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Listing 58 - 20 of 2002 results.

Prospects of Molecular Genetics in Sports Medicine

Research Article
Author(s): Iskandar Mavlyanov, Abdurashid Ashirmetov
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
During the last two decades, sports medicine is increased and experienced a stage of rapid development, especially in such areas as the study of strength, endurance, sports injuries and psychology. Study of ongoing changes when performing exercises at the cellular and molecular levels led to the development of new areas in the sports science as known as genetic medicine that deals with the genetic basis of athletic phenotype. Around 66 % of the variance in athlete status is explained by genetic factors, the remaining variance is due to other factors such as training, nutrition, equipment, motivation, sleeping and epigenetics. Over the last two decades, at least 155 genetic markers (located in almost all chromosomes and mtDNA) were associated with elite athlete status (93 genetic markers with endurance and 62 markers with power/force). The number of identified genetic markers associated with sports activity, grew at a rate exponentially: in 1997 – 5 genes; in 2000 – 24 genes; in 2004 – 101 genes. During the last 19 years, found that at least 120 of genetic markers associated with elite athlete status (77 genetic markers related to endurance and 43 genetic marker settings capacity/power). Of the polymorphisms associated with sports endurance, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and alpha actinin-3 (ACTN3) polymorphisms have been the most frequently studied, and meta-analyses have confirmed the associations. ACTN3 is absent in approximately 18% of European population, 25-29% of Japanese population and overall about 1.5 billion people in all countries. Therefore, to date, available genetic tests based on small sample sizes and the selected analytical methodology can lead to erroneous associations and to reassess the size of the effect, and of course, the use of such limited data does not allow us to predict athletic ability with high accuracy.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Lossless Image Compression and Decompression to Improve the PSNR and MSE Values Using Architecture

Research Article
Author(s): S. Kannadhasan, B.Naveen Lingaesh, R. Alagumanikandan
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
An adaptive algorithm for compressing the color images is proposed. This technique uses a combination of simple and computationally easy operations. The two main steps consist of decomposition of data and data compression. The result is a practical scheme that achieves good compression while providing fast decompression. The approach has performance comparable to and often better than, existing architecture. This paper gives the overview of an adaptive lossless compression scheme. This scheme uses a new technique to predict a  pixel by matching neighboring pixel, an adaptive color difference estimation scheme to remove the color spectral redundancy while handling red and blue samples and an adaptive codeword generation technique to encode the prediction residues. The technique lossless image compression plays an important role in image transmission and storage for high quality. At present, both the compression ratio and processing speed should be considered in a real time multimedia system. Lossless compression algorithm is used for this technique. A low Complexity predictive model is proposed using the correlation of pixels and color components. Also a color space transform is used and good decoration is obtained in our algorithm. The compared experimental results have shown that our algorithm has a noticeably better performance than traditional algorithms.
Contribution/ Originality


Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 08-2016 Issue: 2

Efficiency Enhancement of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with a Low Cost Co-Adsorbant in N719 Dye

Research Article
Author(s): Ramshah Ahmad Toor, Muhammad Hassan Sayyad, Nazia Nasr, Sarah Sajjad, Syed Afaq Ali Shah, Tehreem Manzoor
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
Sunlight is a limitless form of renewable and clean energy which is amply accessible.  Economic consumption of solar energy can boundlessly fulfil the energy demand. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are acknowledged as third generation solar cell technology because of their environmental friendliness, cost effectiveness, simple fabrication and capability to be manufactured on huge substrates. The prospective for development of various Dye sensitized solar cell components is massive. We have under taken a series of investigations on the photovoltaic performance enhancement of DSSCs. In this work, effect of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in N719 dye solution as a co-adsorbent and low cost additive was investigated. The cells were fabricated with and without the addition of CDCA. The co-adsorbent significantly improved the photovoltage open circuit (Voc), photocurrent density (Jsc) and the solar energy power conversion efficiency (). The impedance spectroscopy is also discussed in the paper.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of CDCA additive on ruthenium dye. The paper compares the results from existing data and shows an enhancement in the photovoltaic properties in the results section. The impedance spectroscopy included is studied for the first time for the dye with chenodeoxycholic acid.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

Contribution of Employee Engagement and Interpersonal Relationship to Improve Employee Performance

Research Article
Author(s): Rolyana Ferinia, Tjutju Yuniarsi, H. Disman
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of employee engagement  with mediating variabel rapport to improve employee performance of nurses at Advent Hospital in Indonesia. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the effect between employee engangement, interpersonal relationship and performance were examined. Data were obtained through a questionnaire. Using proporsionate random cluster sampling, there were 418 respondents answered the questionnaire a. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using principal component analysis and  principal axis factoring (PAF) found that  among four dimensions of interpersonal relationship, rapport  is driven factor of interpersonal relationship. The results indicated that satisfaction negatively affect rapport, commitment has positive relationship toward rapport, advocacy has positive influence toward rapport, satisfaction has negative influence toward employee performance, commitment has positive relationship toward employee performance, advocacy has positive influence toward employee performance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of employee engagement which is satisfaction, commitment and advocacy with mediating variable interpersonal relationship which is rapport, bonding, breadth and affinity. Using exploratory factor analysis, rapport is driven factor of interpersonal relationship toward employee performance.

Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 07-2016 Issue: 7

Influence of Outside Directors on Performance of Japanese Companies

Research Article
Author(s): Hiroyuki Matsuoka, Kazuhiro Manabe
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The reinforcement of corporate governance in Japan is one of the pillars of Japan’s growth strategy which companies have to regain "the power to earn". In this respect, the influence of the introduction of outside director on performance of Japanese companies still remains controversial. This research reached one conclusion by introducing a new viewpoint. Especially, we examine how outside director is associated with earnings persistence in Japanese listed companies. Many prior researches agree that company profitability tend to move to the average over time. Earnings persistence is a concept of time series tendency of earnings. Prior research developed some empirical measurements of earnings persistence. If outside director has positive impact on the profitability, then earnings persistence of companies with higher proportion of outside director are higher than that of companies with lower proportion of outside director. Our data used for this study are from Nikkei Economic Electronic Databank System (NIKKEI NEEDS) by Nikkei Media Marketing, Inc. NIKKEI NEEDS has data for all listed companies on stock markets of Japan. We focus on all companies listed on the first or second section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and select 13,376 firm-years in the period from 2003 to 2014. We test the effect of outside directors on performance using the empirical model used by many accounting studies. Our results indicate that outside director has positive impact on the profitability in critical situations, while he or she has little positive and negative impact on the profitability normal situations. We conclude that impact of outside director on corporate performance is narrow in Japan.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that outside director has positive impact on the profitability in critical situations, while he or she has little positive and negative impact on the profitability normal situations. We conclude that impact of outside director on corporate performance is narrow in Japan.

Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 08-2016 Issue: 8

Analysis of Infectious Diseases Spreading Process and ICT-Based Management System

Research Article
Author(s): Hyun Ju Jo, Sung Gye Moon, Bong Gyou Lee
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Recently, as an interest in strongly contagious infectious diseases such as MERS increases, proper infectious disease management systems using ICT have been discussed. Particularly in Korea, the process-centered measures on the basis of ICT infrastructure and the internet of things are under discussion. However, studies on these are very rare. This study aims to propose an infectious disease management system in which ICT is incorporated into each process of the spread of infectious diseases. The scope of analysis is limited to the infectious diseases that flow from a country into the other country through air transportation. The process encompassing from the entry to the eradication of an infectious disease is classified into 5 stages (airport, transportation of patients, medical institutions, self-isolation, and waste disposal), and a journey map is suggested. Subsequently, an efficient infectious disease management system in which ICT is introduced to each stage is proposed. This study has significance in that it has unprecedentedly analyzed the entire spreading process of infectious disease from the process-centered perspective, and is expected to suggest a new convergence direction of ICT.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to construct the effective infectious disease management system and provide a new direction for the convergence of ICT in future.

Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 9

Stimulating Commercial Drones with Open Spectrum Paradigm

Research Article
Author(s): Se Ho Kim, Sang Hoo Oh, Bong Gyou Lee
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
As the number of services that use spectrum such as IoT and commercial drones are increasing rapidly every year, it has become very important to efficiently allocate the spectrum resources. Advanced countries are shifting towards open spectrum system which provides the suitable environment for using radio wave and pursue new technological service innovation. Global companies such as Amazon, DHL, and Google are already investing a lot of resources into the commercial drone technology and made significant contributions. Korea’s commercial drone industry, on the other hand, had limited growth because commercial drones are strictly regulated. In this respect, the purpose of this paper is to derive a policy measure for open spectrum to foster the Korean commercial drone industry. The research was conducted as follows: (i) Literature review of open spectrum and commercial drone industry and (ii) Expert interview on key issues. Following implications have been drawn from case studies in other countries and the expert interview: (i) Establishing data-based open spectrum management system, (ii) Designing a plan to develop new service using spectrum in middle and long term, (iii) Selecting spectrum band width exclusive for open spectrum and drone for international compatibility (iv) The need for a unified agency which can manage and regulate drone industry. These results imply that in order to foster the commercial drone industry, it needs a collaboration with the field of spectrum, and an international standard. The contribution of this study is to provide a strategic guideline for the countries that are in the early stage of developing commercial drone industry, and establish policy and legal guidelines to help foster commercial drone industry.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is to provide strategic guidelines for the countries that are in the early stage of developing commercial drone industry, and establish policy and legal guidelines to help foster commercial drone industry. This study uses an expert interview to investigate key issues.

Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 10-2016 Issue: 10

Co-Development of Process Planning and Structural Configurations Considering Machine’s Accessibility in a Reconfigurable Setup

Research Article
Author(s): Eram Asghar, Aamer Ahmad Baqai, Ramshah Ahmad Toor, Sara Ayub
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
Manufacturing System has been evolved over the years to accommodate major design variations. To respond to these high frequency variations and to stay competitive, there is a need of having such type of manufacturing system that could cope with market trends and design changes efficiently. Product’s design and its manufacturing capabilities are closely related, thus the manufacturing system should be customized to cater all the design changes with suitable manufacturing capabilities. Reconfigurable Manufacturing system has been recommended for the turbulent market conditions because of its flexible and changeable nature. This research work is based on the co-generated model in which optimal machine configurations are generated through the application of optimization technique. Based on these configurations, system is tested for reconfiguration in case of production changeovers. Considering the relevant change drivers the degree of reconfigurability in any case of application can be achieved through proposed algorithm. A case study has been presented to illustrate the application of proposed model based on the technological constraints.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of reconfiguration in a manufacturing system. Considering the parameters mentioned in eq.1 makes this approach generic, reliable and cost effective. Selection of operation and its sequence has given better flexibility and scalability through the application of MOGA.  Actual resources (machining and assembly setups) can be obtained using this approach by measuring extent of reconfiguration for production changeovers.

Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 08-2016 Issue: 2

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Efficacies of Withania Coagulans Seed Extract against Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi

Research Article
Author(s): Hamsa Noreen, Bakht Zaman, Ata ur Rahman, Waseem Hassan
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional profile, phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of aqueous and acetonic extract of Withania coagulans by standard chemical analysis methods. Proximate analysis revealed that aqueous extract of W. coagulans is a rich source of soluble solids (16.1 ± 1.5 %), fiber (15.5 ± 0.1 %), pH (11.5 ± 0.19 %), ash (11.2 ± 0.2 %), sugar (9.7 ± 0.1 %) and ascorbic acid (9.7 ± 0.1 mg/100ml). Phytochemicals detected were flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrate & sugar, phenolic compounds, proteins & amino acids, tannins, gum and mucilage while phytosterols were absent. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of plant extract was determined against ten pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli,Bacilluscereus, Staphylococcus aureus,Clostridium, Escherichia coli (Human), Bacillus subtilius, Xanthomonas, Salmonella typhi,Salmonella heidelberg and Klebsiella pneumonia) and five fungal strains (Penicillium, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Entomola and Aspergillus flavus) using the agar well diffusion method. The acetonic extract of W. coagulans indicated highest antibacterial activity (12 mm) against Clostridium and Salmonella heidelberg and lowest action (5 mm) against E. coli (Human.). Highest antifungal activity (10 mm) was recorded against Alternaria alternata and Penicillium while Aspergillus niger showed lowest zone of inhibition (6 mm). Streptomycin was used as a control. The acetonic extract of W. coagulans exhibited highest free radical [(1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH)]) scavenging activity (72 %) at concentration of 30 mg/ml, with an IC50 value (18µg/ml) as compared to control (4µg/ml). The presence of bioactive compounds, nutrients and biochemical screening indicated that the seeds of W. coagulans can serve as a potential source of useful drugs for the treatment of various pathologies.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 3

A Brief Discussion on Curdling Technology, Microbiological Risks and Contaminants of Fermented Milk Named Biisim Missiga

Research Article
Author(s): Cisse Hama, Zongo Oumarou, Tarnagda Bakary, Abdoullahi Hissein Ousman, Kagambega Boureima, Ouedraogo Abasse Ganame, Sawadogo Adama, Traore Yves, Savadogo Aly
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate endogenous curdling knowledge, microbiological hazards and other contaminants of Biisim missiga. Thus, a survey was conducted among local producers to collect information on curdling technologies in five cities to Burkina Faso. The quality of Biisim missiga samples collected was assessed according to standard microbiological criteria. Contaminants and their sources have been identified according to literature review. The results of this survey revealed that fresh and powdered milk are the most used raw materials to production of Biisim missiga. Curdling technologies are similar in cities surveyed. Microbiological quality of Biisim missiga analysed was unsatisfactory according to criteria used. The presence of pathogenic potential was detected during microbiological analyses. Three types of contaminations have been identified according to literature. In sum, this study revealed that the Biisim missiga analysed do not comply with the criteria in force. Corrective measures must be taken to improve the quality of Biisim missiga sold in Burkina Faso.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature knowledge of endogenous milk curdling technologies in Burkina Faso. In our study we are focused as well on the diversity of biological, physical and chemical contaminants of curd milk in generally. This study documents on the sanitary risk of the dairy products chain.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

How to Treat Diastasis Recti Abdominis with Physical Therapy: A Case Report

Research Article
Author(s): S. Gitta, Z. Magyar, P. Tardi, I. Fuge, M. Jaromi, P. Acs, J. Garai, J. Bodis, M. Hock
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
An increased inter-recti distance is a common problem in late pregnancy and during postpartum period. According to researches diastasis recti abdominis’ occurs in 35-60% of the cases. There are only assumptions about the risk factors, treatment and consequences. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the treatment in the postpartum period using a single case study. A 33-year-old woman, six weeks after her first delivery, was recruited to the research. She complained about abdominal muscle weakness and low back pain. The patient got a three-months-long physical therapy in which the strengthening of the transverse abdominal muscles was primary. After the intervention the pathological inter-recti distance achieved the normal range almost at each reference point. This study found that the inter-recti distance was reduced when isometric contraction of the transverse abdominal muscle was performed. This suggests that this type of exercise could be effective in treating the postpartum diastasis recti and preventing the possible sequelae.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature with the observations of a single case treatment. It is unique because nobody in Hungary has investigated diastasis recti abdominis yet, in consequence a new country appeared which can be active in researches in obstetric and gynecologic physiotherapy.

Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 02-2016 Issue: 2

English Ability Assessment for Economic Analysis of Employment and Income in Cambodian Frontline Staff

Research Article
Author(s): Jeffrey Stewart Morrow
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Tourism in Cambodia has grown remarkably since the early 2000’s; the influx of international travelers meant that tourist industry (TI) frontline employees have needed top-level English communication ability. Since background data in Cambodia has been lacking, the author wanted to verify the role of English communication ability (ECA) in TI employees in Siem Reap city to fill this gap. During four surveys over five years, the author collected background as well as ECA data. To more accurately measure ECA numerically as a means for other researchers to conduct further studies, the author designed an assessment test loosely based on the CEFR. In statistical analysis of income with English variables, high positive correlations were found in English communication ability, years and hours of English education, and monthly expenditure for English learning. Therefore, it can be said that there is a significant relationship between ECA, better employment, and higher incomes in TI employees there. This scale could be profitably used via the Internet to conduct similar research in similar situations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing a new way of examining the importance of English ability toward tourism employment and income. It is also one of the very few studies which have collected socioeconomic and English background data much of which has never been collected before.

Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Ranking the Personal Excellence Training Needs of Undergraduate Tourism Students

Research Article
Author(s): Jennifer Min, Hui-Wen Vivian Tang, Chun An Chen
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Increased attention has been devoted to the issue of pursuit of personal excellence in the higher education in Taiwan in order to enhance the teaching quality and increase students’ competition. While the government has devoted considerable efforts and funding to education institutions through different academic excellence plans, there has been relatively little discussion of pursuit of excellence among student population, nor have there been any curriculum or training programs designed for students to improve their personal excellence. Thus, the present study aims to fill the research gap by designing a training program for the personal excellence of undergraduate tourism students in Taiwan. Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), a multi-criteria decision analysis method, is conducted to prioritize personal excellence training needs for tourism students. The training programs are then developed with a focus on enhancing weak areas of personal excellence competence for tourism students. It is hoped that the results can give students an advantage in entering and staying in their chosen industry, leading to success in both their professional and personal lives.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to examine Taiwanese undergraduate tourism students’ self-reported strengths and weaknesses in personal excellence abilities, with the ultimate goal of developing training programs to strengthen their personal excellence competencies and thereby better equip them for success in the professional realm.

Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 2

The Interface Between Work and Health in the Craft of Tour Guides

Research Article
Author(s): Kerley dos Santos Alves, Jose Newton Garcia Araujo
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
This article aims to analyze the relation between work and health in the professional practice of tour guides working in the tourist city of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. It is based on literature research covering the professionalization process of this professional category and the relation between work, mental health and illness. Data collection was conducted through free observation of the work environment as well as by means of semi-structured interviews with tour guides. The study concluded that the constant feeling of insecurity to which these professionals are exposed may cause emotional and psychic distress that turns into psychopathology, which in turn is expressed in physical and mental fatigue, depressive states, frustration, dissatisfaction and sickness.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated working and health conditions of tourism workers who acquire work-related sickness. It is based on research “The mental health of tourism and hospitality workers: professionalism x illness”, which was concluded in 2016 and originated other projects.

Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 2

Effect of Jameed Form on the Chemical Composition, Rheological and Microbial Properties

Research Article
Author(s): Mohamed N. F. Hamad, Magdy M. Ismail, Reham K. A. El-Menawy
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
Nine treatments to study the effect of jameed form (triangle, square and cylinder molds) on the chemical composition, rheological and microbial properties. The treatments were made as follow: (A) sheep buttermilk (control) with ball form, (B) goat skim milk with ball form, (C) goat skim milk with triangle form, (D) goat skim milk with square form, (E) goat skim milk with cylinder form, (F) cow skim milk with ball form, (G) cow skim milk with triangle form, (H) cow skim milk with square and (I) cow skim milk with cylinder form. Yield of cylindrical shape were slightly higher, while levels of ball, triangle and square forms were close to each other. The lowest acidity levels were detected in cylindrical form. Square and cylinder forms were recorded the lowest of TS, fat, total protein and ash values. Square and cylinder forms possessed the lowest TVBC, LAB and proteolytic bacteria. The triangle or square molds caused significant (p<0.05) increase in wettability, where square form scored the highest syneresis levels among different shapes. The spherical and cylindrical shapes had the minimum values of hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness whereas the triangle and square forms possessed the maximum levels.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies in jameed and the first almost in the study of work forms of jameed and study the effect of shape on the rheological properties and chemical and microbial composition and microscopic for this product, Subsequently, add a new to this product, which is largely consumed in jordan and Egypt recently to manufacture meal "Mansaf".

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2

The Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Consumer Prices in Nigeria: Evidence from VECM Model

Research Article
Author(s): Babagana Mala MUSTI
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
The continuous adoption of trade openness policies and floating exchange rates regime by developing countries exposed them to speculative pressures. It makes exchange rate shocks easily transferred to domestic consumer prices. That makes tremendous impacts on the domestic consumer price inflation.  This paper thus examines the response of domestic consumer prices to exchange rate changes otherwise known as ‘Exchange rate pass-through’. The paper uses vector error correction (VECM) model to examine the relationship. A quarterly time series data for a period ranging from 1986Q1 to 2013Q4 for Nigeria was used. The study found a substantial but incomplete and slow pass-through of exchange rate changes to domestic prices.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by estimating the ERPT using Nigerian data as there are very few studies on ERPT for developing countries and particularly Nigeria. This study uses VECM model against the SVAR model used by other studies.

Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 3

Analysis of Rural Youths Participation in Family Farming in Benue State, Nigeria: Implications for Policy

Research Article
Author(s): Mbah, E.N, Ezeano, C.I., Odiaka, E.C.
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The survey analyzed rural youths participation in family farming in Benue State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire/interview schedule were used in collecting data for the study. Frequency, percentage, mean score, standard deviation, factor analysis and binary logistic regression model were used for data analysis.  Findings revealed that about 75.00% of the respondents were males, single (63.70%), had formal education (98.90%), having farming as a major occupation (92.40%). Major roles performed by the respondents in family farming include site selection (M = 2.70), harvesting of crops (M = 2.61), applying fertilizer to crops (M = 2.55), clearing of farm land (M = 2.54), soil tillage (M = 2.51), among others.  These were further classified as land preparation, management and technical roles. The study recommends that rural youths should be encouraged to remain in agriculture by ensuring that they are provided with improved technologies for greater productivity. Basic amenities such as electricity, pipe borne water, good roads, etc should be made available in rural areas where they reside to prevent rural-urban youth migration and sustain agriculture.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that rural youths are involved in family farming for household food security. They participate actively in family farming playing key roles in land preparation, management and technical areas of crop and livestock production. Efforts of these youths should be sustained for them to remain in family farming.

Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

Lease of Noxious Gases During Burning of Mosquito Coils: A Pilot Study

Research Article
Author(s): Joe Milton Beah, Eldred Tunde Taylor, Thomas Fayia Kamara, Daniel Kaitibi
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
Indoor air pollution due to combusting biomass fuels is a serious problem in developing countries and the impact to a greater extent is less known from burning mosquito coils. As malaria is a major killer in developing countries, the use of mosquito repellants would continue to be used in millions of homes across the continent of Africa. Hence this pilot study was conducted to assess emission levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2); sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) during the burning of six different products of mosquito coils that are sold in Sierra Leone. One hour emission value was recorded for each product during the burning period. Result revealed that one hour SO2 concentrations range from not detected to 47 ppb and that for CO range from 16 ppm to 19 ppm for the different products. Evidence of high peak values was observed for both SO2 and CO for the different products which is clearly a public health concern. This pilot study demonstrated that burning mosquito coils in less ventilated rooms where the primary focus is to eliminate mosquitoes is an environmental health risk in Sierra Leone.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is the first that has provided informed information to relevant stakeholders in Sierra Leone on the dangers of combusting mosquito repellants in less ventilated areas by measuring the emission levels of gases deemed dangerous to public health.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

Optimal Solution of Balanced and Unbalanced Fuzzy Transportation Problem Using Hexagonal Fuzzy Numbers

Research Article
Author(s): Kirtiwant P. Ghadle, Priyanka A. Pathade
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
A fuzzy transportation problem (FTP) includes cost, supply and demand of transportation problems. Its numbers are fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy transportation problem works to reduce transportation cost of some commodities through a capacitate network. Present research paper points out a technique with an alpha cut, optimal solution for solving transportation problem. We suggest a technique to find the fuzzy optimal solution on scales of transportation problem and propose a new hexagonal representation of fuzzy numbers. In general, the comparison of balanced fuzzy transportation problem (BFTP) and unbalanced fuzzy transportation problem (UFTP) shows that the optimal transportation cost of UFTP is less than BFTP.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in networking for transportation. This study uses new estimation methodology. This study originates optimal solution and comparison between BFTP and UFTP. This study investigated comparatively. This paper contributes the first logical analysis that is minimizes or maximizes objective solution is an optimal solution in hexagonal fuzzy numbers.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 02-2015 Issue: 2

Detection of Motorway Disorders by Processing and Classification of Smartphone Signals Using Artificial Neural Networks

Research Article
Author(s): Yusra Mohammed M. Salih, Taner Cevik, Ali Kattan
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Potholes, debris, sunken manhole covers and others are common street safety hazards which drivers experience daily as they bump into them unexpectedly while driving. Pavement roughness is usually evaluated based on the International Roughness Index (IRI), which is considered the most prevalent metric. In this work, IRI values are collected by using a smartphone, with built-in vibration sensor, placed on the car’s dashboard while driving around the city. The classification process of IRI values is primarily performed using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the detection of diverse predefined street safety hazards. The designed ANN is a backpropagation pattern classifier, that must be trained to yield either a detected “disorder” area of the road or “normal” area based on the IRI data collected. The process of preparing the training and testing datasets involves a number of pre-processing operations. The IRI values are pre-processed in order to extract the most effective features. Then the network is trained with the normalized feature set by using supervised learning method. The performance of the designed network is compared to a similar works in the literature. Results show that the designed network can successfully classify the street conditions by using IRI values with a success rate that outperforms the classification rates obtained by other works.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 3