Contact Us

For Marketing, Sales and Subscriptions Inquiries
Rockefeller Center, 45 Rockefeller Plaza
20th Flr Unit #5, New York, NY 10111
United States

Conference List

Animal Review

June 2019, Volume 6, 2, pp 17-23

Supernumerary Teats in Kalahari Red Goats in the Humid Tropics

Famakinde, S.A.


Okwelum N.


Leigh, O.O.

Famakinde, S.A. 1 ,

Okwelum N. 1 Leigh, O.O. 3

  1. Institute of Food Security Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. 1

  2. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 3

Pages: 17-23

DOI: 10.18488/

Share :

Article History:

Received: 10 June, 2019
Revised: 17 July, 2019
Accepted: 20 August, 2019
Published: 07 October, 2019


Supernumerary teats (SNT) are additional to the usual number of teats found on a cow (four), goat or sheep (two). Information has been provided on the occurrence of teat abnormalities in the indigenous goat breeds in Nigeria but there remains a dearth of information on the incidence of teat abnormalities in the Kalahari red goats (KRG). Fifty two female lactating KRG aged between 2-5 years were classified on the basis of the number of SNT by visual appraisal. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent sample T-test. 76.1% of the population possesses SNT, 10.9% had one, 43.5% had two, 10.9% had three while 10.9% had four SNT. 60% of the population of KRG with SNT had none of such teats functional/patent. 11.4% had one patent SNT, 25.7% had two patent SNT, 2.9% had four patent SNT. The location of the SNT in relation to the primary teat reveals that 86.3% of the SNT are cranial, 1.3% of the SNT are caudal, 10.0% of the SNT are medial while 2.5% of the SNT are lateral. 74.36% of KRG studied had symmetrical udders while 25.45% had asymmetrical udder. The study concluded that possible reproductive implications of high percentage of SNT in KRG may include neonatal death of kids especially in multiple births and higher risk of mastitis in does. Reproductive Veterinarians and breeders should watch out for goats with SNT when carrying out breeding soundness examination.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the few studies which have investigated the occurrence of Supernumerary teats in the Kalahari red goats with its reproductive implications. The study also provides one of the earliest reports of Supernumerary teats that are positioned lateral and medial to the primary teat in the goat.


Supernumerary teat, Kalahari, Reproductive, Goats, Udder, Neonate, Mastitis.



[1]          Animal Welfare Approved, "Animal welfare approved program." Available:, 2013.

[2]          M. Brka, N. Reinsch, and E. Kalm, "Determination of the inheritance pattern of hyperthelia in cattle by maximum likelihood analysis," Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, vol. 117, pp. 425-431, 2000. Available at:

[3]          M. Brka, N. Reinsch, and E. Kalm, "Is there linkage between supernumerary teats in cattle and BTA3 markers?," Archives Animal Breeding, vol. 45, pp. 429-432, 2002. Available at:

[4]          A. I. A. Osuagwuh, "Incidence and control of pre-weaning mortality and abortion in small ruminants," in Proceedings of National Conf. on Small Ruminant Production in Nigeria. October 6-10, Zaria, Nigeria, 1985, pp. 239-252.

[5]          M. N. Brka, E. K. Reinsch, C. Tolu, and T. Savas, "Heritability of supernumerary teats in Turkish Saanen goats," presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of EAAP. Dublin, Ireland, 2007. Poster 50, 2007.

[6]          A. Chakrabarti, P. Chandran, P. Kumar, and A. Dey, "Teat and udder disorders in goats (Capra hircus) in Bihar, India," Asian Journal of Life Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 20-22, 2014. Available at:

[7]          O. Amao, O. Osinowo, C. Lakpini, M. Dipeolu, S. Abiola, and C. Onwuka, "Types and frequency of udder shapes and abnormalities in West African Dwarf and Red Sokoto goats," Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, vol. 30, pp. 253-258, 2003. Available at:

[8]          M. Ozoje, "Incidence and relative effects of qualitative traits in West African dwarf goat," Small Ruminant Research, vol. 43, pp. 97-100, 2002. Available at:

[9]          M. Bemji and S. Popoola, "A note on the incidence of udder abnormalities in West African Dwarf goat in South Western Nigeria," Livestock Research for Rural Development, vol. 23, p. 49, 2011.

[10]        S. B. Oseni, G. Sonaiya, A. Omitogun, and I. M. Ajayi, "West African Dwarf goat production under village condition: Characterization and the establishment of breed standards," in Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development. October, 11-13, University of Bonn, Tropentag. Germany, 2006, pp. 5-10.

[11]        J. Adebayo and C. Chineke, "Evaluation of West African dwarf goat for some qualitative traits in Southwestern Nigeria," African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 6, pp. 6204-6207, 2011.

[12]        S. A. Famakinde, O. O. Leigh, A. J. Odeyemi, and B. O. Oluwatosin, "Reproductive parameters of prostaglandin-treated female kalahari red goats in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria," Alexandria Journal for Veterinary Sciences, vol. 53, pp. 180-186, 2017.

[13]        K. Ramsay, L. Harris, and A. Kotze, Landrace breeds: South Africa’s indigenous and locally developed farm animals. South Africa: Farm Animal Conservation Trust, 2001.

[14]        Google Earth, Available: › earth, 2006.

[15]        M. N. Bemji, H. A. Tukur, and S. I. Umejesi, "Incidence of udder abnormalities in West African Dwarf and Kalahari red goats: Influence of teat number on milk production," Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, vol. 64, pp. 21-31, 2016.

[16]        C. S. Mary and M. S. David, Goat medicine. Iowa USA: Wiley Blackwell Publishers, 2011.

[17]        A. E. Salako, International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 5, pp. 47-53, 2013.

[18]        K. A. Raheem and O. O. Leigh, "Supernumenary teat in West Africa dwarf goat in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria," IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, vol. 7, pp. 60-63, 2014. Available at:

[19]        E. Oppong and J. Gumedze, "Supernumerary teats in Ghanaian livestock. I. sheep and goats," Contributions to tropical agriculture and veterinary medicine, vol. 20, pp. 63-67, 1982.

[20]        B. Lorrie, "More on teats." National Pigmy Goat Association. Available: http;//, 2017.

[21]        S. L. Choubisa and S. Zulfiya, "Hyperthelia in goats of sirohi breed, Rajasthan, India CIB tech Journal of Zoology," An Online International Journal, vol. 2, pp. 47-48, 2013.

[22]        S. R. Nouh, A. S. Korittum, M. H. Elkammar, and W. M. Barakat, "Retrospective study of teat surgical affections in dairy farms of armed forces and their treatment," Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 40, pp. 65-76, 2014. Available at:

[23]        S. Saifzadeh, F. F. Ardebili, R. Hobbenaghi, and J. Farid, "Teat tip reconstruction by supernumerary teat autotransplantation in cattle," Veterinary Surgery, vol. 34, pp. 366-371, 2005. Available at:


Google Scholor ideas Microsoft Academic Search bing Google Scholor


This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests:

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Authors appreciate the staffs and management of the Kalahari red project of the Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research for providing the animals used for this study. Special thanks go to Mr. Joshua Akapo and Mr Idowu Dende for support and assistance rendered in the course of this work.

Related Article

( 1 ) Supernumerary Teats in Kalahari Red Goats in the Humid Tropics
( 4 ) Perception of Gender Mainstreaming in Agricultural Extension in Fogera Woreda, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
( 5 ) Olfactory Response of an Assassin Bug, Rhynocoris Longifrons (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae) To the Hexane Extracts of Different Agricultural Insect Pests
( 6 ) Study on Adaptability of Released Midland Maize Varieties around South Ari Woreda, South Omo Zone, Southern Nation Nationality Peoples Region, Ethiopia
( 7 ) Protective Bioactivity of Moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Seed Oil against Callosobrochus Maculatus (F.) Infestation in Stored Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp.)
( 8 ) Suitability of Temperate and Tropical Crossbred Dairy Cattle under Peri-Urban Production System in Bangladesh
( 9 ) The Extent of Finger Millet Production in South Omo Zone in the Case of South Ari Woreda
( 10 ) Fetal Maceration in Crossbred Holstein Frisian Heifer-A Case Report
( 11 ) Climate Relevant Emissions from Animal Production and Reduction Potentials
( 12 ) Evaluation of In Vitro Protocols for Elimination of Banana Streak Virus from Tissue Cultured Explants in Banana Seedling Production
( 13 ) Comparative Analysis of Technical Efficiencies of Smallholder Vegetable Farmers with and Without Credit Access in Swazil and the Case of the Hhohho Region
( 14 ) Effect of Contamination by Fungi and Yeast on the Physiochemical Characteristics of Gum Arabic Stored in Semi-Desert Climate of Khartoum City, Sudan
( 15 ) Effect of a Plant Extract in Several Traits of Plymouth Rock Barred Hens and Pullets Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium in a Rural Village in Central Mexico
( 16 ) The Effect of the Reduced Dose of GnRH on Conception, Ovulation and Ovarian Structures in Ovsynch Program of Lactating Dairy Cows
( 17 ) Monosex Barb (Osteochilus Hasselti ) Culture with Reduction Feed on Economic Efficiency and Cost Reduction at Net Cage in Cirata Reservoir
( 18 ) Reduction of the Carbon Footprint in Agricultural Greenhouses
( 20 ) Feeding Potential of Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus on Different Date Palm, Phoenix Dactylifera Varieties Under Field Conditions
( 21 ) Performance Evaluation of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties at Benatsemay Woreda of South Omo Zone, Ethiopia
( 22 ) Insecticide Spraying Regime to Control Insect Pest of Cowpea: Management and Monitored Application of Cypermethrin in Lomami Province, DR Congo
( 23 ) Morphometrical Traits and Structural Indices of Malle Cattle Reared in the South Omo Zone of Southwest Ethiopia
( 24 ) Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria
( 25 ) Effect of Boiling and Roasting on the Nutrients, Phytochemical and Functional Properties of Red and Green Cultivars of D. Bulbifera Flours
( 26 ) Reduction of Aflatoxins and Microorganisms in the Koura-Koura Produced in Burkina Faso with Spices and Aromatic Leaves
( 27 ) Ingessana Goats Phenotype, Carcass and Wholesale Cuts Characteristics in Fadamia, Bao Locality, Blue Nile State, Sudan