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Listing 58 - 20 of 1932 results.

The Indirect Impact of Overconfidence on the Performance of Tunisian Firms Through their Financing Structure

Research Article
Author(s): Manel Dahmani, Ghazi Zouari
Journal: Financial Risk and Management Reviews

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Abstract
In the current framework of behavioral corporate finance, this article studies the relationship between the managers’ overconfidence and firm performance through the financing structure in the Tunisian context. Our model seeks to identify if the financing structure as a mediating variable between the performance and overconfidence. The empirical study is based on a sample of 56 firm managers for the year 2014. The results of the conducted regressions confirm the existence of a mediating effect of the financing structure on the relationship between overconfidence and the performance of Tunisian firms.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the indirect impact of overconfidence on the performance of Tunisian firms through their financing structure; it is based on a new methodology that uses the theory of Baron and Kenny (1986) by utilising mediating variables to assess the relationship between the firm’s overconfidence and performance.

Economics » Financial Risk and Management Reviews » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Effect of Temperature and Time on the Physical Properties of Bread Produced from Wheat – Cocoyam Flour Using Response Surface Methodology

Research Article
Author(s): Peluola-Adeyemi, O.A, Obi, T.E, Ugbogu, D.I
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
This  study  investigated  the  effect  of  baking  temperature  and  time  on the  physical  properties  of  bread  from  10% cocoyam  and  90% wheat  flour. A central composite  rotatable  experimental  design  with  two  factors  and  five  levels  were  used. The   independent  factors  were  baking  temperature (174.82 – 251.18oC) and  baking  time (30 – 45min). The responses were specific loaf volume (Y1), crumb moisture (Y2), crumb hardness (Y3) and overall acceptability (Y4). Thirteen (13)  baking  trials  were  performed  with  five  center  points  and  eight  non  center  points. The specific  loaf  volume (3.35 – 3.9cm3/g), crumb  moisture  content (32.1 – 35%), crumb  hardness (70 – 70.48N) and overall  acceptability (4.85 – 8) varied  significantly (P<0.05) with the  baking  temperature  and  time. The panelists preferred the bread baked at 186oC for 45min.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the effect of baking temperature and time on the physical properties of bread from wheat- cocoyam flour using response surface methodology and revealed that acceptable bread can be obtained from 90% wheat flour and 10% cocoyam flour at the baking temperature of 1860C for 45mins.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2

Influence of Hydrocarbon Additives on the Velocity of Detonation Wave and Detonation Limits in Lean Mixes by the Example of The Reaction of Hydrogen Oxidation

Research Article
Author(s): N.M. Rubtsov
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
The formalism of the one-dimensional detonation theory taking into account both thermal losses and the theory of branched chain processes was applied to hydrogen oxidation in the presence of hydrocarbon additive. It is shown that accounting for both reactions of termination of the active centers of combustion via molecules of hydrocarbon additive, and chain oxidation of hydrocarbon additive allows qualitative interpreting of the main features of the process. They are both passing of detonation velocity through a maximum at an increase in content of the additive in lean mix and the existence of two detonation limits on the concentration of the additive.
Contribution/ Originality
This study originates a new approximate analytical formula interpreting the main features of the detonation velocities and limits in lean hydrogen – air mixtures.

Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 3

Soil Erosion Hazard Mapping in Central Zab Basin Using Epm Model in GIS Environment

Research Article
Author(s): Himan Shahabi, Mamand Salari, Baharin Bin Ahmad, Ayub Mohammadi
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Soil losses and erosion are the primary concerns that decrease soil fertility, deposition materials in waterways, flooding, environmental pollution, and declining dam capacity. The aim of this study is zonation of soil erosion hazard and sediment yield in central Zab basin in southwest of West-Azerbaijan province in Iran. The Sardasht dam construction is established on its main branches that estimate amount of soil erosion and sedimentation of behind the dam is necessary. Hence EPM model have been used to soil erosion hazard mapping using series of GIS data, Landsat ETM+ satellite images, aerial photos in GIS environment. Required layers information was used in this research including slope, aspect, lithology, soil, land use, rainfall, and river erosion. Hence, GIS databases and their weighting of each map layers were extracted according to the hydrologic units. Also, GIS database was prepared based on EPM model to extract of erosion and sedimentation maps The obtained result using EPM model showed that south and southwest parts of central Zab basin near the Sardasht Dam construction are very highly eroded due to their soil erosion and lithology while the northern parts of case study are moderately eroded because of the intensive land cover.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to determine the dominant erosion features in the mountainous catchment using satellite data and GIS techniques. This study documents can be used to estimate the amount of sediment reaching the dams, natural resource management and land use planning.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 11-2016 Issue: 11

Factors that Influence Teachers’ Perceptions of Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in Mathematics Teaching in Kenyan Secondary Schools

Research Article
Author(s): Leonard Mwathi Kamau, Peter Kimani, Priscilla Muthoni
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
This study investigated the factors that influence mathematics teachers’ perceptions of ICT in mathematics teaching in Kenyan secondary schools. Participants for the study came from a population of mathematics teachers in Nairobi and Nyandarua counties in Kenya. The results revealed that mathematics teachers’ perceived roles of ICT in the classroom were positive with a large proportion of teachers agreeing that ICT plays a significant role in the teaching-learning process. Additionally, demographic factors such as age, school type, teachers’ educational level, principal’s subject major, and so on were significantly related to mathematics teachers’ perceptions of the roles of ICT in the classroom. The Internet and ownership of laptop computer were found to be useful in shaping mathematics teachers’ perceptions; however, this was not true for the availability of computer labs, technology resources, and location of the school (rural or urban). Additionally, limited time to integrate ICT in the lessons and inadequate ICT training in mathematics related software were found to limit mathematics perceptions of the positive roles of ICT in mathematics teaching. The study recommends that mathematics teachers need to be trained on the relevant mathematics software, be provided with reliable Internet connection, and encouraged to acquire laptop computers for instructional use.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated teachers’ perceptions of Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in mathematics education. Limited studies have investigated this research problem in the African context. The study used the Chi-square statistics as a lens of identifying the variables in the study.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2016 Issue: 4

Unsteady Plane Couette Flow of an Incompressible Couple Stress Fluid with Slip Boundary Conditions

Research Article
Author(s): Hikmat S. Saad, E. A. Ashmawy
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
In this work, the unsteady flow of an incompressible couple stress fluid between two parallel plates is studied. Slip boundary conditions are applied on the two plates and vanishing couple stress condition at the boundaries is assumed. The upper plate is suddenly moved with time dependent velocity while the other plate is fixed. The problem is solved analytically in the Laplace domain through the use of Laplace transform technique. The inverse transform of the fluid velocity is obtained numerically. The velocity profiles for different times and different physical parameters are plotted and the numerical results are discussed.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to the field of couple stress fluids by applying the more realistic slip condition to Couette flow of an incompressible couple stress fluid. It is found that the time, the couple stress coefficient and the slip parameters have significant effect on the flow field.

Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 07-2016 Issue: 7

Prospects of Molecular Genetics in Sports Medicine

Research Article
Author(s): Iskandar Mavlyanov, Abdurashid Ashirmetov
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
During the last two decades, sports medicine is increased and experienced a stage of rapid development, especially in such areas as the study of strength, endurance, sports injuries and psychology. Study of ongoing changes when performing exercises at the cellular and molecular levels led to the development of new areas in the sports science as known as genetic medicine that deals with the genetic basis of athletic phenotype. Around 66 % of the variance in athlete status is explained by genetic factors, the remaining variance is due to other factors such as training, nutrition, equipment, motivation, sleeping and epigenetics. Over the last two decades, at least 155 genetic markers (located in almost all chromosomes and mtDNA) were associated with elite athlete status (93 genetic markers with endurance and 62 markers with power/force). The number of identified genetic markers associated with sports activity, grew at a rate exponentially: in 1997 – 5 genes; in 2000 – 24 genes; in 2004 – 101 genes. During the last 19 years, found that at least 120 of genetic markers associated with elite athlete status (77 genetic markers related to endurance and 43 genetic marker settings capacity/power). Of the polymorphisms associated with sports endurance, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and alpha actinin-3 (ACTN3) polymorphisms have been the most frequently studied, and meta-analyses have confirmed the associations. ACTN3 is absent in approximately 18% of European population, 25-29% of Japanese population and overall about 1.5 billion people in all countries. Therefore, to date, available genetic tests based on small sample sizes and the selected analytical methodology can lead to erroneous associations and to reassess the size of the effect, and of course, the use of such limited data does not allow us to predict athletic ability with high accuracy.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Lossless Image Compression and Decompression to Improve the PSNR and MSE Values Using Architecture

Research Article
Author(s): S. Kannadhasan, B.Naveen Lingaesh, R. Alagumanikandan
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
An adaptive algorithm for compressing the color images is proposed. This technique uses a combination of simple and computationally easy operations. The two main steps consist of decomposition of data and data compression. The result is a practical scheme that achieves good compression while providing fast decompression. The approach has performance comparable to and often better than, existing architecture. This paper gives the overview of an adaptive lossless compression scheme. This scheme uses a new technique to predict a  pixel by matching neighboring pixel, an adaptive color difference estimation scheme to remove the color spectral redundancy while handling red and blue samples and an adaptive codeword generation technique to encode the prediction residues. The technique lossless image compression plays an important role in image transmission and storage for high quality. At present, both the compression ratio and processing speed should be considered in a real time multimedia system. Lossless compression algorithm is used for this technique. A low Complexity predictive model is proposed using the correlation of pixels and color components. Also a color space transform is used and good decoration is obtained in our algorithm. The compared experimental results have shown that our algorithm has a noticeably better performance than traditional algorithms.
Contribution/ Originality


Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 08-2016 Issue: 2

Efficiency Enhancement of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with a Low Cost Co-Adsorbant in N719 Dye

Research Article
Author(s): Ramshah Ahmad Toor, Muhammad Hassan Sayyad, Nazia Nasr, Sarah Sajjad, Syed Afaq Ali Shah, Tehreem Manzoor
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
Sunlight is a limitless form of renewable and clean energy which is amply accessible.  Economic consumption of solar energy can boundlessly fulfil the energy demand. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are acknowledged as third generation solar cell technology because of their environmental friendliness, cost effectiveness, simple fabrication and capability to be manufactured on huge substrates. The prospective for development of various Dye sensitized solar cell components is massive. We have under taken a series of investigations on the photovoltaic performance enhancement of DSSCs. In this work, effect of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in N719 dye solution as a co-adsorbent and low cost additive was investigated. The cells were fabricated with and without the addition of CDCA. The co-adsorbent significantly improved the photovoltage open circuit (Voc), photocurrent density (Jsc) and the solar energy power conversion efficiency (). The impedance spectroscopy is also discussed in the paper.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of CDCA additive on ruthenium dye. The paper compares the results from existing data and shows an enhancement in the photovoltaic properties in the results section. The impedance spectroscopy included is studied for the first time for the dye with chenodeoxycholic acid.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 3

Contribution of Employee Engagement and Interpersonal Relationship to Improve Employee Performance

Research Article
Author(s): Rolyana Ferinia, Tjutju Yuniarsi, H. Disman
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of employee engagement  with mediating variabel rapport to improve employee performance of nurses at Advent Hospital in Indonesia. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the effect between employee engangement, interpersonal relationship and performance were examined. Data were obtained through a questionnaire. Using proporsionate random cluster sampling, there were 418 respondents answered the questionnaire a. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using principal component analysis and  principal axis factoring (PAF) found that  among four dimensions of interpersonal relationship, rapport  is driven factor of interpersonal relationship. The results indicated that satisfaction negatively affect rapport, commitment has positive relationship toward rapport, advocacy has positive influence toward rapport, satisfaction has negative influence toward employee performance, commitment has positive relationship toward employee performance, advocacy has positive influence toward employee performance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of employee engagement which is satisfaction, commitment and advocacy with mediating variable interpersonal relationship which is rapport, bonding, breadth and affinity. Using exploratory factor analysis, rapport is driven factor of interpersonal relationship toward employee performance.

Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 07-2016 Issue: 7

Influence of Outside Directors on Performance of Japanese Companies

Research Article
Author(s): Hiroyuki Matsuoka, Kazuhiro Manabe
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The reinforcement of corporate governance in Japan is one of the pillars of Japan’s growth strategy which companies have to regain "the power to earn". In this respect, the influence of the introduction of outside director on performance of Japanese companies still remains controversial. This research reached one conclusion by introducing a new viewpoint. Especially, we examine how outside director is associated with earnings persistence in Japanese listed companies. Many prior researches agree that company profitability tend to move to the average over time. Earnings persistence is a concept of time series tendency of earnings. Prior research developed some empirical measurements of earnings persistence. If outside director has positive impact on the profitability, then earnings persistence of companies with higher proportion of outside director are higher than that of companies with lower proportion of outside director. Our data used for this study are from Nikkei Economic Electronic Databank System (NIKKEI NEEDS) by Nikkei Media Marketing, Inc. NIKKEI NEEDS has data for all listed companies on stock markets of Japan. We focus on all companies listed on the first or second section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and select 13,376 firm-years in the period from 2003 to 2014. We test the effect of outside directors on performance using the empirical model used by many accounting studies. Our results indicate that outside director has positive impact on the profitability in critical situations, while he or she has little positive and negative impact on the profitability normal situations. We conclude that impact of outside director on corporate performance is narrow in Japan.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that outside director has positive impact on the profitability in critical situations, while he or she has little positive and negative impact on the profitability normal situations. We conclude that impact of outside director on corporate performance is narrow in Japan.

Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 08-2016 Issue: 8

Analysis of Infectious Diseases Spreading Process and ICT-Based Management System

Research Article
Author(s): Hyun Ju Jo, Sung Gye Moon, Bong Gyou Lee
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Recently, as an interest in strongly contagious infectious diseases such as MERS increases, proper infectious disease management systems using ICT have been discussed. Particularly in Korea, the process-centered measures on the basis of ICT infrastructure and the internet of things are under discussion. However, studies on these are very rare. This study aims to propose an infectious disease management system in which ICT is incorporated into each process of the spread of infectious diseases. The scope of analysis is limited to the infectious diseases that flow from a country into the other country through air transportation. The process encompassing from the entry to the eradication of an infectious disease is classified into 5 stages (airport, transportation of patients, medical institutions, self-isolation, and waste disposal), and a journey map is suggested. Subsequently, an efficient infectious disease management system in which ICT is introduced to each stage is proposed. This study has significance in that it has unprecedentedly analyzed the entire spreading process of infectious disease from the process-centered perspective, and is expected to suggest a new convergence direction of ICT.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to construct the effective infectious disease management system and provide a new direction for the convergence of ICT in future.

Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 09-2016 Issue: 9

Stimulating Commercial Drones with Open Spectrum Paradigm

Research Article
Author(s): Se Ho Kim, Sang Hoo Oh, Bong Gyou Lee
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
As the number of services that use spectrum such as IoT and commercial drones are increasing rapidly every year, it has become very important to efficiently allocate the spectrum resources. Advanced countries are shifting towards open spectrum system which provides the suitable environment for using radio wave and pursue new technological service innovation. Global companies such as Amazon, DHL, and Google are already investing a lot of resources into the commercial drone technology and made significant contributions. Korea’s commercial drone industry, on the other hand, had limited growth because commercial drones are strictly regulated. In this respect, the purpose of this paper is to derive a policy measure for open spectrum to foster the Korean commercial drone industry. The research was conducted as follows: (i) Literature review of open spectrum and commercial drone industry and (ii) Expert interview on key issues. Following implications have been drawn from case studies in other countries and the expert interview: (i) Establishing data-based open spectrum management system, (ii) Designing a plan to develop new service using spectrum in middle and long term, (iii) Selecting spectrum band width exclusive for open spectrum and drone for international compatibility (iv) The need for a unified agency which can manage and regulate drone industry. These results imply that in order to foster the commercial drone industry, it needs a collaboration with the field of spectrum, and an international standard. The contribution of this study is to provide a strategic guideline for the countries that are in the early stage of developing commercial drone industry, and establish policy and legal guidelines to help foster commercial drone industry.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is to provide strategic guidelines for the countries that are in the early stage of developing commercial drone industry, and establish policy and legal guidelines to help foster commercial drone industry. This study uses an expert interview to investigate key issues.

Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 10-2016 Issue: 10

Co-Development of Process Planning and Structural Configurations Considering Machine’s Accessibility in a Reconfigurable Setup

Research Article
Author(s): Eram Asghar, Aamer Ahmad Baqai, Ramshah Ahmad Toor, Sara Ayub
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
Manufacturing System has been evolved over the years to accommodate major design variations. To respond to these high frequency variations and to stay competitive, there is a need of having such type of manufacturing system that could cope with market trends and design changes efficiently. Product’s design and its manufacturing capabilities are closely related, thus the manufacturing system should be customized to cater all the design changes with suitable manufacturing capabilities. Reconfigurable Manufacturing system has been recommended for the turbulent market conditions because of its flexible and changeable nature. This research work is based on the co-generated model in which optimal machine configurations are generated through the application of optimization technique. Based on these configurations, system is tested for reconfiguration in case of production changeovers. Considering the relevant change drivers the degree of reconfigurability in any case of application can be achieved through proposed algorithm. A case study has been presented to illustrate the application of proposed model based on the technological constraints.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of reconfiguration in a manufacturing system. Considering the parameters mentioned in eq.1 makes this approach generic, reliable and cost effective. Selection of operation and its sequence has given better flexibility and scalability through the application of MOGA.  Actual resources (machining and assembly setups) can be obtained using this approach by measuring extent of reconfiguration for production changeovers.

Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 08-2016 Issue: 2

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Efficacies of Withania Coagulans Seed Extract against Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi

Research Article
Author(s): Hamsa Noreen, Bakht Zaman, Ata ur Rahman, Waseem Hassan
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional profile, phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of aqueous and acetonic extract of Withania coagulans by standard chemical analysis methods. Proximate analysis revealed that aqueous extract of W. coagulans is a rich source of soluble solids (16.1 ± 1.5 %), fiber (15.5 ± 0.1 %), pH (11.5 ± 0.19 %), ash (11.2 ± 0.2 %), sugar (9.7 ± 0.1 %) and ascorbic acid (9.7 ± 0.1 mg/100ml). Phytochemicals detected were flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrate & sugar, phenolic compounds, proteins & amino acids, tannins, gum and mucilage while phytosterols were absent. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of plant extract was determined against ten pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli,Bacilluscereus, Staphylococcus aureus,Clostridium, Escherichia coli (Human), Bacillus subtilius, Xanthomonas, Salmonella typhi,Salmonella heidelberg and Klebsiella pneumonia) and five fungal strains (Penicillium, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Entomola and Aspergillus flavus) using the agar well diffusion method. The acetonic extract of W. coagulans indicated highest antibacterial activity (12 mm) against Clostridium and Salmonella heidelberg and lowest action (5 mm) against E. coli (Human.). Highest antifungal activity (10 mm) was recorded against Alternaria alternata and Penicillium while Aspergillus niger showed lowest zone of inhibition (6 mm). Streptomycin was used as a control. The acetonic extract of W. coagulans exhibited highest free radical [(1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH)]) scavenging activity (72 %) at concentration of 30 mg/ml, with an IC50 value (18µg/ml) as compared to control (4µg/ml). The presence of bioactive compounds, nutrients and biochemical screening indicated that the seeds of W. coagulans can serve as a potential source of useful drugs for the treatment of various pathologies.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 3

Political Economy of Tourism in Pakistan: The Role of Terrorism and Infrastructure Development

Research Article
Author(s): Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, Muhammad Kamran Rasheed
Journal: Asian Development Policy Review

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Abstract
Tourism is one of the world?s biggest industries. Pakistan?s rich history, culture and geographical diversity make it international tourism appeal. International tourism is a source of revenue, employment, foreign exchange and ultimately economic development. There is no desirable change in international tourism in Pakistan. This study investigated the impact of terrorism and infrastructure on tourism in the perspective of political economy. Error correction model (ECM) has been employed on the annual time series data for the years 1972-2013. Tourism is measured by international tourist arrivals in the country. The results have shown that terrorist attacks have adversely affected the tourism but infrastructure and GDP per-capita have positive impact on tourism. It may be concluded that whatever the efforts are being done by the government to increase the international tourism the desired results cannot be attained until terrorism is eliminated. Political economy of tourism revolves around the terrorism and infrastructure.
Contribution/ Originality
The study is an addition in the literature of tourism economics in the perspective of political economy of emerging issue of terrorism as a contributing factor of international tourism in Pakistan. It is pertinent to control terrorism for international tourism development in the economy along with infrastructure development.

Economics » Asian Development Policy Review » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 2

How to Treat Diastasis Recti Abdominis with Physical Therapy: A Case Report

Research Article
Author(s): S. Gitta, Z. Magyar, P. Tardi, I. Fuge, M. Jaromi, P. Acs, J. Garai, J. Bodis, M. Hock
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
An increased inter-recti distance is a common problem in late pregnancy and during postpartum period. According to researches diastasis recti abdominis’ occurs in 35-60% of the cases. There are only assumptions about the risk factors, treatment and consequences. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the treatment in the postpartum period using a single case study. A 33-year-old woman, six weeks after her first delivery, was recruited to the research. She complained about abdominal muscle weakness and low back pain. The patient got a three-months-long physical therapy in which the strengthening of the transverse abdominal muscles was primary. After the intervention the pathological inter-recti distance achieved the normal range almost at each reference point. This study found that the inter-recti distance was reduced when isometric contraction of the transverse abdominal muscle was performed. This suggests that this type of exercise could be effective in treating the postpartum diastasis recti and preventing the possible sequelae.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature with the observations of a single case treatment. It is unique because nobody in Hungary has investigated diastasis recti abdominis yet, in consequence a new country appeared which can be active in researches in obstetric and gynecologic physiotherapy.

Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 02-2016 Issue: 2

English Ability Assessment for Economic Analysis of Employment and Income in Cambodian Frontline Staff

Research Article
Author(s): Jeffrey Stewart Morrow
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Tourism in Cambodia has grown remarkably since the early 2000’s; the influx of international travelers meant that tourist industry (TI) frontline employees have needed top-level English communication ability. Since background data in Cambodia has been lacking, the author wanted to verify the role of English communication ability (ECA) in TI employees in Siem Reap city to fill this gap. During four surveys over five years, the author collected background as well as ECA data. To more accurately measure ECA numerically as a means for other researchers to conduct further studies, the author designed an assessment test loosely based on the CEFR. In statistical analysis of income with English variables, high positive correlations were found in English communication ability, years and hours of English education, and monthly expenditure for English learning. Therefore, it can be said that there is a significant relationship between ECA, better employment, and higher incomes in TI employees there. This scale could be profitably used via the Internet to conduct similar research in similar situations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing a new way of examining the importance of English ability toward tourism employment and income. It is also one of the very few studies which have collected socioeconomic and English background data much of which has never been collected before.

Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Ranking the Personal Excellence Training Needs of Undergraduate Tourism Students

Research Article
Author(s): Jennifer Min, Hui-Wen Vivian Tang, Chun An Chen
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Increased attention has been devoted to the issue of pursuit of personal excellence in the higher education in Taiwan in order to enhance the teaching quality and increase students’ competition. While the government has devoted considerable efforts and funding to education institutions through different academic excellence plans, there has been relatively little discussion of pursuit of excellence among student population, nor have there been any curriculum or training programs designed for students to improve their personal excellence. Thus, the present study aims to fill the research gap by designing a training program for the personal excellence of undergraduate tourism students in Taiwan. Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), a multi-criteria decision analysis method, is conducted to prioritize personal excellence training needs for tourism students. The training programs are then developed with a focus on enhancing weak areas of personal excellence competence for tourism students. It is hoped that the results can give students an advantage in entering and staying in their chosen industry, leading to success in both their professional and personal lives.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to examine Taiwanese undergraduate tourism students’ self-reported strengths and weaknesses in personal excellence abilities, with the ultimate goal of developing training programs to strengthen their personal excellence competencies and thereby better equip them for success in the professional realm.

Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 2

The Interface Between Work and Health in the Craft of Tour Guides

Research Article
Author(s): Kerley dos Santos Alves, Jose Newton Garcia Araujo
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
This article aims to analyze the relation between work and health in the professional practice of tour guides working in the tourist city of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. It is based on literature research covering the professionalization process of this professional category and the relation between work, mental health and illness. Data collection was conducted through free observation of the work environment as well as by means of semi-structured interviews with tour guides. The study concluded that the constant feeling of insecurity to which these professionals are exposed may cause emotional and psychic distress that turns into psychopathology, which in turn is expressed in physical and mental fatigue, depressive states, frustration, dissatisfaction and sickness.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated working and health conditions of tourism workers who acquire work-related sickness. It is based on research “The mental health of tourism and hospitality workers: professionalism x illness”, which was concluded in 2016 and originated other projects.

Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 12-2016 Issue: 2