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Listing 77 - 20 of 2275 results.

Nutrient Compositions of Different Grains for Use in the Formulation of Bacteriological Media

Research Article
Author(s): Istifanus Boyi Maikasuwa, Charles Chidozie Iheukwumere, Innocent Okonkwo Ogbonna
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
Some grains were analysed for their nutrient compositions for use in the formulation of bacteriological media in consideration of cheap and effective alternative to the conventional media. The media were respectively formulated using Acha (Digitaria exilis), Maize (Zea mays), Rice (Oryza sativa), Guinea corn (Sorghum species) and Millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Proximate analyses of the grains showed reasonable amounts of carbohydrates (55.0 to 73.9%), moisture contents (9.92 to 11.25%) and crude proteins (7.39 to 11.77%). Crude fibre and ash had the least % in the five grains used. Amongst the macro-elements, carbon is the most abundant followed by nitrogen. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), Zn, Co, Cu and Mo were not detectable in the grains, whereas Mn was present in minute quantities (? 0.015%). All the bacteria assessed grew on the formulated media. Statistical analysis of the data indicated homogeneity in growth rates of the test bacteria on most of the media formulated. However higher microbial counts observed on millet extract agar (MIEA) suggests that the medium could serve as an alternative growth medium for bacteria in place of the conventional nutrient agar (NA) with reduced cost.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated nutrient compositions of different grains for use in the formulation of bacteriological media.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1

Effects of Technological Treatments of Dietary Palm Kernel Meal on Feed Intake, Growth and Body Composition of Oreochromis Niloticus Reared in Concrete Tanks

Research Article
Author(s): Amakoe Adjanke, Kokou TONA, Ibrahim IMOROU TOKO, Messanvi GBEASSOR
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of treated palm kernel meal in diets on production parameters of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reared in concrete tanks. Fingerlings of Tilapia with an average initial weight 6.22 ± 0.25 g and an average size 7.58 ± 0.21 cm were fed four isonitrogenous diets each containing 30% palm kernel meal treated one-hour or not. So we have NT (untreated), DW (dipped in water), CW (cooked in water) and SW (steamed). These diets were compared with a commercial fish feed, Raanan (RA), all about 32% crude protein. After 8 weeks of experiment the final body weight varied between 29.57 and 43.01 g according to the tested treatments. The best growth rate and food conversion ratio were obtained with diet CW containing palm kernel meal cooked in water with specific growth rate (SGR) of 3.24 %/d and food conversion ratio (FCR) of 1.97 against a SGR of 3.44%/d and a FCR of 1.72 obtained with commercial feed (RA). Moreover, the tested diets do not seem to have any effect on the intestine size but the cooking seems to act on fish liver weight and body composition. The production parameters were improved with the diet containing palm kernel meal cooked in water which seems to be the interest food for O. niloticus on growing.
Contribution/ Originality
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests in relation to this original article. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on palm kernel meal in diet in order to reduce the cost of fish feed.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2017 Issue: 1

The Rwandan Secondary School Competence-Based Curriculum: Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes to Incorporate in the University of Rwanda-College of Education Programs to Align them with the Current Curriculum

Research Article
Author(s): Cyprien TABARO
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Since its insertion in 1998, Kigali Institute of Education, currently known as College of Education under the University of Rwanda, henceforth ‘The University of Rwanda-College of Education (UR-CE)’, it`s first mission has been training and producing teachers for secondary schools in Rwanda. To a certain extent, bearing in mind that Rwanda Education Board (REB), an institution in charge of education in Rwanda from kindergarten to secondary education, in designing its programmes, UR-CE curricula from Rwanda Education Board (REB) were taken into account. Recently, REB has introduced a new Competence-Based Curriculum (CBC) replacing the knowledge-based one that has been in practice for many years. Hence, the UR-CE is also obliged to revise its programmes and align them with the new CBC designed for secondary schools so that the UR-CE graduates are equipped with required knowledge and practical skills to cope with the demands of the newly introduced secondary school competence-based curriculum. Relying on existing documentation supported with our observations and critical analysis, this analytical paper attempts to highlight some of the knowledge, skills and attitudes deemed important to be incorporated in new UR-CE revised programmes in a way to align them with the secondary school Competence-based curriculum designed by REB. It also seeks to point out some of the challenges that might be associated with the teaching of such suggested knowledge, skills and attitudes; and provide measures to mitigate such challenges.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper`s primary contribution is highlighting the gaps in the UR-CE existing programs, how to adjust those programs and align them with the current competence-based curriculum designed for secondary schools in Rwanda. It describes aspects, skills and skills to incorporate in the new programs taking into account the CBC requirements.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

Uncertainty Analysis and Calibration of Swat Model for Estimating Impacts of Conservation Methods on Streamflow and Sediment Yield in Thika River Catchment, Kenya

Research Article
Author(s): John Nganga Gathagu, Benedict M. Mutua, Khaldoon A. Mourad, Brian Omondi Oduor
Journal: International Journal of Hydrology Research

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Abstract
Despite their imperative role in water resources management, distributed hydrological models like SWAT require calibration that can be challenging due to uncertainties of parameters involved. Prior to modelling of hydrological processes, these parameters and their uncertainty range need to be identified. The objective of this study was to conduct uncertainty analysis of hydrological processes and to calibrate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for stream flow and sediment yield modelling in Thika River catchment. Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program (SUFI-2) was used to conduct sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Stream flow was calibrated and validated between the years 1998 to 2013 for gauging stations 4CB05 and 4CB04. Manual sediments calibration was achieved by constraining the MUSLE parameters using the bathymetric survey data. Two uncertainty indices, p and r factor, were obtained as 0.72 and 0.65, 0.65 and 0.45 during calibration and validation, respectively. Statistical performance indicators showed a good match between the observed and simulated values which indicated that the model was well calibrated for simulation of stream flow and sediments yield in the catchment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the estimation of base scenarios using sequential uncertainty fitting algorithm. The study outlines the analysis of parameter uncertainties and calibration for estimating impacts of conservation methods on stream flow and sediment yield.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Hydrology Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Optimization of Elephant Foot Yam (Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius) Extract Syrup Formula as a Nutritive Antioxidant Drink

Research Article
Author(s): Ineke PUTRI, Antonius HINTONO, Siti SUSANTI
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
Extract of Elephant Foot Yam (EFY) is known to contain flavonoid that is an antioxidant compound and thus has the potential to be utilized as functional food in the form of beverages. Functional drinks made from plants are usually presented as healthy drinks, which in this case is in the form of syrup. This study aims to determine the antioxidant activity, pH value, viscosity and sensory properties of EFY extract syrup with different extract formulas and find out which of the formulated syrup produced is best based on its antioxidant activity and physical characteristics. The syrups produced were derived from 3 different types of formulas determined which were F1 (0.6% extract), F2 (2% extract) and F3 (4% extract). The parameters observed in this study were antioxidant activity, pH value, viscosity, and sensory properties of the syrup. The results obtained show that variations of the extract concentration in the formula have effects on the antioxidant activity, pH value, viscosity, aroma, and consumers’ preference of the syrup. The syrup formula with a concentration of 4% extract (F3) was found to have favorable properties as it has the highest antioxidant activity of 71.39 ppm; pH value of 4.97; and viscosity 0.265 c. In terms of consumer’s preference, the syrup with 0.6% extract (F1) is most preferably in color, flavor, and aroma. Thus EFY potentially as antioxidant source that can be added into the healthy drink in the form of syrup.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that have investigated the potency of a tropical tuber grown primarily in Southeast Asia namely Elephant Foot Yam (EFY) as a functional baverage in the form of syrup preparation.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Evaluation of the Goals of Art Education Programme in the North-East, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Nkem Udeani, Femi Kayode
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
One fundamental way of ensuring success in workplaces is to set the goal to be actualized. Education industry is not an exception. This study evaluated the goals of art education programme in the unity schools of the North eastern zone of Nigeria. Three out of the six states in that zone were selected. The research design is survey. The target population is the entire teachers and students of the art education programme in Federal Unity Schools. Four hundred and ten constituted the elements in the population; in which case, there were twenty art teachers and three hundred and ninety were students. A sample size of two hundred and seventy-six was taken from both the art teachers and the Senior Secondary students using the purposive sampling technique. Two objectives and two research questions were set to guide the study. Statistical tool in the like of percentage and Table of frequency distribution were used for data analysis and presentation. Findings show that though Art Education goals are achieved, poor performance, inadequacy of infrastructural facilities and instructional materials were also observed.
Contribution/ Originality
The study reveals the current state of art education programme in North-eastern Nigeria and gave insight to the significance of its goals to the mental development of learners in that zone. The study has also served as an impetus for creating students’ and parents’ interest in art education.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

Can Gamified Assessment Replace Traditional Tests?

Research Article
Author(s): Filomachi Spathopoulou
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This paper analyzes the potential of gamified tests as a replacement for conventional tests, and the benefits and challenges of the application of gamification in universities and colleges. It looks into the pros and cons of the use of gamification in higher education, reviews the application of gaming elements in assessments and suggests that the incorporation of gamified activities in some of the practical tasks in the classroom helps to develop and nurture the students’ practical competences. The article concludes that although the potential of gamified assessment cannot be ignored, the idea that gamification can result in the mastering of the theoretical concepts has not been proven.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the application of serious games in the context of higher education by focusing on assessment. It is one of very few studies which looks into the possibility of replacing traditional assessment tools with game-based tests.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Disrupting Digital Future of Product Lifecycle

Research Article
Author(s): A. Seetharaman, Nitin Patwa, A.S. Saravanan, Shital Vakhariya
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Fast changing digital technologies are disrupting and changing business, product life cycles are becoming shorter and putting pressure on companies to bring a new product to market quick still cheaper and better this new technological wave warrant companies to put product innovation and development at the forefront. Data has become vital for business leaders across every industry; they are looking for a digital model to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of product lifecycle. These new trends in digital technology are shaping future of product lifecycle, Big data, Internet of things, cognitive and text analytics has come forward to the new edge of digital enabled innovation over the past few years. Big data analytics has become vital for business leaders across every industry sector. While many companies have used it to extract new insights and create new forms of value, other companies have yet to leverage big data to extend the life cycle of their products.
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Probable Deep Erosion by Continental Ice Sheet Melt Water Floods: Chalk Buttes Area of Carter County, Montana, USA

Research Article
Author(s): Eric Clausen
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Topographic maps are used to determine erosional landform origins along the Little Missouri River-Powder River drainage divide in the Chalk Buttes areas of Carter County, Montana. Asymmetric drainage divides, drainage divide gaps, and isolated erosional remnants are used to determine a sequence of erosion events beginning with headward erosion of northeast-oriented Little Missouri River tributary valleys and ending with headward erosion of the deeper north-northeast and north-northwest oriented Powder River valley. Gaps notched into present day drainage divides and orientations of valley heads on either side of those gaps suggest many closely spaced southeast-oriented streams flowed across the region immediately prior to being captured by headward erosion of deeper north-oriented valleys. Buttes capped by horizontal Miocene Arikaree sandstones stand 500 feet (152 meters) or more above surrounding Little Missouri River tributary drainage basin elevations while the Powder River valley floor elevation is as much as 800 feet (244 meters) below those surrounding elevations. A water source could not be determined from the map evidence, however the study area is located to the south and west of a known continental ice sheet margin and large southeast-oriented ice-marginal melt water floods should have logically crossed the region.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents how large volumes of southeast-oriented water of probable continental ice sheet melt water origin deeply eroded the Chalk Buttes area of Carter County in southeast Montana and suggests that at least one continental ice sheet deeply eroded the North American continent.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Domiciliary Care Providers Views on Provision of Palliative Care for their Cancer Patients

Research Article
Author(s): Meegoda MKDL, Fernando DMS, Sivayogan S, Atulomah, NOS, Marasinghe, RB
Journal: Cancers Review

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Abstract
A qualitative study was conducted to describe views and life experiences of domiciliary care providers in meeting the palliative care needs of adult cancer patients at the National Cancer Institute, Maharagama, Sri Lanka. The target population for this study was Domiciliary Care Providers (DCPs) who were the family care givers of patients at National Institute of Cancer, Maharagam (NICM), Cancer Home (CH), Maharagama, Shantha Sevana Hospice (SSH) and Ceylinco Oncology Unit (COU), Colombo, Sri-Lanka. Purposive sampling technique was used to select participants for the study. In-depth interviews were conducted using validated semi-structured interviewer guide. Data saturation was reached after 15 in-depth interviews with DCPs. Trustworthiness of the study was maintained. Phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was followed to analyze qualitative data and thematic analysis was performed. Data analysis was done concurrently with data gathering. Being reassured, having more expectations, need psychosocial help and inadequate knowledge were the key themes identified. They expect knowledge improvement to provide better care. As patients’ level of satisfaction on domiciliary care provided by DCPs was high, improving their knowledge on palliative care may be a cost effective method of improving palliative care.
Contribution/ Originality
This study makes the distinct contribution to existing body of knowledge on the effectiveness of an educational intervention on cancer palliative care for nurses. This study uses new estimation methodology of implementing a user friendly intervention delivered through hybrid delivery. This study originates new formula in palliative care nursing. It used printed material on cancer palliative care, supplemented with face to face interactive sessions, DVD, telephone and online communications. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated improvement of nurses’ skills in cancer palliative care using quasi experimental design. The paper's primary contribution is finding that nurses skills improved significantly from the baseline to outcome evaluation and compared to the control group there was a 7.9 fold increase in the skills of nurses following the intervention. This study documents the effectiveness of an educational intervention on cancer palliative care delivered through a hybrid model.
Medical Sciences » Cancers Review » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Chloroform, Methanol and Water Extracts of Croton Macrostachyus Stem Bark Against Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus Standard and Clinical Strains

Research Article
Author(s): Tigist Minyamer, Getnet Belay
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
In Ethiopia, different parts of Croton macrostachyus (C. macrostachyus) are used as a traditional medicine to take care of infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but there is no documented report on the antibacterial activity of stem bark of this plant in Ethiopia. C. macrostachyus stem bark was extracted using chloroform, methanol, and water extraction solvents and tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (E. coli), clinical isolates and standard, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), clinical isolates and standard, using agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The positive control was Chloramphenicol, while dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was served as negative control. The present study showed the potent antibacterial activity of the C. macrostachyus stem bark extract against all tested bacterial pathogens. The methanol extract of C. macrostachyus stem bark showed the highest zone of inhibition (17+1mm) against S. aureus (standard) and the lowest zone of inhibition (12+1) against E. coli (clinical isolate). In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 500 & 500 mg/ml, 62.5 & 125 mg/ml and 250 & 500mg/ml were obtained for water, methanol, and chloroform extracts of C. macrostachyus stem bark against clinically isolated E. coli respectively. C. macrostachyus stem bark extracts have confirmed antibacterial effects, mainly on E. coli and S. aureus. Thus, C. macrostachyus stem bark could be effective for prevention of bacterial infections and may be considered as an option to antibiotic regimens. But further studies should be conducted with different extraction solvents and toxicity and phytochemical analysis must be performed on these plants to use as sources and templates for the synthesis of drugs.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the antibacterial potential of Ethiopian C. macrostachyus stem bark so that C. macrostachyus stem bark may be considered as an option to antibiotic regimens.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

The Impact of Land Use on Spatial Variations of Begging in District Lahore_Pakistan

Research Article
Author(s): Imran Khan
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Begging has seen more critical social issue in most urban centers of developing states. The present study explores the relationship between begging and land use in District Lahore_Pakistan. This study is based both primary as well as secondary data. To determine the spatial variations of begging, well-developed questionnaires were designed to get relevant information from randomly selected beggars. The study which used z-score to compare the concentration of begging in the study area verified that the occurrence of begging is a function of land use activities. It recommends that more research works should be done on the problem of begging to observe more relationships between begging, land uses and other social issues such as urbanization, socio-economic background, poverty and culture.
Contribution/ Originality
This study used a new technique of GIS hot spot analysis through which different hot spots and cold spots of beggars were explored. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated and verified a relationship between begging and different land use.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

Assessment of Potassium Leaching Behaviour in Selected Soils of Southeastern Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Umoh F. O, Osodeke, V. E, Akpan, U. S
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
This study was conducted to asses Potassium leaching behavior of six (6) selected parent materials in Eastern Nigeria. The soils were formed from Shale, Coastal Plain Sand, Alluvium, Sandstone, Basement Complex and Basalt. A treatment solution containing O, 50, 100, 150 and 200mg/l of K prepared from KCl were added to 20g of soil samples in duplicated cups, the upper cup perforated, mixed thoroughly and allowed to dry. The cups were carefully covered and allowed to incubate for 1, 7, 30, 90 and 180 days, respectively. A total of 180 experimental units were generated and the treatment combinations were fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), with 6 soil types representing the blocks for each of the incubation periods. The soil samples were kept moist with deionized water at weekly interval throughout the duration of incubation. At the set days, the concentrations of K in the leachate were measured using flame photometry. The K concentrations with days of incubation were plotted against rates of addition. The result shows that the leaching behavior of K in the parent materials varies under similar experimental conditions. Coastal Plain Sand, Sandstone and Basaltic Soil with high sand content exhibits highest amount of leaching compared to shale, alluvium and basement complex with high clay content. A higher K losses with high rates of K addition was observed and K decreased with time (days) of incubation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses incubation methodology in assessing leaching potential of different soil types. This study is one of the very few studies which investigated leaching behaviour of soils of southeastern Nigeria. The paper’s primary contribution is the finding that soils with high sand content exhibits high K leaching than others.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Is Alumni Salary an Appropriate Metric for University Marketers?

Research Article
Author(s): Tanya A. Masciantonio, Paul D. Berger
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This paper considers ethnicity variables and financial variables to study what impact they have on alumni salaries six and ten years after graduation, for colleges and universities in the United States. We find that certain ethnic groups earn less salary both six years out and ten years out, while other ethnic groups earn more salary both six and ten years out. The same is true for selected financial variables, such as median household income. We perform our study primarily using stepwise-regression analyses. Since many colleges and universities use future salary of alumni as a marketing tool, this study cautions that there is a danger to the diversity of a college campus, and a corresponding harm to students on such a campus, if the college or university places too much emphasis on future alumni salary and makes admissions decisions in a way that emphasizes that criterion.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by pointing out a potentially unintended consequence of an economically-motivated decision made by colleges and universities that is, arguably, bad for society. The danger is that of reducing the diversity of the undergraduate student-body, and the corresponding harm done to said student body.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Landslide Hazard Evaluation and Zonation of Karaj-Chalus Road (North of Iran)

Research Article
Author(s): Ali Sorbi, Alireza Farrokhnia
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Mass wasting, one of the major natural disaster, have resulted into significant injury and loss to the human life and damaged Property and infrastructure throughout the world. The studied area is located in the Alborz mountains Range from Karaj to Chalus, central Alborz mountain range, Iran; where is frequently affected by several different mass wasting types and needs to be considered and immediate attention. In this study 9 causative factors, include: drainage density, aspect, slope, vegetation density, lineation density, main fault buffer, landuse, lithology and seismic activity was considered. The studies have shown that the northern part of the rout falls under very low to low risk except near the MarzanAbad city because of the KalarDasht heights. Increasing vegetation density is one of the reasons for reducing the risk in the northern part of the rout. Very high risk zones are mainly concentrated between Aderan and Nesa cities that explained by the presence of steep slopes and the effect of the faults which affected this section of rout. There are significant risk reducing by getting away from the road. In general, most of the areas on this rout are zones that have the medium to high instability.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology in landslide hazard zonation in Karaj-Chalus Road and the results of this study will help to preventing slope instability by enhancing the high risk areas.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

A Security Scheme for Protecting Agent Societies

Research Article
Author(s): Antonio Munoz
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
Mobile agent paradigm, in particular multi-agent systems represent a promising technology for emerging Ambient Intelligent scenarios and Cyber Physical Systems sharing a huge number of heterogeneous devices interacting. Unfortunately, the lack of appropriate security mechanisms, both their enforcement and usability, is hindering the application of this paradigm in real world applications. This paper presents a software based solution for the protection of multi-agent systems based on mobility property of agents. This approach focuses on the cooperative agent-based model and the core of this concept is the protected computing approach. Finally, one aspect of this approach is its user friendly style for agent based system developers who are not security experts.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated a mutual scheme mechanism for agent protection. This approach provides the theoretical foundations and a complete description of its implementation, which is supported with a set of tools to facilitate agent based system coding protection by a friendly graphical user interface.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

An Investigation into the Factors Affecting the Sustainability of the Land Reform Programme Beneficiaries in Kwa Zulu-Natal Province

Research Article
Author(s): Nomapha Maureen Magula, Shaun Wilbur Pekeur
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
This article sought to investigate factors affecting the sustainability of the land reform programme beneficiaries in Kwa Zulu-Natal Province, South Africa. A consistent decline on production is an enormous concern in land reform in Kwa-Zulu Natal. As a result, the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform is confronted with unproductive farms irrespective of the funds invested in them where there is no evidence on the ground that these farms were recapitalised. In an attempt to reverse this declining trend in production levels; an in-depth understanding of the underlying challenges was needed hence this research attempted to provide possible solutions to the problem. Some of the findings in this research indicated that the key factors influencing the sustainability of land reform programme beneficiaries in KwaZulu-Natal include the financial literacy, general education, specific skills in a field of agriculture and financial management capability. The key recommendations of the study are that land reform programme beneficiaries should be assisted with acquiring particular agricultural skills, financial and human resource management skills, and supported in access to affordable financing. The study recommends that government must select the correct beneficiaries based on their interest and knowledge of agriculture, to train the under skilled beneficiaries and equip them with relevant farming skills. These beneficiaries need to be supported on various aspects of financial, human resource and operations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by adding insight into the South African government’s approach in accelerating their land redistribution programme. The programme is aimed at redressing some of the past historical injustices relating to land by bringing in more beneficiaries into the agricultural sector to ensure more sustainability in production and food security.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Likely Effects of Geological Features on Carbonate Rock Strength

Research Article
Author(s): Hasan Arman, Saber Hussein, Shamma Khalfan Alshehyari, Hiba Hashim El Imam, Asmaa Ahmad Alhaj, Maryam Ali Albedwawi
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
Rock strength is commonly recognized as a rock ability to resist stress or deformation without breaking down. Its measurement in either in-situ or laboratory environment is costly and requires time-consuming efforts for rock sampling, preparation and laboratory tests. There are different suggested testing methods available such as Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS), Point Load Index (PLI), Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS), Schmidt Hammer Rebound (SHR), etc. and used to interpret of rock strength properties. The study will only focus on carbonate rocks (Upper Eocene Dammam Formation) which were collected from different selected sites in the Hafeet Mountain area, Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Following the sample preparations based on the ASTM standards, about fourth UCS, fourth-one ITS, thirty-seven PLI and hundreds to thousands of SHR tests were carried out on rock blocks and core samples according to ASTM Standards. The study indicates that the relationships between UCS and PLI, ITS, SHR of limestone can be estimated using the simple linear mathematical equations. However, the results exhibit a weak to weaker linear correlation with highly scattered data. This may be due to sample heterogeneity and nature of the sample. Therefore, it still needs better confirmation with more samples from different locations in order to use confidently in engineering applications.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the likely effects of geological features on Upper Eocene carbonate rock strength. It is remarkably noted that the presence of either the cavities or fossils, that have heterogonous distribution, certainly affect geomechanical properties of carbonate rock. This impact was clearly on the laboratory results.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

A Case Study of Local Government Implementation of the Ward Based Local Economic Development (LED) Program

Research Article
Author(s): N. L. Nxumalo, L.D. Naidoo
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
The local economic development (LED) had been in existence prior to the advent of democracy in 1994 government. At that time there was a strong focus on the agricultural sector. The apartheid government at that time fully supported the LED initiatives but not all citizens of South Africa benefited from that support. The Acts and policies of the apartheid government such as the Group Areas Act forced black people to move out of places with resources and placed them into areas with poor resources. After 1994 the South African government adopted LED as a strategy to deal with the disparities of the past such as poverty, unemployment, and poor standards of living. Several strategies were put into place to overcome the challenges that was as a result of the apartheid past. The Zululand district with similar intention of the post-apartheid government embarked on initiating the ward based LED program to deal with the consequences of the past. The status quo report of the Zululand district still identified high levels of poverty and unemployment and a slow growth in the local economy as a major concern. This study aimed to investigate the ward based LED program in order to establish if the program has made the achievement towards its objectives and also to establish what challenges are encountered by the local government in the implementation of the program. The study used a qualitative research method which was conducted with the adoption of one on -one interview as a tool for data collection. The researcher prepared an interview schedule of open ended questions to allow the liberty and a flexible expression of perceptions, experiences and understanding of participants on the phenomenon under investigation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature of Local Economic Development (LED) in South Africa which uses ward base as a starting point. This study uses, an exploratory research approach which adopted a phenomenological (qualitative) paradigm. The study found that while the LED ward based program is a great initiative with very good intentions, the municipalities have to do some improvements in order to achieve the objectives of the program.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Assessing Key Performance Indicators in Government Secondary Schools of Matabeleland Region in Zimbabwe

Research Article
Author(s): Lillie Beth Hadebe, Reinford Khumalo
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Key Performance Indicators are a necessary guide to any organisation that needs to achieve its objectives. Hence to successfully measure performance, the organisation needs to identify Key Performance Indicators and this can only be done through an assessment of the organisation’s core activities. This paper, therefore, sought to identify and analyse Key Performance indicators in government secondary schools in Zimbabwe. The thesis used mixed method research methodology, adopting pragmatism as a research philosophy. A case study method was used, multi-cited in the three provinces of Matabeleland Region namely Matabeleland South, Matabeleland North and Bulawayo Metropolitan provinces. Purposive sampling was used to identify the sample of 16 schools, 23 education officers. Document analysis, observation and interviews were the research techniques used to collect data. The findings revealed that although there was a number of Key Performance Indicators used to measure performance, not all of them had strong correlation with O level results. The heads needed to critically identify Key Performance Indicators that were an actual measure of school performance, and from these a performance score card check could then be developed so as to monitor performance over a period of time.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature of Key Performance Indicators with special reference to secondary schools. Statistical significant correlations are calculated and the study originates a formula of correlation of key performance indicators. The paper’s primary contribution is that key performance indicators vary in their level of significance and hence bring out the indicators with a strong relationship with performance.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2