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The study investigates whether or not access and quality of education contributes to the development process and economic well being of Botswana by (1) examining the impact of access to education on economic development, (2) establishing the relationship between quality of education and economic development and (3) testing the causal relationship between education and economic development. The study uses time series data from 1980 to 2014 which was analyzed using vector error correction model and vector auto regression approaches to test both long and short run relationships respectively. The paper provides a strong background on the political economy of education in Botswana since independence to date as a departure from our current understanding in literature. Findings show that the level of access to education has a positive and significant effect on the level of economic development; there is bidirectional causality between quality of education and the level of economic development; unidirectional causality moves from economic development to access to education. The study suggests that access to education should be complemented by enhancing more employment creation to forester long term development and private investment in inventory and tangible assets should be enhanced. Attracting more foreign direct investment and maintaining low inflation improves quality of education in the short as they work through enhanced economic development. Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes to the existing literature by showing bidirectional causality between quality of education and the level of economic development. Access to education has both long and short run effects on economic development. The impact during the former period depends on the measure of access to education employed.
This study determined the effect of IFRS on the quality of financial reporting among Nigerian financial firms. The study adopted stock price (Ohlson, 1995) and return (Easton and Harris, 1991) models, that have been commonly used in accounting research. Data were collected from Thompson Reuters (stock price) and Bank Scope Data Streams (net income and total expenses) to determine the relationships. The study found that there is a greater relationship between net income and total expenses with the stock price and return. Furthermore, the relationships have been statistically significant using Cramer Z-statistic for both stock price and return model. The overal result have shown value relevance of net income, operating expenses, and change in net income and operating expenses has improved as a result of IFRS adoption among Nigerian listed financial institutions. The study implication for the policy makers, standard setters and investors are to give more emphasis on the use of IFRS for all firms even if they are not listed in the stock market as IFRS adoption provided a better quality accounting information than domestic reporting. Besides the relevance of these study findings to security market, the literature has provided greater contributions to fewer market research in African capital market particularly, Nigeria after the IFRS adoption being the first study to carry such study in Nigeria. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the value relevance of net income and operating expenses in emerging economy.
This study examines the validity of the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in four Arab countries that recently experienced political instability, those being Syria, Egypt, Tunisia, and Bahrain. Using monthly data of the real effective exchange rates (REER) of the countries in question from 1995 to 2014, the study utilizes the ADF test along with unit root tests that account for endogenous structural breaks in the data, this includes the Zivot and Andrews one structural break test and the Lumsdaine and Papell one, two and three structural breaks tests. The findings were in favor of the PPP in Syria, Egypt and Tunisia when the Lumsdaine and Papell three structural breaks test was applied. The findings also confirm the importance of capturing the right number of the breaks in the data as tests that failed to account for structural breaks in the data were more against the PPP. Interestingly, the findings reveal that the political instability did not cause a structural break for Syria and Egypt, which validates the criticism to the Perron test that exogenously defining structural breaks might not be appropriate. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the PPP literature as it is the first, up to our knowledge, that examines the validity of the PPP in the presence of a structural break triggered by political instability as the one experienced recently by many Arab countries.
Customers are always surrounded by the media and advertising in their daily lives. These tactics are used to get the customer engagement towards the program, video or advertisement. Engagement with understanding the complete message of it called transportation. This research is conducted to examine the effects of media, transportation, advertising transportation on customer responsiveness. For this purpose, an ad is placed in between the video for the respondents. Target respondents are the students and the general public. Primary data is collected from above two hundred eighty seven respondents in Sahiwal via questionnaires. The results show that advertising transportation has the more significant effect on the customers’ responsiveness. Contribution/ Originality
Considering the case of China the present study necessitates to highlight the environment quality of the country in the wake of increasing trends of FDI. This study attempts to present both the empirical as well as technical approach to explain the consequences of FDI and factors in relation to environments. In this study critical review of the empirical studies on the subject has been presented and following that cross years and province study among Chinese provinces was done by using time series and panel data regression to define the significance of environment quality in terms of sulphur dioxide emission and water pollutants emission due to increased FDI. Time period considered was 2003-2014. Lastly, the impact of foreign direct investment on the environmental degradation was analyzed by dividing the provinces of China in four economic regions, namely the east, center, west and North East region. The results from the analysis revealed a significant, but weak positive relation between FDI and sulphur dioxide, however, rejected the association of water pollutant emission with same. On the aggregate level as well, panel data analysis throws similar relation of all provinces in the analysis. Lastly, in case of cross region analysis, the eastern region has been encountered as contributing towards water emission only, where center, northeast and west region as contributing towards both water waste and sulphur mission. This study suggests that uniform environmental regulation in all the regions, focusing on foreign firms which use latest technology to reduce both the emission of air and water pollution and strengthening the legal system and market mechanism of property rights protection can be helpful to reduce and control environmental problems in China. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated impact of FDI in the environmental degradation deeply by originating new control variables .The earlier studies focus only on air pollution or water pollution and very few studies has taken both indicators for this impact.
This research aims at identifying with the customers’ evaluation of the quality of services in Islamic banks branches in the Syrian coast (the cities of Latakia and Tartous). As well as knowing the impact of personal factors (gender, age, scientific qualification, income, name of the bank) on this Assessment. In order to achieve this objective, data were collected through a questionnaire designed by Jabnoun and Khalifa (2005). Descriptive statistics has been used to determine the level of the assessment. In order to find out the impact of personal factors on the evaluation & services quality, the analysis of variance test, “Anova test”, has been used. The research found that the customers’ evaluation of services in the studied branches was average in general, and there is no statistically significant impact of the personal variables on the customers’ evaluation of the quality of the studied branches. Contribution/ Originality
The study documents the measurement of services quality in branches of Islamic banks in Syrian coast which helps comparing between the level of their services and identifying with the impact of customers’ personal factors on their evaluation which enables the bank to make its services suit customers.
A study of the characteristics of clay from El-Sheikh Fadl Village, El-Minia governorate in Egypt has been carried out. A crucial factor in the applying clay as a low-cost adsorbent, however, is the understanding of the physical, chemical, mineralogical, and colloidal properties of these clays. The characteristics of texture such as surface area, pore volume, porosity, pore size distribution, particle shape and density were determined. The pore size distribution results showed that natural clay is predominantly mesoporous. The thermal behavior of clay was studied using differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis analysis. The X-Ray diffraction analysis was performed in order to determine the main constituents of the materials. The X-Ray diffraction analysis verified the presence of kaolinite, montmorillonite and quartz in the natural clay. Then clay was tested for infrared spectra, it confirm the presence of the constituents mentioned above. The structure and chemical composition, exchangeable ion type and small crystal size of montmorillonite are responsible for several properties, including a large chemically active surface area. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that the structure, chemical composition and exchangeable ion type of montmorillonite are responsible for several properties, including a large chemically active surface area. and low-cost adsorbents might be a suitable local alternative for elimination of heavy metal ions and basic dyestuffs from aqueous solutions
This research work dwells on the anaerobic digestions of rumen with Tithonia diversifolia (T. diversifolia) for biogas production. The anaerobic digestions of rumen with T. diversifolia was carried out for 30 days within the mesophilic temperature range (30.0 °C - 40.0 °C) using a digester with dimensions 50 cm x 25 cm. Results obtained indicated that the maximum biogas volume obtained was 7.05 x 10-3 m3 on 29th day. The temperature of the digestate remained constant throughout the fermentation period. The pH of the medium changes progressively from acidic to slightly alkaline (6.41 to 7.2). In order to estimate the statistical analysis, linear regression and correlation model were used, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was constructed. The coefficient of determination R2 with Prob>F=0.0001 was 0.7339, the regression parameters βO (intercept) and β1 (slope) were obtained as 6.05 x 10-6 and 1.942 x 10-3, respectively. The Root Mean Square Error (RSME) was 7.84 x 10 -5, the Sum of the Square Error (SSE) was 1.72 x 10-5, the total sum of the square error (SST) was 6.46 x 10-5 and regression of the square (SSR) was 4.74 x 10-6. The estimated regression function equation of biogas volume was expressed as y = 0.00000605239x + 0 .001941651. The physicochemical properties of the digester feedstock before and after the anaerobic digestion showed that the COD, ash content, organic carbon, total kjedahl nitrogen, pH increased after the anaerobic digestion while the total solids, volatile solids, aluminum, copper, iron, calcium and ammonia nitrogen decreased. The C/N ratio of the feedstock was approximately 4:1. The study showed that T. diversifolia with rumen can produce sufficient carbon that accelerated effective gas generation. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature the use of T.
diversifolia co-digested with rumen for biogas production. This study uses new estimation methodology such as least square to optimize the process of production. This study originates the formula like linear regression parameters.
This research reports micelle formation of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and the dependence of aggregation number on the array of sodium salts in aqueous solution. Critical micelle concentration, degree of micelle ionization, and aggregation number were obtained from electrical conductivity measurement. Pseudo-phase separation model was used to evaluate and discussed standard Gibb’s free energy of micellization. It was observed that hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide critical micelle concentration decreases while aggregation number increases. Amongst the sodium salt, disodium hydrogen phosphate was found to have the highest tendency in reducing hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide critical micelle concentration. The sodium salts with the highest valency anion strongly promote micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, indicating the dependence of aggregation phenomenon on the availability of anion. Contribution/ Originality
These studies estimate the role of sodium salt (NaNO3, Na2HPO4, NaCl, Na2CO3 and Na2HPO4) on the micellization of HTABr. The role play by sodium ions is a contribution to the existing literature i.e aggregation depends on availability of anions.
This study investigated the effects of two methods of instruction on secondary school students’ critical response to Prose Literature text. The study adopted a pretest, posttest, control group quasi experimental design. The participants in the study were 84 Senior Secondary II students of Literature-in-English purposively selected from four Schools in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. Two intact classes were randomly assigned to each of the treatment and control groups. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level. The instruments used were: Critical Response to Prose Literature Test (r = .75), Questionnaire on Home Background of Students (r = .82), and Critical Response to Prose Literature Test Marking Guide. Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Covariance and graph. The results showed significant main effect of treatment on students’ critical response to Prose Literature (F (1, 77) = 44.731; p < .05). Students exposed to Engagement Strategies Method performed better than those exposed to the Conventional Method of instruction. Further, home background of students had no significant effect on students’ critical response to Prose Literature text (F (2, 77) = 4.902; p < .05). There was significant interaction effect of treatment and home background of students on students’ critical response to Prose Literature text (F (2, 77) = 3.508; p < .05). It was concluded that Engagement Strategies Method is effective in promoting students’ critical response to Prose Literature text. Teachers of Literature-in-English should employ Engagement Strategies Method in teaching Prose Literature to students in Senior Secondary Schools. Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to existing literature by revealing that critical response to literature could be fostered in students through the use of engagement strategies. The study is one of the very few ones that aimed at facilitating students’ critical response to literature rather than teaching to pass examination.
Much of the academic and popular press is correctly stressing the need for students to obtain STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) degrees to meet shortages as well as for the good of societal advancement. To those ends, you will find an extension that details attributes that most executives are looking for in new hires. Detailing the individual contribution needs works well as a foundation to realizing that executive replacement demands people who are technical, but can build and keep relationships as they co-create a new future through humanistic understandings. This manuscript is prescriptive and descriptive through identifying and addressing: 1) what are key issues surrounding reality, and becoming and remaining an “in reality” relational leader? 2) what are emotional intellect concerns and implications for relational leaders? 3) What is communication and how can we improve it in light of the abundance of technology available? 4) What is a people person; and what are prescripts useful in teaching, measuring and enhancing people person skills? It is clear that most fail at higher levels because they pay attention to issues that are not critical to their success. The chief intent of this article is to help rectify that by guiding readers toward preparing themselves for expanded managerial and leadership roles. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature related to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) degrees. Most studies call for more STEM degrees and stress the value of hard math and science skills. This article specifies soft skills that are required for STEM graduates to become organizational managers and leaders.
This survey-designed study investigated managing academic service delivery in South-South Nigerian universities for national education transformation. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted to draw a sample size of 200 subjects made up of 46 Deans of Faculties and 154 Heads of Departments, from a population of 322 subjects (46 Deans and 276 HODs) in 4 Federal Universities. Data were collected with the use of “Academic Service Delivery Management Questionnaire (ASDMQ)”. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using Population t-test of single mean and Independent t-test statistical techniques. Results disclosed that managing academic service delivery at the departmental level is significantly low; managing academic service delivery at the faculty level is significantly low; there is no significant difference in managing academic service delivery between departments and faculties in south-south universities. On the strength of these findings, it was recommended that Deans of Faculties and Heads of Departments should give priority attention to academic service delivery to enhance students’ academic outcomes, quality education and national education transformation. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated managing academic service delivery in south-south Nigerian universities for national education transformation, with results showing that this all important aspect of institutional administration is poorly managed. There is need for proper management of this for quality learning outcomes.
Girls in secondary schools have been recording a low academic outcomes in mathematics and it is due to this that the study investigated the relationship between academic outcomes of girls in mathematics and other subjects in secondary schools in Gem Sub-County. Specifically the study, determined the relationship between attitude, interests, and academic outcomes of girls, established role of peer pressure in academic outcomes of girls in mathematics in comparison with other subjects. The study was guided by social theory developed by Bandura in 1967. The study adopted correlation survey and used stratified sampling to 6 select schools and respondents from a population of 1770 secondary girls and purposive sampling to select 66 subject teachers and 6 head teachers. The correlation coefficient (r = .530, p₌.003) computed showed high positive correlation between academic outcomes and attitudes and interest among female students in secondary schools. The correlation coefficient (r =0.640, p=.042) computed revealed a weak but statistically significant relationship between peer pressure and differences in academic outcomes in mathematics and other subjects among female students in secondary schools from Gem Sub-County. The study concluded that lack of interests, attitudes and peer pressure contributed to difference in academic outcomes between mathematics and other subjects therefore the study recommended that Mathematics subject teachers and the school administration should find a way of creating awareness on important of mathematics. Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature on pertinent issues involving girl child education. The paper’s primary contribution is that academic outcomes are highly correlated with attitudes and interest and that there is a weak but statistically significant relationship between peer pressure and difference in academic outcomes of girl child.
University is more and more faced with the question of ethics these days, especially with regard to student assessment. Some deontologically reprehensible teachers’ practices seem to persist in a setting where the student is in a weak position in the face of a lecturer with a great deal of control and a great capacity for harm. This paper examines the ethics of teachers’ practices during students’ evaluation from a systemic perspective through strategic analysis. Such practices include mark-buying, sexual harassment, and unfair subtraction of marks. The main question in this work is what can explain the persistence of this plight. The data collection process involved the interview of twenty (20) informants, comprising students’ representatives and victims, and personal observations. After having taken stock of the most reported breaches from some lecturers at the University of Maroua, Cameroon, the work scrutinises the reason for their recurrence from three main points: impunity due to the poor application of regulatory provisions, the absence of a moral code in the recruitment procedure of lecturers, and the lecturer’s freedom of impression. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the unethical behavior of teachers in Cameroon universities. It explains the persistence of this unethical behavior trough the weak enforcement of regulations, non-requirement of moral code during recruitment and the feeling free impression of lecturers.
The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of technological competence (teacher, Internet, smart classroom), to obtain academic performance of students of higher level of the Colleges of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine at the Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon. We applied qualitative and quantitative methods, and simultaneously, a statistical design allowed us to make more reliable calculations. We also used two instruments: surveys and assessment test the research question. Contribution/ Originality
This study shows how much academic performance is generated from the use of technological competence in the classroom, and how the financing institutions to provide results in a benefit to the student. There is a needed to develop technical competence to opens up new educational possibilities in the classroom and critical thinking.
Succession planning is a key component in talent management and it is defined broadly as a strategic process within an organisation focusing on identifying, training and developing, mentoring and preparing potential talent for future leadership positions. This study sought to understand the succession planning activities at the agency and the challenges associated with the implementation thereof. The theoretical models of succession planning will form the basis for recommending necessary improvements to the agency. A qualitative research approach was adopted for this study using a self-administered questionnaire to collect primary data from the participants. Secondary data was used as a triangulation strategy to enhance validity and reliability of this study. The scope of this study is limited to the agency and the findings cannot be generalised. The target population in this study was limited to HR managers and managing directors at business units. Therefore there is a potential for further research by extending the target population to include all levels of employees within the agency. This dissertation is the first of its kind within the agency. It will provide ideas for other researchers to expand on this study within the agency. Contribution/ Originality
The study was designed towards institutional analysis for clear understanding of process involved in function and layout of determinants influencing physical education teacher education program in India, which further can be recommended for selection of parameters for sector benchmarking of physical education teacher training institutions delivering physical education programs across different states on India. Seven institutions and universities from seven different states of India were assessed on the basis of identified seven broad parameters which were associated with post graduate physical education program in India. The data was collected from the stake holders of the selected institutions through Physical Education Program Assessment Tool (PEPAT). The results revealed that, the universities do not have similar functional and delivery process related to the physical education teacher training program. The study reflects towards need for Physical Education universities and institutions to identify the best practices to be followed regarding functioning of delivery of physical education programs at various institutions through strategic management studies on the identified parameters before establishing strict standards and norms for achieving excellence in physical education in India. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of benchmarking in physical education. It analyses process involved in function and layout of determinants influencing physical education teacher education program in India. It focuses benchmarking as an essential component for the growth and development of physical education.
Teacher resource is major in influencing the quantity and quality of teaching and learning in an educational institution. To achieve educational goals, effective management of this resource is vital. There is therefore need to move from emphasis on centralized teacher management to school level management of teachers. School based management of teachers is one of the most significant trend in education reform geared towards facilitating effective decision making, improving internal processes and utilizing resources in teaching and learning to meet school goals. Various practices to this effect have been expounded in this paper to include: competitive reward, rigorous recruitment and selection, induction and support for new teachers, continuous learning and development, teacher evaluation, teacher motivation, self- managed teams, reduction of status differentials by ensuring equity and fairness and also ensuring employee involvement communication to give employees a say in decision making. Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to existing literature on school based teacher management with specific reference to Kenya based on theoretical reviews and documentary analysis. This is one of the studies that have looked at how teacher management can be repositioned for effective delivery of services to learners.
The primary contribution of this paper is the finding that lack of
activities and interesting learning areas prepared by the teacher in the
classroom may negatively impact children’s social behavior. Classroom
design and the teacher’s careful selection of materials to be displayed
in each of the learning areas do engage young children in learning
activities during learning sessions and their free time. When children
group themselves according to their interests in different learning
areas, they develop various skills and positive attitude towards each
other in their groups and all members of the class. Children engagement
in different learning areas in their classroom develop and improve
language skills, reading skills, listening skills especially during
dramatization, numerical skills, acquire general knowledge in various
subjects including sciences and their mother tongues. In a
participative classroom, children learn how to share and take care of
the materials in their learning areas. While in their learning centers,
children develop manipulative skills, leadership and managerial skills,
learn how to tell simple stories, and learn how to work together as a
team. A friendly classroom develops an environment that creates a
desired children’s social behavior. Contribution/ Originality
African countries have initiated programs to generate electricity from
renewable sources such as; wind, solar, biomass and hydropower. These
initiatives are intended to reduce the carbon footprint of these
countries in the wake of heavy dependency on fossil fuels and also
provide cheap and accessible electricity to rural areas. These renewable
energy programs are expected to deliver regional development and
economic empowerment. However, the lack of trained manpower for repair
and maintenance of renewable energy technologies devices is likely to
result in failure of these technologies, cause losses in revenue and
reduction in consumer faith in renewable energy technologies. African
universities must be at the core of solving these challenges by training
specialized professionals in renewable energy at graduate level and
through short courses to meet the increasing demands for qualified human
resource to support the sector. Thus to establish the “readiness” of
Universities in Africa to offer advanced education and training in
renewable energy, a review of all Masters Courses, Ph.D. programs and
short courses was carried out. The results identified 21
English-language Masters courses, 3 providers of Ph.D. studies and 9
short courses in or with significant renewable energy content.
Generally, there is inadequate advanced training in renewable energy
especially at Ph.D. level in Africa thus the need to attract more
African Universities to offer such programs at both masters and Ph.D.
levels. Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to efforts geared towards underscoring the need
for capacity building in renewable energy in Africa. Energy-poverty
remains a key issue in Africa with a critical need for capacity building
particularly at higher degree level. Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1