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This study was carried out from February to December 2014 by interviewing 75 farmers who operate snakehead seed production in An Giang, Dong Thap and Hau Giang provinces, Vietnam. The results showed that the total area for production was 629.01±756.77 m2, whereas the volume for nursing was 582.10±119.81 m3 for pond system and 1,019.56±736.66 m3 for combining pond – hapa system). Each hatchery used 44.26±22.63 pairs of broodstock/breeding cycle and produced whole year. The quantity of seed per cycle of pond system was a half of that figure of other system while seed productivity per m3 was much lower. Snakehead seed was mainly sold to seed traders in the Delta (82.3%). With average production cost of 47.81±16.23 thousand Vietnam dong (VND)/m3, each farm in pond system could reach the total net profit of 49.83±18.74 thousand VND/m3, equivalent to 328 million VND/year. These corresponding numbers of pond – hapa system were 106.98±86.25; 196.12±87.45 thousand VND/m3, equal to 1.75 billion VND/year. Factors of climate change affecting snakehead seed production involved rainfall change, droughts, water and air temperature increase, salinity intrusion which caused diseases easier (36%), affected seed production in general (31%), bad water quality (10%), .... To reduce the impacts of climate change to production, the farmer in snakehead seed production often changed selling market, suspended production of seeds, used better brookstocks by choosing them more carefully and a number of other measures. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the impact of climate change on snakehead seed production. The paper's primary contribution is finding that which and how climate phenomenon has effected on seed production as well as suggesting some adaptive methods for them.
Located at the boundaries of Europe and Asia, Turkey is home to an extraordinary variety of domestic animal species and breeds that include bees, camels, cats, cattle, dogs, domestic fowl, donkeys, ducks, goats, geese, horses, mules, pigs, rabbits, sheep, silkworms, water buffalo and several species of domestic birds (partridge, pheasant, pigeon and ostrich). In addition to the clearly distinct Angora and Van cat breeds a short-haired nondescript cat breed is found throughout Turkey. As well as private household ownership, Angora cats have been raised at Ankara Zoo which has belonged to the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock since 1939. The Van cat is raised at the Van Cat Research Centre at Yuzuncu Yil University in Van Province which also has a small clinic for the cats. There is a risk of extinction for the Angora and Van breeds but none for the short-haired nondescript type. This paper reviews social aspects, the genetic resources and conservation status of the native cat breeds of Turkey. Contribution/ Originality
The domestic cat is important in the social and cultural environments of Turkey and has been kept as a companion/pet animal for many hundreds of years. Two local cat breeds are valuable additions to the biodiversity of domestic animals. This paper provides the first overview of the cat in Turkey.
The objective of this study is extraction and characterization of oil from tropical almond seed, trans-esterification and characterization of tropical almond seed oil biodiesel. All experiments were replicated and average results were evaluated. The moisture content of the seed was 2.04 %; the oil was extracted using solvent method and the percentage of oil yield was 50.33 %. The physicochemical properties of the oil obtained during the experiment were; density (0.90 g/cm3), specific gravity (0.89), kinematic viscosity at 40 oC (14.1 mPa.s), cloud point (16.0 oC), pour point (11.5 oC), smoke point (173.0 oC), flash point (208.0 oC), fire point (271.0 oC), saponification value (199.19 mgKOH/g), acid value (3.37mgKOH/g), FFA (1.68 mgKOH/g), Peroxide value (5.0 meq/kg), and Iodine value (98.0 gI2/100g). The oil was trans-esterified to biodiesel using oil to alcohol ratio of 4:1 and KOH as catalyst. The percentage of biodiesel yield was 75.0 % averagely. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesel obtained during the experiment were; density (0.96g/cm3), specific gravity (0.90), kinematic viscosity at 40 oC (5.20 mPa.s), kinematic viscosity at 100 oC (4.30 mPa.s) cloud point (7.0 oC), pour point (6.0 oC), smoke point (161.0 oC), flash point (186.0 oC), fire point (216.0 oC), saponification value (182.4 mgKOH/g), acid value (0.84 mgKOH/g), FFA (0.42 mgKOH/g), Peroxide value (8.0 meq/kg), and Iodine value (109.0 gI2/100g, the calculated cetane number was 51.70. The result obtained for the physicochemical properties of the biodiesel were compared with the ASTM standard and it was concluded that tropical almond seed oil is a good feedstock for biodiesel production since the result is within ASTM specification standard. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated new sources or avenue of novel underutilized sources. Biodiesel production from tropical almond seed oil will be a reasonable alternative to petroleum diesel since the available petroleum based fuels are exhaustive. Biodiesel will be of great advantage as this will reduce the adverse effect caused by the petroleum diesel, which include global warming, air pollution and emission of sulphuric compound. This study will also ensure there is good utilization of tropical almond seed.
Chicken production in West Gojjam zone was characterized by using indigenous chicken with low input-output level. Despite its diverse socio economic role for smallholder farmers, production and productivity of village chicken was very low. As the result, chicken producers were not benefited from the sector. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of characterizing chicken rearing practice, flock dynamics and determining the off-take rate of village chicken production system. It was conducted in West Gojjam Zone of Ethiopia. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select representative respondents. A total of 500 farmers were interviewed. In the study area, the average numbers of local and exotic chickens kept by smallholder producers were 8.44+0.42 and 0.49+0.10chicken, respectively with the overall mean 8.93+0.42chicken. The flock structure was highly dominated by young chicks (3.82+0.28) and hen (2.47+0.09). The average chicken migrated into the flock per household per annum was 10.32+ 0.80 birds, whereas the outflow from the flock was 16.62+0.85birds. The number of chicken was higher at the middle of the year than the beginning and end of the year. On average, 2.9+0.12 layer chickens were kept per household. From which, in average 307.2+ 20.2 eggs were produced from local and improved breed in a year. Marketing in the district and PA were important marketing places for egg and live birds with the off-take rate of 34.94%. To improve chicken production in the study area, adaptive improved chicken breed should be introduced. Strategic vaccination, semi scavenging practices should be introduced and promoted in order to reduce chicken mortality. Capacity building through training and intensive follow up should also be made in order to enhance the level of awareness of smallholders on improved small scale poultry keeping practices. Contribution/ Originality
This research contributes a lot in filling village chicken production knowledge gap in West Gojjam Zone. It reveals that how village chickens are reared, the nature of flock dynamics, chicken mortality rate and its cause, how to calculate off-take rate in chicken production, egg production and its purpose. Finally, it also gives insight the marketing place of live chicken and egg.
Technical efficiency of resource use is imperative for increased rice production in Nigeria. The study attempted to determine the technical efficiency of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi south agricultural zone, Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study analyzed the socio-economic characteristics of the swamp rice farmers, determined the technical efficiency of the swamp rice farmers as well as the distribution of technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in the study area. Purposive and random sampling technique were used to select sixty respondents for the study. Structured questionnaire was the instrument of data collection. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and stochastic production frontier. Results showed that the swamp rice farmers were in their active age (47years), predominantly male (70%), had average education (8 years spent in school) and married (86.7%). The maximum likelihood estimates showed that the variables of farm size, seed and labour were determinants of technical efficiency. The mean level of technical efficiency was 75.9% suggesting that an estimated 24.1% of the output is lost due to technical inefficiency in swamp rice production. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on technical efficiency of Swamp Rice Farmers in Nigeria. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that the mean level of technical efficiency was 75.9% suggesting that an estimated 24.1% of the output is lost due to technical inefficiency in swamp rice production.
One of the consequences of intensive floating net cage fish farming is that it needs large amounts of manufactured feeds for the consumption of all the primary freshwater species reared. However, in trophic-level-based fish cultures, the population of fish that feed on plankton, periphyton, and detritus is larger than that of high-trophic-level carnivorous fish. This research aims to discover the ability of barb (Osteochilus hasselti) as a water purifier biological agent in Cirata Reservoir by find the Average daily Gains of the fish, Efficiency and Cost Reduction in production. The experiment ranges from September to November 2014 at Cirata Reservoir’s Floating Net Cage, starting by acknowledging the genus and the number of periphyton from week 1 to week 6. To analyze Growth Rate (GR), a Complete Randomized Design is used by applying five treatments, namely Treatment A: not fed (control), Treatment B: feeding level 1% of the fish’s weight, Treatment C: feeding level 2%, Treatment D: feeding level 3%, and Treatment E: feeding level 4%. The data are then collected in Variant Analysis; if a significant difference is found, it is proceeded to F Duncan Test. The economic parameter are Efficiency and Cost Reduction in production. The results show that there are 20 kinds of periphyton from phytoplankton genus. Twenty types of periphyton of the phytoplankton were of Bacilloriophyceae, Chlorophyceae, and Cyanophiceae classes. As for periphyton of the zooplankton genera, it consisted of Euglenoidea, Rhizopoda, and Rotifer classes. The number of periphyton is not different among the treatments, the GR is not significantly different for every treatment. We found that increased efficiency in the treatment of A (not feed) and decreased production costs as 3 %. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that there are Economic Efficiency and Cost Reduction at Net Cage which Monosex Barb (Osteochilus Hasselti ) Cultured With Reduction Feed in Cirata Reservoir.
This study was designed to ascertain the availability, affordability, and consumption of medicinal plants in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The age group of individuals interviewed was between 10 - 59 years. Results show that, herbal medicine awareness and usage was 97 % and 82 % respectively. Most respondents (97 %) admitted to having knowledge of medicinal herbs and their sources of information included family members (58 %), friends (21 %), Herbalist (9 %), and Pharmacy (3 %). Majority (54 %) of the participants took these medicinal herbs in liquid form. On sources of procurement, 17 percent of participants prepared these medicinal plants themselves, 19 % from pharmacies and 17 % from herbalists. Twenty three percent engaged in self-medication, while 21 % obtained their preparations from herbalists. Sixty-five percent said the products are safe and effective, while sixty-nine percent had no side effects while using the products. On affordability, 15 - 52 % admitted that herbal medicines are very affordable, while 20 % agreed that they are expensive. Over half of respondents' preferred locally manufactured herbal medicines. Analysis of sources of foreign medicinal goods shows that most (75 %) were from USA. About 78 % of the participants do not take these medicinal herbs with conventional drugs, alcohol (72 %) or cigarette (80 %). Overall, 69 % of our respondents have benefitted from the consumption of medicinal remedies. It is concluded that, the awareness, perception and access to medicinal herbs in Nigeria is increasing which is likely due to dearth of public health facilities. This calls for health administrators to design appropriate programs to implement and ensure the effective monitoring of circulating herbal products. Contribution/ Originality
This survey is one of a very few to investigate the knowledge, perception and use of herbs in a civilized society. Our results provide the first scientific information in Nigeria in this respect and may inform policy decisions towards improving public health
Background: Various models of international medical aid have been proposed in many developing countries, including the donation of material, visited by surgical teams, and surgical outreach programs. However, they have limitations in the treatment of patients with severe or rare diseases. Object: We present the successful treatment of a Laotian child with cleft face anomaly, who underwent reconstruction surgery in Japan, and highlight the problems of a committed partnership system. Case presentation: A 2-year-old Laotian girl with severe facial anomaly required revision surgery; however, no physicians in Laos accepted her for treatment. An international medical cooperation volunteer group campaigned to raise funds for her treatment, and our medical center accepted their offer to perform the surgery. Surgery was performed successfully, and the patient went back to Laos 2 weeks after surgery. Conclusion: When international "Committed Partnership" cooperation is required, several challenges can arise, including expenditure, choice of the medical centre, period of stay, lack of information, special design of surgery, different lifestyle and manner, and language barrier. Although many challenges confronted, we believe that partnerships between surgical centers in developed countries and medical volunteer groups in developing countries can succeed with their efforts and noble spirit. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is explaining the specific difficulty of international medical aid, and showing the way to improve variable problems of international health cooperation in this Committed Partnership system.
Labour migration is generally seen as a cross-border movement of people for the purpose of employment in another geographical area. It is a decision by individuals that impacts on the welfare of the household, the home community, and in the end the whole economy in various ways. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial variability in the distribution of labour migrants among oil companies in Ogba/Ndoni/Egbema Local Government Area of River State. There are a total of nine oil companies operating in the study area, out of which six were selected for study because of their accessibility to information. The locations of the oil companies are Obrikom (Agip), Obagi (Ponticelli Nig. Ltd), Ogbogu (Saipem), Idu (Agip), Obite (Total) and Omoku (Agip). Six hundred copies of questionnaire were distributed to the oil companies with each having one hundred copies. The content of the questionnaire bothers on demographic characteristics of the respondents, place of origin of migrants, employment structure and the distribution of migrants among the six oil companies. The study adopted both descriptive and inferential statistics for data analysis. Descriptive statistical method such as tables, charts, standard deviation, means frequencies and percentages were used whereas the inferential statistical tool i.e. the independent ‘t’ test was used to test for the variability in labour migration and the differences in population of indigenes and labour migrants in the oil companies. The result of the study generally indicated that 332 (68%) of the migrants come from Imo, Delta and Akwa Ibom State; 42% of the workforce in the oil companies are semi-skilled; 1415 of the total number of labour force of 2358 are migrants while 943 are indigenes. The result of the test statistics analysis indicated that the number of labour migrants in the study area was highly variable with the mean of 236 and the computed variance of 284.83. The standard deviation was 11.44. The result of the hypothesis, showed that the calculated value of 2.0 was greater than the table value of 1.96, which led to the rejection of the null hypothesis meaning that there is a significant difference between the number of indigenes and migrant workforce in the oil companies in Onelga. This study finally recommended for more employment of indigenes than migrants so as to avert certain conflicts by the indigenes arising from marginalization. Contribution/ Originality
Local content is a famous agenda that sweeps across Africa. In Tanzania it is one of the new agenda that needs attention. This paper answer the question which asks, what are the challenges of local content in local procurement especially in major mining entities in Tanzania? The paper has deployed Institutional theory in addressing the research question. The paper has tried to explain what has transpired in Tanzania over local content agenda and the recommendations on how to deal with the challenges. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the local content agenda based on the challenges of procurement practices in the mining sector in Africa particularly in Tanzania. It has pinpointed the challenges that the local nationals are facing in the mining sector value chain and institutional and organizational capacities that can be deployed to mitigate the challenges.
This study is one of very few studies which has investigated case study of added value of Ijarah Tamwilia in Jordanian Islamic Bank. As result to search, Customer did not get added value as result to lose Islamic conditions fairly. Customer lost benefit of managing risk of Ijarah Tamwilia up to Islamic rules and face costs more than expect. There is gap between the Shania Supervisory Board and employee which comes as result to weak control beside there is no obligatory contract come from Shania Supervisory Board to employee. As the gap cause, customer loosing contract benefit it causes to cancel contract accounting data because of losing the contract Islamic rules. Searcher recommended directing employee of Ijarah Tamwilia up to Islamic rules conditions practically which will effect on Ijarah Tamwilia service marketing and accounting because of its financing Islamic rules and Islamic investing rules to give fair added value. Employee has to work with accepted Islamic model. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the gap between Islamic Supervisory Board and practically managing in the bank. It found and discussed Ijarah Tamwilia contract in Jordanian Islamic Bank. There was applying unaccepted contract by Fiqh by manager to achieve bank profit and managing risk.
The study investigates whether or not access and quality of education contributes to the development process and economic well being of Botswana by (1) examining the impact of access to education on economic development, (2) establishing the relationship between quality of education and economic development and (3) testing the causal relationship between education and economic development. The study uses time series data from 1980 to 2014 which was analyzed using vector error correction model and vector auto regression approaches to test both long and short run relationships respectively. The paper provides a strong background on the political economy of education in Botswana since independence to date as a departure from our current understanding in literature. Findings show that the level of access to education has a positive and significant effect on the level of economic development; there is bidirectional causality between quality of education and the level of economic development; unidirectional causality moves from economic development to access to education. The study suggests that access to education should be complemented by enhancing more employment creation to forester long term development and private investment in inventory and tangible assets should be enhanced. Attracting more foreign direct investment and maintaining low inflation improves quality of education in the short as they work through enhanced economic development. Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes to the existing literature by showing bidirectional causality between quality of education and the level of economic development. Access to education has both long and short run effects on economic development. The impact during the former period depends on the measure of access to education employed.
This study determined the effect of IFRS on the quality of financial reporting among Nigerian financial firms. The study adopted stock price (Ohlson, 1995) and return (Easton and Harris, 1991) models, that have been commonly used in accounting research. Data were collected from Thompson Reuters (stock price) and Bank Scope Data Streams (net income and total expenses) to determine the relationships. The study found that there is a greater relationship between net income and total expenses with the stock price and return. Furthermore, the relationships have been statistically significant using Cramer Z-statistic for both stock price and return model. The overal result have shown value relevance of net income, operating expenses, and change in net income and operating expenses has improved as a result of IFRS adoption among Nigerian listed financial institutions. The study implication for the policy makers, standard setters and investors are to give more emphasis on the use of IFRS for all firms even if they are not listed in the stock market as IFRS adoption provided a better quality accounting information than domestic reporting. Besides the relevance of these study findings to security market, the literature has provided greater contributions to fewer market research in African capital market particularly, Nigeria after the IFRS adoption being the first study to carry such study in Nigeria. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the value relevance of net income and operating expenses in emerging economy.
This study examines the validity of the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in four Arab countries that recently experienced political instability, those being Syria, Egypt, Tunisia, and Bahrain. Using monthly data of the real effective exchange rates (REER) of the countries in question from 1995 to 2014, the study utilizes the ADF test along with unit root tests that account for endogenous structural breaks in the data, this includes the Zivot and Andrews one structural break test and the Lumsdaine and Papell one, two and three structural breaks tests. The findings were in favor of the PPP in Syria, Egypt and Tunisia when the Lumsdaine and Papell three structural breaks test was applied. The findings also confirm the importance of capturing the right number of the breaks in the data as tests that failed to account for structural breaks in the data were more against the PPP. Interestingly, the findings reveal that the political instability did not cause a structural break for Syria and Egypt, which validates the criticism to the Perron test that exogenously defining structural breaks might not be appropriate. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the PPP literature as it is the first, up to our knowledge, that examines the validity of the PPP in the presence of a structural break triggered by political instability as the one experienced recently by many Arab countries.
Customers are always surrounded by the media and advertising in their daily lives. These tactics are used to get the customer engagement towards the program, video or advertisement. Engagement with understanding the complete message of it called transportation. This research is conducted to examine the effects of media, transportation, advertising transportation on customer responsiveness. For this purpose, an ad is placed in between the video for the respondents. Target respondents are the students and the general public. Primary data is collected from above two hundred eighty seven respondents in Sahiwal via questionnaires. The results show that advertising transportation has the more significant effect on the customers’ responsiveness. Contribution/ Originality
Considering the case of China the present study necessitates to highlight the environment quality of the country in the wake of increasing trends of FDI. This study attempts to present both the empirical as well as technical approach to explain the consequences of FDI and factors in relation to environments. In this study critical review of the empirical studies on the subject has been presented and following that cross years and province study among Chinese provinces was done by using time series and panel data regression to define the significance of environment quality in terms of sulphur dioxide emission and water pollutants emission due to increased FDI. Time period considered was 2003-2014. Lastly, the impact of foreign direct investment on the environmental degradation was analyzed by dividing the provinces of China in four economic regions, namely the east, center, west and North East region. The results from the analysis revealed a significant, but weak positive relation between FDI and sulphur dioxide, however, rejected the association of water pollutant emission with same. On the aggregate level as well, panel data analysis throws similar relation of all provinces in the analysis. Lastly, in case of cross region analysis, the eastern region has been encountered as contributing towards water emission only, where center, northeast and west region as contributing towards both water waste and sulphur mission. This study suggests that uniform environmental regulation in all the regions, focusing on foreign firms which use latest technology to reduce both the emission of air and water pollution and strengthening the legal system and market mechanism of property rights protection can be helpful to reduce and control environmental problems in China. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated impact of FDI in the environmental degradation deeply by originating new control variables .The earlier studies focus only on air pollution or water pollution and very few studies has taken both indicators for this impact.
This research aims at identifying with the customers’ evaluation of the quality of services in Islamic banks branches in the Syrian coast (the cities of Latakia and Tartous). As well as knowing the impact of personal factors (gender, age, scientific qualification, income, name of the bank) on this Assessment. In order to achieve this objective, data were collected through a questionnaire designed by Jabnoun and Khalifa (2005). Descriptive statistics has been used to determine the level of the assessment. In order to find out the impact of personal factors on the evaluation & services quality, the analysis of variance test, “Anova test”, has been used. The research found that the customers’ evaluation of services in the studied branches was average in general, and there is no statistically significant impact of the personal variables on the customers’ evaluation of the quality of the studied branches. Contribution/ Originality
The study documents the measurement of services quality in branches of Islamic banks in Syrian coast which helps comparing between the level of their services and identifying with the impact of customers’ personal factors on their evaluation which enables the bank to make its services suit customers.
A study of the characteristics of clay from El-Sheikh Fadl Village, El-Minia governorate in Egypt has been carried out. A crucial factor in the applying clay as a low-cost adsorbent, however, is the understanding of the physical, chemical, mineralogical, and colloidal properties of these clays. The characteristics of texture such as surface area, pore volume, porosity, pore size distribution, particle shape and density were determined. The pore size distribution results showed that natural clay is predominantly mesoporous. The thermal behavior of clay was studied using differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis analysis. The X-Ray diffraction analysis was performed in order to determine the main constituents of the materials. The X-Ray diffraction analysis verified the presence of kaolinite, montmorillonite and quartz in the natural clay. Then clay was tested for infrared spectra, it confirm the presence of the constituents mentioned above. The structure and chemical composition, exchangeable ion type and small crystal size of montmorillonite are responsible for several properties, including a large chemically active surface area. Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that the structure, chemical composition and exchangeable ion type of montmorillonite are responsible for several properties, including a large chemically active surface area. and low-cost adsorbents might be a suitable local alternative for elimination of heavy metal ions and basic dyestuffs from aqueous solutions
This research work dwells on the anaerobic digestions of rumen with Tithonia diversifolia (T. diversifolia) for biogas production. The anaerobic digestions of rumen with T. diversifolia was carried out for 30 days within the mesophilic temperature range (30.0 °C - 40.0 °C) using a digester with dimensions 50 cm x 25 cm. Results obtained indicated that the maximum biogas volume obtained was 7.05 x 10-3 m3 on 29th day. The temperature of the digestate remained constant throughout the fermentation period. The pH of the medium changes progressively from acidic to slightly alkaline (6.41 to 7.2). In order to estimate the statistical analysis, linear regression and correlation model were used, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was constructed. The coefficient of determination R2 with Prob>F=0.0001 was 0.7339, the regression parameters βO (intercept) and β1 (slope) were obtained as 6.05 x 10-6 and 1.942 x 10-3, respectively. The Root Mean Square Error (RSME) was 7.84 x 10 -5, the Sum of the Square Error (SSE) was 1.72 x 10-5, the total sum of the square error (SST) was 6.46 x 10-5 and regression of the square (SSR) was 4.74 x 10-6. The estimated regression function equation of biogas volume was expressed as y = 0.00000605239x + 0 .001941651. The physicochemical properties of the digester feedstock before and after the anaerobic digestion showed that the COD, ash content, organic carbon, total kjedahl nitrogen, pH increased after the anaerobic digestion while the total solids, volatile solids, aluminum, copper, iron, calcium and ammonia nitrogen decreased. The C/N ratio of the feedstock was approximately 4:1. The study showed that T. diversifolia with rumen can produce sufficient carbon that accelerated effective gas generation. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature the use of T.
diversifolia co-digested with rumen for biogas production. This study uses new estimation methodology such as least square to optimize the process of production. This study originates the formula like linear regression parameters.
This research reports micelle formation of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and the dependence of aggregation number on the array of sodium salts in aqueous solution. Critical micelle concentration, degree of micelle ionization, and aggregation number were obtained from electrical conductivity measurement. Pseudo-phase separation model was used to evaluate and discussed standard Gibb’s free energy of micellization. It was observed that hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide critical micelle concentration decreases while aggregation number increases. Amongst the sodium salt, disodium hydrogen phosphate was found to have the highest tendency in reducing hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide critical micelle concentration. The sodium salts with the highest valency anion strongly promote micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, indicating the dependence of aggregation phenomenon on the availability of anion. Contribution/ Originality
These studies estimate the role of sodium salt (NaNO3, Na2HPO4, NaCl, Na2CO3 and Na2HPO4) on the micellization of HTABr. The role play by sodium ions is a contribution to the existing literature i.e aggregation depends on availability of anions.