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Animal Review

June 2018, Volume 5, 2, pp 34-50

A Pictorial Guidebook on Poultry Diseases; Diagnostic Techniques and their Effective Treatment

Aamir Nawab


Yasir Nawab


Shuyan Tang


Jiang Wu


Wenchao Liu


Guanghui Li


Mei Xiao


Lilong An

Aamir Nawab 1
Yasir Nawab 2

Shuyan Tang 3 Jiang Wu 3 Wenchao Liu 3 Guanghui Li 3 Mei Xiao 3 Lilong An 3 ,

  1. Post-mortem lab, Diseases diagnostic section, Poultry Research Institute (PRI), Rawalpindi; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Murree Road, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Department of Livestock Productions and Management, Agric 1

  2. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Murree Road, Rawalpindi, Pakistan 2

  3. Department of Animal Science, Agricultural College, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, Guangdong, China 3

Pages: 34-50

DOI: 10.18488/

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Article History:

Received: 13 September, 2018
Revised: 19 October, 2018
Accepted: 21 November, 2018
Published: 12 December, 2018


The poultry industry has gained significance all over the world due to providing economical, healthier food than red meat and other protein sources. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimated 103.5 million tons of global chicken meat production annually in 2012, which contributed about 34.3% to global meat production. Generally, poultry farming has performed a leading role in the livestock sector in some others regions of the world. But poultry farming system is affected by both environmental and disease stress. Various viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal diseases affect the production performance of birds by affecting respiratory system, reproductive system, immune system, gut system and central nervous system which, in turn, cause loss of appetite, reduction of body weight, drop in egg production, air sac infection, coughing, sneezing, difficulty in breathing, septicemia (blood stream infection), paralysis of neck, wings and legs, enteritis (intestinal infection), bloody diarrhea, immunosuppression and higher mortality which cause huge economic losses in poultry industry. Therefore, there is need to control poultry diseases. Our aim was to provide a pictorial guidebook on poultry disease; diagnostic techniques and their effective treatment which may help to diagnose the viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal infection. This may provide an important guideline to identify and minimize diseases before their incidence.
Contribution/ Originality
Our main objective was to provide a pictorial guidebook on poultry disease to avoid the production losses facing the global poultry industry. Several reports have theoretically addressed on poultry diseases but there is lack of sufficient data related to pictorial guidebook on avian diseases. Therefore, this study is one of very few studies which have documented on poultry diseases as a pictorial guideline; diagnostic techniques and their potential treatment.


Poultry production, Poultry diseases , Economic losses, Diagnosis, Treatment



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This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


All authors contributed equally to the conception and design of the study.

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