outcomes will be. In this perspective, this research assesses that as the match between an entrepreneur’s personal characteristics and the requirements of being an entrepreneur gets better, the enterprise is thought to be more successful. Especially to the extent that the entrepreneurs are better off on a number of distinct dimensions of individual differences (i.e. self-efficacy, ability to recognize opportunities, personal perseverance, human and social capital, social skills and innovativeness), person-entrepreneur fit will be better and consequently the success rate will be higher. From this point of view, this study tries to find out how personality traits affect entrepreneurial intentions. This framework offers potentially valuable new ways of assisting entrepreneurs in their efforts to exploit opportunities through establishing new ventures. The results indicate that self-efficacy, ability to detect an opportunity, personal perseverance, human capital, social capital and social skills positively affect entrepreneurial intentions.
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 02-2017 Issue: 2

Promoting Climate Change Adaptation Measures for Improving Productivity among Smallholder Farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Mbah, E.N., Onwusika, A.I., Okeke, M.N.
Journal: International Journal of Climate Research

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Abstract
The study assessed promoting climate change adaptation measures for improving productivity among smallholder farmers in Taraba State, Nigeria. Interview schedule/questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of ninety (90) respondents used for the study. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. Findings indicate that major effects of climate change among smallholder farmers were named based on the items loading for factors 1, 2 and 3 as food security, poor quality of produce and soil conservation effects, respectively. Factor analysis of variables with regards to climate change adaptation measures practiced by smallholder farmers based on the item loadings were named factors 1, 2 and 3 (agronomic practices, farm inputs and production measures, respectively). Variables which loaded high under agronomic practices include practicing of mulching (0.776), planting early maturing varieties of crops (0.643), early harvesting of matured crops (0.604) and adjustment of planting dates (0.542). Loadings under farm inputs were planting of cover crops to reduce loss of water from the soil (0.794), use of organic manure (0.794), practicing bush fallowing to increase soil fertility (0.743) and planting of improved varieties of crops (0.630). Production measures comprised value addition of farm produce (0.647), use of high yielding varieties of crops (0.630), practicing mixed cropping to guard against crop failure (0.577), practicing zero tillage (0.472) and erection of dams for storing water (0.464). Constraints to climate change adaptation measures among smallholder farmers were grouped into infrastructural, labour and fund-related problems. Efforts are highly needed in cushioning the effects of climate change by the stakeholders such as the government at all levels, extension agencies, research institutions, metrological institutes, disaster management agencies, higher institutions, local farmers and others by giving out first hand information on weather forecast so as to know the right and best time to plant and harvest crops. It also highlights the need for provision of adequate infrastructure to enhance easy adaptation to climate change as well as increasing productivity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that established adaptation measures practiced by smallholder farmers to include mulching, planting early maturing varieties of crops, early harvesting of matured crops, etc. Efforts are needed by the stakeholders such as government at all levels to cushion the effects of climate change.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Climate Research » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Challenges to E-Learning in Public Secondary Schools in Edo State in The 21st Century

Research Article
Author(s): Adavbiele, Justina Ajegbelen
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Public secondary schools in Nigeria in the 21st century are faced with challenges on the use of electronic-learning (e-learning) programs and medium, especially in contemporary Nigeria where greater emphasis is now being placed on human, national and technological development. If the educational system in Nigeria is to have A global standard through the use of e-learning facilities for knowledge acquisition within and beyond the classroom. This study examined the obstacles as well as the gap on the use of e-learning in public secondary schools in Edo State in the 21st century. The study, based on a descriptive survey, assessed public secondary for the most urgent solution. The method of data analysis employed was mean (?) and standard deviation (SD). Findings revealed that there is a gap on e-learning in the schools surveyed. Inadequate e-learnng facilities/equipment and Lack of regular electricity in Nigeria were found to be the challenges. The percentage of Nigerian secondary school teachers with basic computer skills was low compared to their counterparts in developed countries. It was recommended that an in-service training programme should be organized for teachers for the implementation of information and communication technology (ICT), as an aid to e-learning program, government should appropriately fund secondary schools to provide equipment and technical expertise for teachers among others to with steady supply of electricity for effective operation of the e-learning.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 07-2017 Issue: 7

The Relationship Between Locus of Control and Entrepreneurship

Research Article
Author(s): Ozgur DEMIRTAS, Mustafa KARACA
Journal: International Journal of Business Strategy and Social Sciences

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Abstract
In this study, we examined and drew attention to the entrepreneurial characteristics of students who were potentially at the beginning of an entrepreneurial process. Furthermore, we have analyzed the entrepreneurship literature to develop an understanding of the cultural dimensions that may have an impact on entrepreneurial process.  A sample of students was selected as the study participants in the provinces of Kayseri and Yozgat. The data was collected employing face to face interviews. The results have indicated that culture has an impact on entrepreneurship and locus of control.
Contribution/ Originality


Social Sciences » International Journal of Business Strategy and Social Sciences » Month: 07-2017 Issue: 1

The Study of Formation Characteristics and Development Tendencies of International Information and Knowledge Economy

Research Article
Author(s): Rasim Mahammad Alguliyev, Alovsat Garaja Aliyev, Vusala Alovsat Abbasova
Journal: Review of Knowledge Economy

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Abstract
In this article the characteristics and formation stages of worldwide economical systems are explained. Differences of forming of information, industry and knowledge economy categories are given; approaches to its essence and content are analyzed. Characteristics of information and knowledge, their transformation methods and management systems are investigated. On the base of the analysis of development tendencies and formation characteristics of information and knowledge economy, proper recommendations are given.
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » Review of Knowledge Economy » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Floristic Feature of Plant Cover Associated with Some Species of Genus Suaeda in Egypt

Research Article
Author(s): Yasser A. El-Amier, El-Sayed F. El-Halawany, Ahmed K. Khudhair
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
The present study provides an investigation of the floristic features, including list of plant species, life-span, life-form spectra and floristic analysis of the plant life associated with Suaeda maritima, Suaeda monoica, Suaeda pruinosa and Suaeda vera in family Chenopodiaceae in the Deltaic Mediterranean coast and Wadi Hagul of Egypt. This study also aims at recording the floristic structure to be used in measurement of plant diversity and ecological conservation plan of the study area in future. The total number of the recorded plant species surveyed in the study area was 103 species belonging to 80 genera and related to 23 families. These species are classified into three major groups according to their duration (life-span) as follows: 47 annuals (45.63%), 2 biennial (1.94%) and 54 perennials (52.42%). The main families are: Asteraceae (23 species), Poaceae (19 species) followed by Chenopodiaceae (17 species) and Fabaceae (7 species). The recorded species are also grouped under six types of life forms as follows: therophytes, chamaephytes, cryptophytes (comprising geophytes and helophytes), hemicryptophytes, phanerophytes and parasites. Out of the recorded species 56 species (about 54.36 % of the total species) are Mediterranean taxa, 18 species (17.48%) was belonging to Monoregional Saharo-Sindian element, 19 species are either Cosmopolitan (10 species = 9.71%), Palaeopical (5 species = 4.85%), Neotropical and Pantropical (2 species = 1.94 each).
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is surveying the plant species associated with Suaeda species of family Chenopodiaceae in the Nile Delta coast and Wadi Hagul to detect the taxonomic and phytogeographical significance of its life–form spectra and floristic components. Thus, the efforts have directed towards the utilization of renewable resources of the cultivated and non-cultivated areas to produce more food and forage

Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 02-2017 Issue: 2

Effect of Fractions of Barleria Buxifolia and their Biological Activity Against Economically Important Lepidopteron Pests

Research Article
Author(s): A. Jeyasankar, T. Chinnamani
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Antifeedant, larvicidal and ovicidal activities of fractions isolated from ethyl acetate crude extracts of Barleriabuxifolia leaves were tested against fourth instar larvae of Spodopteralitura and Helicoverpaarmigera. The maximum antifeedant, ovicidal and larvicidal activity was recorded in fraction III of B. buxifolia against S. litura and H. armigera. Whereas significant larval mortality was observed in fraction III of B. buxifoliaon S. litura (78.66%) and H. armigera(73.76%) at the same concentration. These results indicate that B. buxifolia has the potential to serve as an alternate botanical pesticide in the management of Spodopteralitura and Helicoverpaarmigera.
Contribution/ Originality
This study to approach the novel aspects of plant phytochemicals act as insecticides against economically important pest. Fractions isolated from B. buxifoliaand tested for insecticidal activity on S. litura and H. armigera is new report in this plant. Further, it may identify the active principles which may use as potential plant derived insecticide.

Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 3

The Impact of Cyber-Activity on Human Development

Research Article
Author(s): Marzanna Farnicka
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The following article focuses on the impact of cyber-activity on individual as a risk’ factor in development. The first part describes cyberspace users according to developmental theories. In the second part, some psychological changes in human mind caused by cyber-activity are presented (socio-psychological and cognitive-emotional consequences). Next, an analysis is carried out taking into consideration certain psychological conditions (attachment, temper, own experience) and motives for undertaking cyber-violence and cyber-bullying by young people. In the conclusion, programmes for mental health protection are presented. This study contributes to the existing literature concerning developmental psychology. This study, originating in a new formula, is a proposal of an analysis of risk among adolescents and as such, it may prove a useful tool in describing young people' cyber-  and other - activity profiles. In the paper, criteria for systemic analysis of the functioning of Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives were presented. Also, a description of individual strategies and their changes in time, space, activity, energy and information were proposed. This paper presents some psychological changes in human mind caused by cyber-activity, together with their socio-psychological and cognitive-emotional consequences. Aditionally, some psychological conditions, such as attachment, temper, own experience, and the motives for undertaking cyber-violence and cyber-bullying by young people were taken into consideration. The Programme Keep It Tame was presented as a way of protection of adolescents' mental health.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature concerning the developmental psychology about consequences of changes in developmental environment. The paper's primary contribution was finding the criteria for systemic analysis of the functioning of Adolescents from the pentabase perspective (time, space, activity, energy and information).

Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 2

Financial Deepening, Interest Rate Spread and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Sub-Sahara Africa

Research Article
Author(s): Mohamed Jalloh, Yao Guevera
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This study examines the nexus between financial deepening, interest rate spread and economic growth using data from Sub-Sahara African (SSA) countries. A dynamic panel approach is employed in estimating the parameters of the specified equation using the Sargan test of over-identification restriction in assessing the validity of the instruments used in addressing potential endogeneity problems of the data. The results show that whilst financial deepening positively drives growth, interest rate spread adversely affect growth in countries studied. In terms of relative effects, the results indicate that enhancing financial deepening by10.0 percent induces economic growth on average by a margin of 4.2 percentage points. On the contrary, however, raising interest rate spread by 10.0 percent reduces growth on average by a margin of 3.6 percentage points in countries studied. Based on these findings, there is a strong need for the implementation of policies that promote financial deepening. In particular, there is a strong need for financial authorities supervising the activities of commercial banks to ensure low interest rate spreads with a view to promoting the efficiency of banks in effectively playing their financial intermediation role to boost economic growth for poverty reduction in SSA countries.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 3

Internationalization of State Multilatinas: A Multi-Case Study in The Oil Sector

Research Article
Author(s): Jose Satsumi Lopez-Morales, Alejandro Roberto Gonzalez-Barragan, Andres Maldonado-de Luna, Eduardo Antonio Velez-De Alba, Jose Roberto Muller-Jasso
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
In general the study of internationalization process of companies from Latin America is scarce compared with companies from Europe and USA. Likewise the study of state ownership in the region is scarce. In this regard, the main aim of this paper is analyze the internationalization patterns of the main state multilatinas: PEMEX (Mexico), PETROBRAS (Brazil) and PDVSA (Venezuela). Considering the interpretation of the main internationalization theories as: Eclectic paradigm and Uppsala model, a multi-case method was carried out in order to fulfill the purpose of this paper. The main results suggest an integrated operation, combined with innovation and technological development is used by the studied companies. Likewise, the three companies follow similar internationalization patterns as exports, joint ventures and foreign direct investment. The main difference is the place where they go abroad, PEMEX mainly focus its international operations in Europe and USA, PDVSA, go mainly USA and Asia and PETROBRAS go to Latin America and Africa.
Contribution/ Originality
The main contribution of this paper is analyzed the way that the State participates in the internationalization process in Latin America.

Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 4

Production Processing for the Beneficiation of Waste Polythylene Product

Research Article
Author(s): K. A. Adedeji , A. A. Yussouff, S.A. Adebanjo, W.A. Raji
Journal: International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research

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Abstract
The large amount of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles/containers and post-consumer sachet water nylon currently generated in Lagos State makes imperative the search for alternative procedures for treating, recycling or reuse of these waste materials. This is because they are not biodegradable and constitute environmental and health threat to the survival of man and other living things. The sustainable approach to municipal solid waste management in Nigeria is being considered. This research work aimed at recycling of post-consumer PET bottles/containers and post-consumer sachet water nylon to produce composite materials for engineering applications and wastes storage bag (wastes bin) respectively. Plastic waste, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles/containers and sachet water nylon coming from the dumpsites in Lagos State in Nigeria were collected, separated, washed, recycled, extruded and characterized. The products obtained were subjected to tests to evaluate their mechanical properties using Introns Tester Model 1122. The results showed that the PET/LDPE blend mechanical properties depend on the processing conditions and apparatus. High processing temperature and high residence times strongly enhance the degradation processes and reduce the mechanical properties, in particular the elongation at break. However, by introducing additives, such as antioxidants, inert fillers and impact modifiers, these mechanical properties are improved and approached those products made from of virgin polyethylene terephthalate. For the recycled sachet water nylon, the results also showed that there was mechanical properties deficiency in the use of recycled resins and that this deficiency could be minimized through adequate blending with virgin resins. In general, provided that optimal reprocessing conditions with suitable additives, the mechanical properties of the recycled resins are near to those of virgin resins.
Contribution/ Originality
This study could be able to address the burden of disposed some of these plastic bottle /nylon litter and block the drainages. Also help in area of employment because many idle hands can engage in picking the waste for recycle.

Engineering » International Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 1

Ergonomic Analysis of Worker Postures in Waste Collection Job

Research Article
Author(s): A .A. Yussouff, K.A. Adedej, S.O Ismaila
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Most environments are characterized with the problem of waste disposal and management. The effect of waste collection method on the musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) has been a challenge. Efforts had been intensified to reduce MSDs of workers through various ergonomic studies. The objective of this work is to undertake an ergonomic analysis of workers’ postures in waste collection job. Twenty five (15) employees of the parking and collection department of Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA) participated in the study. Their activities were video recorded while working and their postures was analyzed using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) sheet. Nordic questionnaire was also administered on the workers to obtain information on whether they experienced pain on any part of the body and the part of the body that the pain was experienced. The REBA action level classified postures into five levels as negligible risk, low risk, medium risk, high risk and very high risk of MSDs. Result showed that none of the workers were in the negligible risk, and low risk levels of MSDs. Further results showed that 6.66% were at medium risk; 26.7% were at high risk and 66.7% were at very high risk for the workers in the waste industry. The questionnaire revealed that 52% of the workers in both waste companies had pain in their neck and lower back during the last 12 months with the lower back being the most painful part in the body; 69.6% of them had wrist/hand pain; 65.2% had upper back pain which was the most painful part in the body during the last 7 days. It can be concluded that workers in waste collection job are subjected to MSDs as a result of the postures adopted while working.
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 3

Improvement of Maize Productivity (Zea Mays L.) by Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Ferruginous Soil in Center of Benin

Research Article
Author(s): Sylvestre ASSOGBA, Pacome A. NOUMAVO, Gustave DAGBENONBAKIN, Nadege A. AGBODJATO, Corentin AKPODE, Abdel D. KODA, Ricardos M. AGUEGUE, Farid BADE, Adolphe ADJANOHOUN, Alejandro FALCON RODRIGUEZ, Blanca M. de la NOVAL PONS, Lamine BABA- MOUSSA
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The objective of our study was to evaluate the promoted effects of three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on maize growth and yield on ferruginous soil in center of Benin.  The maize variety used was EVDT 97 STR C1. The maize seeds were inoculated with each of three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus cubens) combined with or not to mineral fertilizer dose recommended (50% of NPK). The experimental device was a completely randomized random block of nine treatments with four repetitions. The data collected were related to growth (height, diameter and leaf area), yield (biomass and grain yield), mycorrhization (frequency, intensity and number of spores) and NPK content. The maximum height, best seeds yield and larger leaf surface are obtained with maize plants treated with R. intraradices combined with 50% of NPK respectively surpassing of 17.44%, 38.14%, 45.99% the values obtained with the controls plants. G. cubens combined with 50% of NPK was induced an increase of diameter (6.50%), dry aerial biomass (32.86%) and dry ground biomass (94.73%) compared to the control. G. cubens only has led to the best frequency (41.25%), intensity of mycorrhization (6.07%) and a high number of spore (1.81 spores/g soil). These results show the potential of these arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve the maize productivity on ferruginous soil in center of Benin.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that mycorrhizal inoculation increase maize productivity by reducing the use of mineral fertilizer.

Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2017 Issue: 3

Gender as Determinant of the Effect of Yeast Selenium on CD4 T Cells Count Among HIV 1 Positive Children

Research Article
Author(s): Samwel Boaz Otieno
Journal: Journal of Cells

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Abstract
Background Sex steroid estrogens (E2) have been observed to have synergistic effect on activity of GSH-px on pre-menopausal females taking selenium. GSH-px activity is correlated to CD4 T cell count in HIV positive patients. However no study has been done to determine gender differentiated effect of yeast selenium intake on CD4 T cell count of pre-puberty male and female children. Methods In the study 25 girls and 25 boys  HIV-1 positive on WHO stage three and below were given 50μg yeast selenium and blood samples taken at  zero, three and six months intervals in EDTA vacuutainers. The blood samples were analyzed for CD4 T cell count by ELISA. Results: No significant CD4 T cell count change in the test group = -2.943,p< 0.05 compared to the matched controls t = -1.258 p> 0.05. CD4 T cell count increased among all age groups on test 3-5years (+ 267.1),5-8 years( +200.3)  9-15 years  (+71.2) cells/mm3  and while in matched controls there was a decrease in all age groups 3-5 years(-71),5-8 years (-125) and 9-13years(-10.1)cells/mm3  . No significant difference was observed in CD4 T cell count between boys and Girls {F (df 5, 81) = 1.379 p=0.241} between girls {F ( df 2,32) = 1.531, p= 0.232} and between boys { F ( df 2, 49) = 1.040, p= 0.361} on selenium and between boys and girls {F (df 5, 86) = 1.168, p= 0.332} on control at six months. Conclusion It can be concluded that there was significant increase in CD4 T cell count among the children on selenium, but no significant difference in the effect of selenium on CD4 T cell count between pre-menopausal females and male.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to understanding of the effects of selenium administration to HIV positive children. The yeast selenium provided is commonly available in chemists as nutritional supplements. From this study it is observed that selenium supplementation leads to increase in weight gain and equally increase in CD4 cell count (p< 0.05) between baseline and six month sampling, and delayed progression of the AIDS patients as seen by improvement in WHO clinical staging, and the WAZ-Score.  

Medical Sciences » Journal of Cells » Month: 06-2017 Issue: 1

Role of Probiotics in Animal Nutrition

Research Article
Author(s): H.M. Gado, A. Khusro, A.Z.M. Salem
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
The anaerobic probiotic technology (ZAD) is a patented technique. The products are in two forms either liquid or powder. The powder products are coated so it can handle the pressure and the temperature of the extruders. They are fed as follows; 10 gm/head /day for large animals or 1 kg/ tone of fed (for ZADO). In case of Liquid (ZAD); it is fed 10 ml/head/day for large animals and 1.5 ml liter for poultry and rabbits. It decreases the aflatoxins less than 11% by inclusion rate of 7% of ZAD in 7 hours. They are helping the animals to cope with heat stress. Their ability to decrease the cholesterol and triglycerides are noticed by 21 and 19%, respectively. The birds and animal immunity is elevated too. Animal performances are improved in animals fed either form. Milk production increased in dairy cattle (1.5 kg/animal/day) and dairy buffaloes (1kg/head/day). The same trend was recorded for meat production in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep (220, 180 and 90 gm/head/day, respectively as an average daily gain). For poultry, it helped in decreasing the fattening period by 5 days. In fish, the final weight increased by 18%. For rabbits, it increased the milk production, decreased the mortality rate, increased the average daily gain, and improved all over physiological aspects of rabbits.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the impact of probiotics on the growth performances and nutritional aspects of dairy animals, poultry, rabbit, fish, and beef. The primary contribution of this review article is to analyze the influence of anaerobic probiotic technology on the performances and other physiological aspects of ruminant and non-ruminant animals.

Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

Management of Food Shelf Life and Energy Efficiency with Adaptive Food Preservation System (AFPS) Appliance

Research Article
Author(s): Tsang, H.F. Andrew, Yung, KC
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
This paper demonstrates how Adaptive Food Preservation System (AFPS) Appliance reduces the total energy expenditure in food preservation via reduction of food wastage and of thermal gradient between food storage space and the Appliance compartment. It is motivated by the fact that current energy efficiency effort in refrigerators predominantly focuses compressor efficiency, directly or indirectly. However, if foods are wasted before being consumed, the energy consumed along the Cold Chain (manufacturing and logistics) and in household refrigeration will both be wasted. Enhanced by AFPS Packages and Active Thermal Insulation, an AFPS Appliance has two functionalities - Shelf Life Management is responsible for food wastage reduction while Energy Efficiency Management is the responsible for reducing energy consumption through reduction of thermal gradient. The optimal compartment temperature range for the Appliance to reduce thermal gradient is between 10°C and 15°C, which results in a reduction of thermal gradients by 69.6% (between compartment and chiller) and 38.2% (between compartment and freezer), when compared with that of today’s refrigerator. Experimentation on simulated compartment and chiller shows a 50.2% reduction. Sources of deviation and the corresponding rectifications are proposed to bring the reduction up close to 69.6%.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that the Appliance’s energy efficiency can be reduced with active insulation by reducing the thermal gradient (between foods and compartment space). The paper also contributes the first logical analysis of Shelf Life Management by networking with supermarkets, other AFPS Appliances in the neighborhoods, etc.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2017 Issue: 1

Prospects of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy

Research Article
Author(s): Mbah, E.N, Amah, N.E, Onwusika, A.I
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The study was conducted in Benue State, Nigeria to assess prospects of rural youths participation in family farming. Data were collected from a sample of eighty (80) respondents using questionnaire/interview schedule. Frequency, percentage, mean score, standard deviation and factor analysis were used for analyzing data. Majority (75%) of the respondents were males, not married (63.70%), about 99% had formal education, having a mean age of 24 years. Major activities engaged by rural youths in family farming were clearing of farm lands (M = 2.62), harvesting of crops (M = 2.61), irrigating of farm lands (M = 2.39), staking of crops (M = 2.35), sorting/grading of farm produce (M = 2.35), gathering of fruits (M = 2.34) and applying fertilizer to crops (M = 2.33). Results also indicate prospects of rural youths participation in family farming which include proper farm record keeping (M = 2.66), increase in household food security (M = 2.60), increase in farm labour (M = 2.58), provision of market information for sales of farm produce (M = 2.58), increase in household income (M = 2.55), proper preservation of seeds and seedling/planting materials (M = 2.54), increase on the use of modern farming techniques (M = 2.53), increase in farm yields (M = 2.50, among others. The study thus recommends that rural youths should be supported to remain in family farming through adequate provision of labour-saving technologies and modern farm implements to ease operations and ensure optimum productivity. It also highlights that efforts of service providers are needed in providing youths in rural areas with necessary infrastructure such as electricity in order to discourage them from migrating to urban areas.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to indicate that rural youths in family farming were mostly engaged in clearing of farm lands, harvesting of crops, irrigating of farm lands, staking of crops, sorting/grading of farm produce, among others. They should be provided with necessary farm inputs for optimum productivity.

Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 09-2017 Issue: 3

Staff Nurses and Physicians Attitudes toward the Use of Electronic Patient Record

Research Article
Author(s): Amal Diab Atalla, Mary Kelada Harmina, Naglaa El Seesy
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Background: Electronic Patient record (EPR) links consumers, payers and providers across the continuum of care and provides relevant information to them. It is essential that information can be accessed from anywhere in the healthcare delivery system, even in remote locations. Aim: The current study aimed to assess and compare staff nurses' and physicians' attitudes toward EPR. Design: The study used a descriptive survey using self-report questionnaire. Setting: The present study was carried out at a private hospital namely Al Salama New Hospital and it is considered the first and the only hospital in Alexandria governorate at Egypt that implemented the EPR documentation system since 2004. It is equipped with around 100 beds, with a wide range of healthcare services. Subjects: One hundred and twenty five nurses and 90 physicians who were working in the previously mentioned setting. Tool: The data gathering tool staff nurses and physicians' attitudes toward EPR questionnaire. It was developed by the researcher based on Noble James nurses' attitudes toward computerization questionnaire (2002) and the current related literature to determine staff nurses and physicians' attitudes toward the use of EPR. It consists of five main dimensions and 56 sub- dimensions. Results: Around two- third 65.6% of staff nurses had positive attitudes toward the use of EPR. On the other hand, more than three quarters of physicians 75.6% had positive attitudes toward the use of EPR. In addition with no significant difference was found between staff nurses and physicians. The total score percent of the physicians' attitudes (75.6) was higher than the total mean score of the staff nurses' attitudes (65.6). Conclusion: Knowledge, training, and attitude need continual reinforcement to improve implementation for EPR. These results provide valuable information that could be used to encourage the implementation of EPR in Egypt. Recommendations: This study recommended for assuring electronic based documentation as criteria for magnet hospitals on the road of accreditation of healthcare organization. Develop clear policies and guidelines to address issues related to computer based documentation. It should be written and communicated to all healthcare organizations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated and compare staff nurses' and physicians' attitudes toward EPR. The paper's primary contribution is finding that provide valuable information that could be used to encourage the implementation of EPR in the Egyptian hospitals.

Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 04-2017 Issue: 4