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Listing 85 - 20 of 1969 results.

Monitoring of surface soil quality parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh

Research Article
Author(s): Md. Simul Bhuyan, Md. Rashed-Un- Nabi, Md. Enamul Hoque, Abu Sayeed Muhammad Sharif, Md. Shafiqul Islam
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
The present study was carried out to monitor and assess the surface soil quality parameters of the Sitalakshya River, Bangladesh. The soil samples were collected from Kanchpur Bridge and Atlapur during rainy and winter season. Soil texture is an important tool that aids in organic matter retention, minerals dispersal, microbial biomass, and other soil properties. The soil of the study area was recorded sandy loam and loam. The concentrations of soil parameters ranged for EC: 65.7 ?S/cm-99.83 ?S/cm; pH: 6.67-6.97; organic matter: 0.43%-0.66%; and organic carbon: 0.23%-0.35% in the soil of the Sitalakshya River. Most of the parameters showed no substantial variations in respect of sites and seasons (p>0.05) except electrical conductivity and pH (p<0.05). Statistical analysis like correlation matrix exposed the close relationship between organic matter and organic carbon. The soil of the Sitalakshya River has low nutrient contents that are not enough for the plants and organisms. Rapid industrialization and the huge establishment of brickfields are the major factors behind this less productive ecosystem. The river must be protected from further deterioration by taking fruitful management plan. This preliminary study will be a useful tool in the conservation plan. This will also help the future researchers who want to work on the river.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: inpmonth-0000 Issue: 0

Analysis of the Effect of Variations in Refractivity Gradient on Line of Sight Percentage Clearance and Single Knife Edge Diffraction Loss

Research Article
Author(s): Eduediuyai, Dan, Enyenihi, Johnson, Idorenyin Markson
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
In this paper, analysis of the effect of variations in refractivity gradient on line of sight percentage clearance and single knife edge diffraction loss is presented. Relevant, mathematical expressions and approaches for the analyses are presented. Sample path profile data of terrestrial line of sight (LOS) microwave communication links operating at C-band 5.5 GHz frequency and Ku-band 11 GHz frequency with 15 Km path length are used in the study to demonstrate the application of the ideas presented in this paper. The results showed that the critical point of minimum LOS percentage clearance occurred at a distance of 8.89 Km from the transmitter. Based on the results regression models were derived for relating the refractivity gradient to the effective earth K-factor, earth bulge, LOS percentage clearance and single knife edge LOS percentage clearance. The implication of the result is that, given that for any location the refractivity gradient varies with the primary atmospheric parameters like temperature, pressure and relative humidity, the amount of diffraction loss posed to the signal in the atmosphere will be varying at different rates depending on the prevailing values of the atmospheric parameters upon which refractivity gradient depends. Also, apart from the reference refractivity gradient of 39.25 N units/km, different frequencies will experience different amount of diffraction loss. The specific impact of the refractivity gradient on different frequencies depends on whether the prevailing refractivity gradient is above or below the reference refractivity gradient of 39.25 N units/km.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of variations in refractivity gradient on line of sight percentage clearance and single knife edge diffraction loss. The ideas presented can easily be used to study the effect of variations in atmospheric parameters on wireless signal quality.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Gross Morphology and Morphometric Studies of Digestive Tract of Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Research Article
Author(s): Umar, A.A, Atabo, S.M
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Four (4) adult barn owls were captured from Gamji Village of Bakura local government and transported in a cage to the College of Agriculture and Animal Science Bakura, Zamfara State, Nigeria, for morphology and morphometry of the digestive tracts. All the segments of the digestive tract (Esophagus, Liver, Crop, Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Colon, Caecum, Colorectum, and Cloaca) were present, however the crop was found to be absent. This studies will provide valuable information for anatomist and other scientist working in the management and nutrition of this species, which will further help in the maintenance of this important bird in captivity or free life. Further investigation in the histology of these segments is recommended.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature, the gross features of the gastrointestinal tract of the barn owl, which will further assist in the feeding and management of this bird in captivity or free life.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Interrogating the Dilemma of Foreign Aid as a Tool for Economic Development in Latin America in the 20th Century

Research Article
Author(s): Johnson Olaosebikan Aremu
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The paper examines the dilemma of foreign aid as an invaluable tool for the economic development of Latin American region up till the 1990s. The study employed the narrative and analytical historical methods of research and analysis. Data was generated through library search. It was critically analysed employing the qualitative technique of content analysis of historical documents. The study notes that some advanced countries like USA, Canada, and Australia pumped and has still been pumping vast amount of money as aid to the region since the 1930s. Some goals of the aid regime were to: stimulate improved standard of living of citizens of Latin American states; alleviate poverty; promote rural infrastructural development and; enhance economic growth and sustainable development. Ironically, however, the paper records that all the Latin American states had to show for the huge inflow of foreign aid have been unparalleled level of corruption; huge foreign debt profile, significant level of illiteracy; political instability; incessant regime change; endemic conflicts; low level of domestic savings and significant impoverishment of women population, among others, with the possible exception to Cuba. It concludes that leaders of Latin American states should institute economic policies that are domestic-savings dependent and shun corruption to ostensibly promote sustainable development in the nearest future.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the huge inflow of foreign aid into Latin American states has neither translated into an improved standard of living for average citizens nor succeeded to stimulate sustainable economic development in the region over the years.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2018 Issue: 4

Awareness on Air Pollution and Risk Preparedness among Residents in Kigali City of Rwanda

Research Article
Author(s): Lamek Nahayo, Deborah Nibagwire, Gabriel Habiyaremye, Egide Kalisa, Madeleine Udahogora, Abias Maniragaba
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
The rapid human population growth, industrialization, urbanization, agricultural expansion and other development activities are gradually polluting the quality of air with severe effects on the human health and environment as well. This is particularly, exacerbated by lack information sharing which limits the risk assessment, and community approach to identify the key sources and the mitigation or adaptation strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of air pollution risk awareness in order to enhance its preparedness and adaptation in Kigali City of Rwanda. The authors conducted an interview with 225 respondents randomly selected among the residents in May 2018. The results indicated that the primary air pollution sources are automobile highlighted by 45 percent of respondents, followed by stationery sources at 36 percent. However, the air pollution risk related information is mainly provided at television (50%), owned by 32 percent in contrast of radio possessed by 49% of residents, but used at low extent (36%). This consequently, leads to health problems, acid rain and natural resources depletion as stated by the informants. Accordingly, the air pollution risk awareness is at low level, as respondents highlighted that the related education/training is delivered at low extent (9.3 percent), despite its role in risk awareness and preparedness among the community. While the car free day (32.4%) and forestland expansion (42%) are practiced at large extent than education. The relevant community air pollution risk awareness and reduction measures are suggested.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the awareness on air pollution and the degree of preparedness to the risk in Kigali city of Rwanda. Thus, its findings will help policy makers to better set up air pollution abatement measures under consideration of the residents’ wellness.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

Assessment of Genetic Diversity at the Heamoglobin Locus in Selected West African Dwarf Goat Populations in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Gwaza, D.S., Ukwu, H.O., Iorungwa, J.M.
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Blood samples were collected from 40 (forty) goats in Kwande Local Government Area, of Benue State, Nigeria. Blood samples collected were subjected to electrophoresis to study haemoglobin polymorphism and its distribution in West African Dwarf goat populations in Kwande. Data on Haemoglobin genotypes were subjected to sample variance (S2) population genetics simulation software for the analysis. Three heamoglobin genotypes (HbAA, HbAB and HbBB) were observed in the West African dwarf goat populations. The haemoglobin gynotypes (HbAA, HbAB and HbBB) were controlled by two co-dominant haemoglobin alleles HbA and HbB. The genotypic frequencies were 0.24, 0.57 and 0.19 for HbAA, HbAB and HbBB respectively. Genotypic frequencies at the haemoglobin locus in West African Dwarf goat were in hardy-weinberg equilibrium. The gene frequencies of HbA and HbB observed were 0.52 and 0.48 respectively with HbA being the most frequent. The low allelic variation may have occur when populations are separated but only for a short time, that the processes of genetic drift and mutation that leads to differentiations of allelic frequencies at selected loci are yet to occur. As the amount of time in which two isolated populations increases, the differences in allelic frequencies will also increase until each population is completely fixed for a number of alleles. These factors may have accounted for the low variation in the heamoglobin allelic frequencies observed in this study. There was also gene-controlled diversity at the haemoglobin locus in the WAD goat populations with heterozygosity (He) value of 0.49, which indicated a moderate level of genetic diversity at the haemoglobin locus in WAD goat populations in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
The study indicated that the populations of the West African dwarf goat were separated for a short time, that the processes of genetic drift and mutation that leads to differentiation of allelic frequencies at selected loci are yet to occur and that no population of the West African dwarf goat is fixed in heamoglobin allelic frequencies.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Assessment of Heamoglobin Polymorphism as A Potential Protein Marker in Selection for Genetic Improvement of the West African Dwarf Goat Population in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Gwaza, D.S., Ukwu, H.O., Ogbole, P. A.
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This study was conducted to ascertain the level of genetic diversity at the haemoglobin ( Hb) locus and to assess it potential as a protein marker assisted selection for genetic improvement of Nigerian West African Dwarf goat populations. Haemoglobin genotyping was performed on forty (40) West African Dwarf goat obtained from Okpokuu local government area of Benue state ,Nigeria, using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Data on Haemoglobin genotypes were also subjected to chi-square test. Two co-dominant haemoglobin alleles HbA and HbB observed controlled three haemoglobin genotypes ( HbAA, HbAB and HbBB ). The genotypic frequencies were Hb AA 0.42, HbAB 0.50 and HbBB 0.08 for does populations, while that in the bucks population were HbAA 0.38, HbAB 0.44 and HbBB 0.19 respectively. The most frequent haemoglobin genotype observed in the study was HbAB . The heamoglobin genes (allelic) frequencies observed in this study were 0.64 and 0.36 for HbB and HbA respectively. The result of chi-square test were not significant (P>0.05), critical value was 3.84 at 1degree of freedom. which implies that the oberseved and the expected genotypic frequencies at the heamoglobin locus in west African dwarf goat populations in okpokwu local government area were in handy-Weinberg proportion. Since protein molecules are easily accesseble through electrophoresis, heamoglobin blood protein polymorphism can be use as a potential biochemical marker in selection for genetic improvement of the West African Dwarf goat populations among rural farming coomunities in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: inpmonth-0000 Issue: 0

Trends in Child Sexual Molestation, Rape and Incest: A View from South West Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): ARUNA, Justina Olufunke
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Out of the blues, sexual molestation, especially rape and incest is suddenly on the increase in Nigeria. Presently, many Nigerians have lost their once cherished values of decency and responsibility, in view of several cases of adult males defiling young under-aged girls being widely reported daily in both the print and electronic media. Most times, these acts of betrayal of trust are perpetrated mostly by close neighbours, uncles, pastors, imams, teachers, fathers etc. Benefitting from documentary data accessed from the Internet/web and national newspapers, In-depth Interviews (IDIs) were conducted with some personnel of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and some victims, Key Informants techniques (KIIs) were used to elicit information from the Police and Courts for the study. The paper submits that sometimes, the victim is cajoled and deceitfully taken advantage of; oftentimes, it is forceful, violent rape that leaves the victim physically and psychologically bruised and scarred. In extreme cases, the victims – especially those who resist, lose their lives or are maimed for life. The study identifies that extant provisions in both the Criminal and Penal Codes in Nigeria, on child sexual abuse, are not stringent enough, while the Nigerian Child Rights Act (CRA) (2003) is yet to be enacted by many States of the Federation, and also the attending issue of delay in the Courts. The Police are equally hampered by lack of specialized training/skills and poor logistics for quick responses. The study strongly suggests that child sexual molestation can be significantly reduced through aggressive mass sensitization programmes; the formal punishment for sexually abusing a child should be quite severe and even to the very limit permitted by the law, to serve as an effective deterrent.
Contribution/ Originality


Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2018 Issue: 4

Effects of Teaching Methods on Basic Science Achievement and Spatial Ability of Basic Nine Boys and Girls in Kogi State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Thomas Aduojo Audu
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The study investigated the effects of process-oriented instructional strategies on the spatial abilities of basic science students in Kogi state. Spatial ability contributes immensely to the understanding of science. 702 basic nine students, made up of 316 boys and 386 girls were used for the study. While the experimental group was taught topics in basic science using process-oriented instructional strategies, the control group was taught with lecture method. Variables such as gender and teaching strategies informed the direction of the investigation. Four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at the 0.05 level. Three research instruments; Spatial Ability Test (SAT), reliability 0.81, Basic Science Achievement Test I (BSAT I), reliability 0.87, and Basic Science Achievement Test II (BSAT II) with a reliability of 0.85 were used. Data analysis utilized percentages, frequencies, means, and t-test for independent samples. The results showed that no significant differences in basic science achievement between boys and girls taught by lecture method and those of process-oriented instructional strategies were found. Significant differences were found between the spatial abilities of girls taught by lecture and those taught by process-oriented instructional strategies and between boys taught by lecture and those taught by process-oriented instructional strategies. It was recommended that boys and girls could be taught together; thus solving the problem of space and materials/resources often expensive and relatively scarce in many Nigerian schools. Teachers should emphasize the process-oriented instructional strategies in science teaching
Contribution/ Originality
The study found no significant gender difference in basic science achievement between the control and experimental groups. Boys and girls taught by process-oriented strategies performed better in spatial abilities than those of lecture. So, process-oriented instructional strategies should be encouraged among both sexes hence improving their participation in national development.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2018 Issue: 4

A Pictorial Guidebook on Poultry Diseases; Diagnostic Techniques and their Effective Treatment

Research Article
Author(s): Aamir Nawab, Yasir Nawab, Shuyan Tang, Jiang Wu, Wenchao Liu, Guanghui Li, Mei Xiao, Lilong An
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
The poultry industry has gained significance all over the world due to providing economical, healthier food than red meat and other protein sources. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimated 103.5 million tons of global chicken meat production annually in 2012, which contributed about 34.3% to global meat production. Generally, poultry farming has performed a leading role in the livestock sector in some others regions of the world. But poultry farming system is affected by both environmental and disease stress. Various viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal diseases affect the production performance of birds by affecting respiratory system, reproductive system, immune system, gut system and central nervous system which, in turn, cause loss of appetite, reduction of body weight, drop in egg production, air sac infection, coughing, sneezing, difficulty in breathing, septicemia (blood stream infection), paralysis of neck, wings and legs, enteritis (intestinal infection), bloody diarrhea, immunosuppression and higher mortality which cause huge economic losses in poultry industry. Therefore, there is need to control poultry diseases. Our aim was to provide a pictorial guidebook on poultry disease; diagnostic techniques and their effective treatment which may help to diagnose the viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal infection. This may provide an important guideline to identify and minimize diseases before their incidence.
Contribution/ Originality
Our main objective was to provide a pictorial guidebook on poultry disease to avoid the production losses facing the global poultry industry. Several reports have theoretically addressed on poultry diseases but there is lack of sufficient data related to pictorial guidebook on avian diseases. Therefore, this study is one of very few studies which have documented on poultry diseases as a pictorial guideline; diagnostic techniques and their potential treatment.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

The Nexus between Urbanization, Energy Demand and Healthcare in Bangladesh

Research Article
Author(s): Saanjaana Rahman
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
Urbanization leads to increase in energy usage as it aggravates the demand of housing, land usage, commutation and many more. Economic theory postulates that urbanization is a demographic activity where a big share of any country’s people migrates in urban settlements (Arouri et al., 2014). The energy demand will keep on increasing in the upcoming years as targets for development and economic growth aggravates. Bangladesh aims to become a middle-income nation by 2021. As more and more workers will migrate to the urban city for job, they will use more and more healthcare facilities available in the city, which in turn will increase the demand for energy. Healthcare industry is termed as a vital sector for any country, as health is wealth for any nation. Furthermore, patients’ health and quality of life is important to perform economic activities or to be an active citizen of the country for growth of the economy, as a healthy economy is the key to a successful nation. Good governance is important in this aspect as the country has set a target to gain universal health coverage by 2023 to pay 70% of the medical expenses. However, healthcare industry needs to utilize renewable energy and smart technology for the sustained economic growth.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new methods of ARDL Bound Testing Approach to investigate the link among urbanization, energy and healthcare.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1

The Impact of Destination Service Quality and Destination Environment on Tourist Satisfaction: A Field Study on Jordans Golden Triangle for Tourists Point of View

Research Article
Author(s): Feras Mohammad Bader, Abdelbaset Hasoneh, Saeda Afaneh, Salim .M. Khanfar
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the impact of service quality and destination environment on tourist satisfaction in Jordan’s Golden Triangle (Aqaba, Petra and Wadi Rum). A descriptive survey method was adopted in order to conduct the study. A questionnaire-based survey was developed on the basis of literature review and previous studies. Once validity and reliability of the questionnaire established, it was self-administered to a sample comprised 600 foreign tourists visiting the study area. Out of the distributed questionnaires, 374 were returned valid for statistical analysis purpose (response rate = 62.3%). The study underlined a statistically significant impact of service quality as well as its dimensions on tourist satisfaction and a statistically significant impact of destination environment and its dimensions on tourist satisfaction. In relation to differences among tourists in terms of their responses, the results pointed out that there were no statistically significant differences in tourists’ responses in favor of their personal data, except companionship.
Contribution/ Originality
A key contribution of this study is that examining the impact of service quality or destination environment on tourist satisfaction should be carried out by separated models since the simultaneous examination of the impact of these variables on tourist satisfaction will result in a non-significant impact of service quality on tourist satisfaction. Therefore, further research is required to test the impact among these variables.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Internet Abuse Intention at Workplace among Employees: A Malaysian Perspective

Research Article
Author(s): M. Krishna Moorthy, Chin Yoon Mei, Choo Wan Cing, Lee Mang Yin, Lee Xin Hui, Sew Yong Sheng, Tan Wei Lin
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This study examines the factors that contribute to internet abuse intention among employees of SMEs in the services sector in Malaysia. Modified Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model has been adopted as the theoretical framework. Primary data has been collected from 500 SMEs’ employees who have access to the internet at their workplace through self-administered survey questionnaire. Attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, moral norms and external locus of control are positively related to internet abuse intention. This research has included the additional variables, moral norms (internal variable) and external locus of control (external variable) to enhance the TPB model. This research will contribute to the employers who intend to reduce the internet abuse behaviour of their employees in the workplace and as a reference for future researchers on similar topics.
Contribution/ Originality
This study added two more variables, external locus of control and moral norms to extend the original TPB model. From the management perspective, it would help to enhance the work productivity of Malaysian SMEs by planning various measures to avoid internet abuse intention among employees.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2018 Issue: 4

Hawaii Dementia Prevention Trial: A Randomized Trial Evaluating a Multifaceted Nutritional Intervention to Slow Cognitive Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients

Research Article
Author(s): Steve Blake, George King, Nicole Kerr, Catherine Blake, Thomas Harding, Pat Borman, Katrina Moss, Paul Adapon, Kore Kai Liow
Journal: Journal of Brain Sciences

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Abstract
Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has no effective treatment, nor does its “precursor” mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: This is a nine-month, randomized, open, pilot trial. We are using four dietary changes and twelve supplements to slow progression of dementia in patients with MCI. Patients were randomly assigned to the diet-plus-supplement intervention group (1) or to the supplement intervention group (2). Supplementary cobalamin, folate, and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) may reduce secretase/amyloid production. Antioxidants coenzyme Q10, ascorbates, gamma-tocopherol, and extracts of ginkgo biloba and centella asiatica were used. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium support endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Dietary interventions include berries, walnuts, decreasing dietary advanced glycation endproduct intake, and limiting saturated fatty acids to seven percent of calories. Results: In this small pilot study, it was surprising that participants in the supplement-only group improved more than in the supplement-plus-diet group. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered at baseline and every 3 months. While 9.6% of MCI patients normally degenerate to dementia each year, over nine months, participants in the supplement-only group had an average improvement in the MMSE of 10 points (out of 30 points). At the end of the intervention, average score was 29 out of 30 points, indicating a normal cognitive state. In the food-plus-supplement group no degeneration was seen, although improvement was also not seen. Conclusions: This multifaceted nutritional intervention had a positive impact by slowing the progression of dementia and reducing the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. A larger, multicenter trial is needed to confirm these results.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Journal of Brain Sciences » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Implementation of a Personalized Weight Training Protocol and Influence of Sleep Duration

Research Article
Author(s): Barouch Giechaskiel
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
Weight (resistance) training can increase strength and muscle mass. A personalized training protocol (i.e., with optimum frequency and number of sets) was followed for 4 months by a 40-year old male with 20 years of weight training experience. The body was split in three parts and was trained every 5-6 days. The strength increase was between 7% (back) and 17% (legs), while the free-fat mass increase was 0.4 kg (0.5%), which was lost after the 4-month period. It was shown that reduced sleep duration for one night did not affect the strength performance. However, with 2 days of reduced sleep, there were indications of worse performance. The results confirm the importance of personalized weight training programs and good sleep habits for strength improvements.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that a personalized weight (resistance) training programs can result in strength increases even for advanced trainees. This study contributes in the existing literature showing that one-night sleep restriction only slightly affects strength performance, but two nights of reduced sleep duration have a negative effect.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Fermentation Conditions and Process Optimization of Citric Acid Production by Yeasts

Research Article
Author(s): Folake Titilayo Afolabi, Stella Mojisola Adeyemo, Halimat Osheiza Balogun
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
The aim of this study was to isolate and screen citric acid producing yeasts using low cost substrates. Thirty three yeast isolates were obtained from pineapple, plantain and sugar cane waste and identified as; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida tropicalis, Pichia guilliiermondii, Debaromyces sp., Candida parapsilosis, Candida rugosa, and Candida krusei. Candida tropicalis had zone of clearance of 49±2.1 mm in diameter, Pichia guilliermondii had 40±1.2mm. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced citric acid with glucose with 105.0 mg/l. C. tropicalis yielded 132.2 mg/l with sodium nitrate. S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis produced citric acid at pH 6 with 23.70mg/l and 23.80mg/l. P. gulliermondii at pH 4 produced 23.00mg/l. The temperature of 30°C favoured S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis yielding 40.80mg/l and 39.80 mg/l. After extraction, the yield of the citric acid was 4.231g, 3g of which was recrystallized to yield 2.16g of pure citric acid resulting into 72% recovery. The result indicated that pineapple wastes, plantain wastes and sugarcane cane are potential sources of yeasts that can be used for the production of citric acid.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the isolation and the screening of yeasts for the production of citric acid using low cost substrates, as well as to study the effect of various fermentation parameters on citric acid production.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Impact of Information and Communication Technology on the Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Nwakoby Nkiru Peace, Charity Philip Sidi, Ofobruku Sylvester Abomeh
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The study examines the impact of information and communication technology on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria between the periods 2006 to 2015. The log-linear regression model was used to test the impact of various forms of information and communication technology on the banks return on equity (ROE), the computation of the result was done using the econometric computer software package, e-view version 8.0. The result shows that the adoption of various forms of information and communication technology has greatly influenced the quality of banking operations, performance and has specifically increased banks return on equity. Information and communication technology usage can sustain returns on equity of deposit money banks in the long run. The study recommends that investment in information and communication technology should form an important component in the overall strategy of banking operation, as these will make Nigerian banks to be more efficient, profitable, and competitive.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature that investigated the use of ICT in Nigeria banks’. Currently there is the paucity of studies in Nigeria that examines the interbank transactions with the aid of ICT. This study contributes an important dimension in the search for better performance of Nigeria banks.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

Gender Differentials in Labour Market Participation of Rural Households in Non-Farm Activities in Oyo State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Abimbola Oluyemisi Adepoju, Olajumoke Osunsanmi
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Gender inequities in labour market opportunities is a particular concern since earnings from labour supplies are the most important source of income for the poor in the rural economies of developing countries. This study examined gender differentials in labour market participation of rural households in non-farm activities in Oyo state, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was employed in selecting 120 rural households. Descriptive Statistics, Double- Hurdle regression model and Multinomial Logit regression models were the analytical tools employed. The mean farm size was relatively small as more than three-quarters of both male and female headed households respectively cultivated less than 1 hectare. Regression results indicated that male and female headed households participated and allocated more time to non-farm activities as their age and household size increased while farm size and remittances had negative effects. The decision on whether a household would hire or supply labour was largely influenced by the age of the household head, farm size, farming experience, household size and being a member of a cooperative group. However, female headed households’ participation was constrained mainly by inaccessibility to town as a result of the long distance between the homestead and the nearest town. The study recommends the establishment of small and medium enterprises in the rural areas to encourage the participation of both male and female headed households in non-farm income generating activities to cushion declining farm incomes.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by complementing current research on labour market participation in Oyo State, Nigeria, a few of which have examined gender differences in non-farm activities by rural households.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2018 Issue: 4

Does Gearing Influence on Corporate Performance? Evidence from Kenya

Research Article
Author(s): George Gikama Muthoni
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The objective of this paper was to determine the influence of gearing and corporate performance of non-financial firms listed on the NSE. The target population being 42 companies with 35 companies meeting the threshold for a balanced panel regression for the period 2008-2017. The study adopted longitudinal quantitative research design with random-effects GLS models. The corporate performance was assessed by ROCE and Q ratio while gearing was measured using leverage ratio. The findings reveal that the gearing is positively and statistically insignificant related with corporate performance of the listed non-financial firms at the NSE measured using ROCE and positively significantly related to Tobin’s Q. This paper commends the necessity to cultivate a worthy rapport with debt capital providers such as banking companies, and other financial institutions to benefit from easy acquisition of large sums of funds and enjoy the interest tax shields related to interest charged on debt finance.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the effect of gearing by long-term borrowing divided by firm’s capitalization thus capturing the financial risk in a firm from a long-term perspective which usually influences the investors’ choice of a firm to invest into.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 01-2019 Issue: 1

Effects of Community Financing Institutions on Cassava Farmers Income in Oyo State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Akinwalere B.O., Uche G.C.
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The study examined the effect of community financing institutions on cassava farmers’ income in Oyo State. The objectives were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents in the study area, identify governmental & non-governmental community financing institutions in the study area, and examine the effect of the financial institution programme on respondents’ income and to identify the factors affecting the accessibility of credit facilities among small holder farmers in Oyo State. A Multi-stage sampling technique was used for this study. In the first stage, a purposive sampling was used to select Lagelu, Akinyele and Ido Local Government Areas in Ibadan. Random sampling was used to select three communities from each of the three Local Government Areas and from each community, 10 respondents were selected randomly to give a total of 90 respondents of cassava farmers and processors. The analysis of the socio-economic characteristics revealed that majority of respondents that were involved in the cassava production and processing activities in the study area were males, the ages ranged between 17- about 65years and majority (38.9%) were between the ages 49-56years with the mean age of 49 years. Most (96.7%) were married with a high household size of between 6-10 numbers. The level of education of respondents revealed that majority (43.3%) had one form of education or the other which could enhance performance in production and processing activities. The primary occupation of respondents reveals that all of them were farmers, some are artisans and their monthly allowance ranged between less than ?20,000.00 and ?75,000.00 as most of them earn less than ?30,000.00. Chi square showed that there is a significant association between rural financing institution and cassava farmers’ income (?²=0.014, p=6). Also 57.8% of the respondents affirmed that the benefits received from the financial institution has a high effects on their standard of living which is affirmed by 43.3% of the respondents who agreed that their monthly income has increased as a result of the accessibility to fund. From the result, 53.3% of the respondents claimed that the high interest rate charged by the institution was the major challenge and 47.8% of the respondents affirmed that the Interest rate should be affordable as this will enhance accessibility of credits.
Contribution/ Originality
This original study focused on the effects of community financing institution on cassava farmers’ income. It revealed the significant relationship between rural financing and cassava farmers’ income and also the major constraint of high interest rate facing the farmers in the study area.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2019 Issue: 1