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Infertility is a worldwide health concern with dissimilarities in mode of presentation among couples. It is the commonest reason for gynaecological consultation in central Nigeria. Therefore there is need to appraise the clinical presentation of infertility and describe the manner of presentation by women in the region. Aim: To identify the mode of presentation and pattern of presenting complaints by women with infertility at a rural gynaecological outreach clinic. Method: A descriptive retrospective study at NKST Hospital Mkar-Gboko, north-central, Nigeria. Clinic records of patients who attended the outreach gynaecological clinic over eight years (1st January 2005 to 31st July 2013) were analysed using descriptive statistics with Excel 2010. Results: Of the 1,926 women studied, 1030 (53.5%) complained of inability to conceive, and 941 (92.0%) folders met inclusion criteria. Women with primary and secondary infertility were 264(28.1%) and 677(71.9%) respectively. The mean (±SD) age, parity and duration of infertility of the women were 31.5±5.9 year, 0.8±1.2, and 7 ±5 years respectively. The predominant complaints were inability to conceive, lower abdominal pain, abnormal menstruation, lower abdominal swelling and vaginal discharge. Majority of the women (55.0%) skipped inability to conceive as their chief complaint. In past surgical history, 194 (20.6%) of the women had 234 abdominal surgeries. On physical examination 538 (57.2%) of the women had no remarkable findings. Abdominal scar (n=194, 47.0%), enlargement of the uterus (n=166, 40.0%), vaginal discharge (n=42, 10.0%) were common findings. Conclusion: Non acute lower abdominal pain is a common mode of presentation of infertility in this population. The duration of marriage/age of last childbirth against the number of living children and contraceptive usage can be a clue to the woman’s desire. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that non acute lower abdominal pain is a common mode of presentation of infertility by women in central Nigeria. The duration of marriage/age of last childbirth against the number of living children and contraceptive usage can be a clue to the woman’s desire and appropriate intervention.
The transportation issue is one of the thematic priorities which give policy makers great inspiration and demand background. Today’s transport networks are leading the way in sustainable, efficient and safe mobility, increasing access to all regions. Large scale projects, infrastructures, networks, EU Cohesion policy’s nearly 22% fund support were mostly emphasized in this sense. This is also valid for candidate countries for Union. This paper discussed the case of Turkey, i.e. she is a candidate state for European Union, and benefiting from the financial instruments for funding regional development process as European Regional Development Fund, Cohesion Fund, European Social Fund, EU Solidarity Fund, IPA and Turkish Cypriot community, Turkey only benefits from the IPA program. This study was prepared in order to present a review upon the transportation projects within the regional development policy of EU. Today, the available member countries are part of a policy mechanism via being joined the mostly known transport projects as Baltic Sea, Interrag V-A sub projects, and Central Europe integration in transportation manners. Those projects were also analyzed in order to show the inspiration themes for the future and today’s concepts and needs of Turkey to be fulfilled in the regional development politics on transportation issue. The number and budgets of transport themed projects and major projects and Turkish TEN-T and similar IPA supported projects were also evaluated in this study. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature about case analysis on how regional development policies were affected by macro transportation projects.
Empathy is an important communication skill that has been shown to affect both individual knowledge acquisition and interpersonal relationships. How empathy develops and subsequently influences human interactions, and the consequences associated with those interactions, is the focus of this study. I examine the empathetic perceptions of upper division undergraduate college students and integrate their lived experience with empathy related factors discussed in the literature to describe a model of empathy development. The results suggest people can learn to communicate more efficiently and effectively by developing empathy in them-selves as well as in other people. More specifically, the findings indicate empathy is a function of several internal and external elements beyond biological and environmental antecedents. Respondents associated four internal themes with increased empathetic understanding: emotional sharing, positive relationships, mutual regard, and personal genuineness. Respondents also identified three external themes that moderated the strength or direction of their empathetic perceptions: the perceived similarity, relevance, and availability of the person being observed. Each of these seven themes is explicated in order to discern how one person might better empathize with another or enhance the ability of other people to empathize with them. The practical implications for more empathetic communication are explored, as are suggestions for future research. Contribution/ Originality
This study documents how empathy develops in human beings and the communication consequences associated with such empathetic development. The paper provides a review of previous empathetic research before surveying individuals about their personal empathetic experience. Those interviews are analyzed and reveal four mediators and three moderators of empathy development as well as relate a variety of benefits associated with empathetic communication. A synthesis of empathy literature is used in conjunction with survey findings to propose an integrative model of empathy development. The theoretical contributions of this paper may be useful as a basis for future communication research and applied communication applications.
The performance of Malaysian students in Trends In Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was not up to par. The rank of Malaysian students in the assessment is the bottom one third, not the top. However, there are still a very low number of studies have been conducted with the TIMSS finding. This study intends to a) confirm items reliability included in the study( for Malaysian students), b) confirm the significance of latent exogenous constructs toward latent endogenous construct and c) confirm the type of mediation exist in the structural model. Secondary data obtained from TIMSS 2011 database has been used in this study. Items have been grouped into latent exogenous constructs; school, teacher, motivation, self-confidence; latent mediator construct; attitude and latent endogenous construct; achievement. From the analysis, it is found that only a few items included are reliable to represent respective constructs. Furthermore, it is explored that all latent exogenous constructs have significant direct effects toward latent endogenous construct. And lastly, it has also been confirmed that, all latent exogenous constructs except school latent construct have indirect effects toward endogenous latent construct; students’ achievement through the mediator latent construct; attitude. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the usefulness of bootstrap approach in confirming the type of mediation exist in a model. Commonly, bootstrap approach is only used when the data is small and/or the multivariate normal distribution is not fulfilled.
Flour from three plantain cultivars (Agbagba, Cadaba and French horn) commonly grown in Nigeria were investigated for their particle size, bulk density and thermal properties. The results showed that Agbagba cultivar had the least particle size (10.04%) at 125µm sieve size and significantly increased to 29.45% at 180µm sieve size. Cadaba and French horn plantain cultivars showed a particle size of 56.54% and 36.20% at 125µm sieve size, respectively and decreased significantly with increase in sieve sizes. The bulk density ranged from 28.62% to 30.50% and showed no significant differences between the cultivars. The moisture content ranged from 7.65% (French horn) to 8.7% for (Cadaba) and showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) observed in specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity between the cultivars studied. The data thus obtained showed that chemical composition of the cultivars may influence thermal properties and this will serve as a useful engineering tool for the design and development of sieves and dryers for plantain flour. Contribution/ Originality
This study provides necessary information that can be used in the design of dryers for plantain flour. This study also showed that proximate composition rather than differences in cultivars influenced thermal properties.
Higher Education (HE) is becoming highly competitive today and therefore, Institutions of Higher Learning need to look closely at improving their customer service strategies. Consumers in the education sector are now much more aware of what exactly they want; and therefore the demand for these services is similar to what they demand for commercial businesses. Customer service has become the centre of management activities which constitutes the basis of competition in the higher education sector today. Universities and colleges should begin by becoming proactive not reactive in the marketing of their services. The Customer Service Quality model has been widely used to study service excellence in a number of service industries; education inclusive. Contribution/ Originality
The study documents the performance of higher institutions of learning with regard to improving quality and increasing productivity. This is seen through institutional policies and structures to deliver the services promised, recruiting staff competent enough and responsive to the dynamic education sector and designing the environment to fit an academic context.
Objective: This paper provides a survey of efficiency in banks using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in developed and developing countries. Methods: There are two ways were used; the first one is analyse previous reviews, and the other one is systemic search from ProQuest, Emerald, Scopus and Science Direct. The search conducted to identify efficiency in banks in developed and developing countries. Originality: This study contributes in the existing literature in measuring efficiency in banks using DEA as a non – parametric technique. Results: Studies that was survey showed that the score of allocative efficiency was more than technical and cost efficiencies. Also, Studies showed that the scores of cost efficiency were more than the scores of profit efficiency. Conclusion: This paper shows that most of these studies were conducted in developed countries context, Also many studies were in developing countries. But, very few studies were conducted in the context of banking industry in Arab countries. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to fill the gap in literature for studies were conducted to measure the efficiency of banking industry. Also it contributes in the body of knowledge by understanding the status of efficiency in the banking industry using non – parametric approach.
This study examines modes of transport for Egyptian lot-chosen and civil associations’ pilgrims and their demographic characteristics in the period starting from 2000 in terms of increase in their number and their modes of transport (Air – Land – Sea). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to test the differences between pilgrims across various demographic variables and modes of transportations across censuses and Least Square Difference (LSD) test was applied. Maps and scatters are also plotted. By studying the statistical differences between pilgrims in terms of gender, it was found that there was no difference reported by census among the female pilgrims throughout the study period while records of governorates found differences among females. All characteristics revealed the presence of significant differences when applied to the pilgrims’ governorates of origin. Till date land travel is more encouraged than sea or air. Hence there is an urgent need to improve land transport and make it more luxurious and convenient for different economic classes. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by comparing the means of transport suitable for pilgrims to Hajj and need for development of specific sectors of transportation. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the variation in means of transport for pilgrims in line with demographics
Composite construction with traditional Hot Rolled Steel (HRS) sections has been known to perform much better than with Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) sections for decades; as observed by extensive rules and requirements for their design as prescribed in current design codes. There is, however, limited technical information available about the use of composite systems that incorporates the use of light gauge steel sections, despite the potentials of the system in residential and light industrial constructions. However, the composite action of CFS with an in-situ concrete, especially Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) using bolted shear connector has not yet established. Therefore, this study attempted to investigate the behaviour of bolted shear connector used with SCC and CFS to form a composite beam system at designated longitudinal spacing. Push-out and full-scale test specimens of longitudinal spacing of 250 mm and 300 mm with bolted shear connector of grade 8.8 installed with single nut and washer on the CFS flange and beneath it were fabricated, cast and tested till failure occurred. The experimental test results shows that the bolted shear connector possessed good ultimate strength and ultimate moment capacities with an increase in the longitudinal spacing of the bolted shear connector from 250 mm and to 300 mm respectively. It was therefore concluded that, longitudinal spacing between bolted shear connectors had significantly influenced the shear connector strength capacities. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by demonstrating the use of Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) section with bolted shear connector embedded in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC).
L-asparaginase is an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of L-asparagine and formation of L-aspartate and ammonia and widely used as anticancer drug in pharmaceutical and food industry. This amino acid (L-asparagine) has an important role for development of cancerous; in contrast the normal cells don’t need this amino acid. Eight Acinetobacter baumannii isolates of were isolated from different blood and sputum samples and it was found that high isolation rate of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from sputum was consisted with their association with lower respiratory tract infections. All these eight isolates were screened for higher L-asparaginase production and found that among all these isolates, Acinetobacter baumannii Sp3 gave higher asparaginase activity of 7.32 U/ml. L-asparaginase was purified to homogeneity by sequential chromatographic steps involved ammonium sulfate at 45% saturation followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography with a recovery yield of 68% and 22.65 fold of purification. L-asparaginase had antibiofilm activity against all tested biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii) after using Congo red agar and Microtitration plates methods for detecting biofilm formation ability. Highly antibiofilm of L-asparaginase recorded against Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with reduction of biofilm formation ratio to 32 and 41% ,respectively compared with (100)% of control. Thus we can conclude that L-asparaginase has promising benefit as antibiofilm agent against biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria that have multidrug resistance. Contribution/ Originality
Cucumis sativus Linn.(Fam. Cucubitaceae) is commonly known as “Vellari” in Tamil, “Cucumber” in English and “Sakusa” in Sanskrit. Cucumis sativus fruit is shown to possess various activities such as ameliorative, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, carminative and ameliorative and antacid properties. It is used in Cosmetics as treatment for skin-inflammation and skin protectant. Pulp of the fruit is useful in dysentery, diarrhea, dropsy, piles and leprosy. It is also used as a liver tonic. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a metabolic disorder which is emerging as a severe problem and is a disease involving liver disorder. In the present study, six phytochemical constituents isolated and identified from the ethanol extract of the fruits of Cucumis sativus Linn. by GC-MS analysis have been screened for inhibitory activity against Hepatitis B X and Heme oxygenase I using molecular docking studies. The binding affinities of the Phytochemical constituents were compared with that of the known hepato protective agent, silymarin. The ACD/Chemsketch tool was used to generate 3D structures of ligands. A molecular file format converter tool has been used to convert the generated data to the protein Data Bank (PDB) and has been used for docking studies. The active site of the target protein was identified using Q-site finder tool. The energy values for docking interactions between the active site and the phytochemical constituents have been studied by using Flex X tool. Out of all inhibitors, silymarin, followed by 2-(2-methyleyclohexylidene)-hydrazine carboxamide possess the highest energy value indicating them as efficient inhibitors with the target proteins to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. The effective properties may be due to the presence of carbonyl and alholic OH groups present in the ligand molecules. Contribution/ Originality
Cucumis sativus Linn. fruit has a number medicinal uses. The fruit is traditionally used by medical practitioners for curing liver disorder. The present study is a new original contribution. Six phytochemical constituents isolated and identified by GC-MS analysis by our group has been subjected to molecular docking studies for the first time with two novel hepato carcinoma receptors, Hepatitis B X and Hemo Oxygenase I whose 3D structures were retrieved from PDB database. Flex X docking program has been used to specify binding surface of the receptors and phytochemical constituents in SDF format. The present study gives an additional theoretical proof that the phytochemical constituents of the ethanol extract of Cucumis sativus can be used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma which has already been proved pharmacologically by our group.
The aim of this paper is to examine the spatial distribution of poverty in order to show the effects of poverty rate of a region on the poverty of other rural regions of Hamadan province by making use of spatial econometric approach. The statistical population of the study included 383 rural households participating in the survey of household expenditure and income in 2012 is nine cities of Hamedan province. To analyze the data and to provide the poverty map, Spatial Econometrics and Matlab software and GIS were used as research tools. Initially, the poverty line and the estimated volume of poverty and deprivation were calculated and then, by measuring its volume, the distribution of poverty of the regions and its influence in the cities of the province were provided. Moran’s I-statistic was obtained for poverty equals 0.211 which is significant at the 1% level and shows spatial autocorrelation. Poverty is not distributed equally in rural regions of Hamadan province and the geographical location of households living in the rural areas is effective on poverty. The results of the research showed that in calculating the model by Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) methods and spatial errors due to the spatial dependence in error terms, spatial error methods is better results than the OLS method. Variables such as average household size (+), gender of household head (-) and the proportion of households with housing (-) are statistically significant in identifying the poor people at less than 1% level and the type of jobs (+) at the 5% level respectively. Contribution/ Originality
In Iran had not been carried out any specific statistical analysis about the spatial distribution of poverty in rural areas. This study is one of few studies which have investigated the effective factors on poverty and to determine poverty map in rural areas with the use of spatial econometric approach.
Bamboo deforestation has become a serious problem in Ethiopia threatening the bamboo biodiversity and the people who depend on bamboo income. Previous studies mostly emphasize on mechanical, physical and biological characterization of the lowland bamboo. Earlier studies rarely relay on measuring the trend and magnitude of bamboo deforestation. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to examine the rate and magnitude of bamboo deforestation and identify the driving factors of LU/LC change. Data for the study were obtained from geographic information system (GIS) with ground verification. To supplement the GIS and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) result, a random sample of 384 households was interviewed. In addition, key informants interview and focus group discussions were held to validate the required data. The result generally revealed the declining state of bamboo forest over the past 26 years. The 2006 year’s NDVI value shows that a household owned 3.846 hectares of forest land. The result indicated a decline in forest to 2.027 hectare in 2012. The result showed 52.704 percent decline in forest land cover. Moreover, the survey result indicated that from 2009-2013, about a 0.014 hectares of bamboo forest was converted to agricultural land. On average, a household has converted an average of 0.081 hectares of forestland into agriculture land. Our evidence also shows that the lowland bamboo forest cover in the region has devastated due to anthropogenic and natural factors. This result implies that if the same trend continues, the available bamboo stock will vanish in shorter period of time. Therefore, quick rehabilitation and mass bamboo restocking policy shall be designed by the regional government in order to regenerate and conserve the lowland bamboo resources. Contribution/ Originality
This study has used appropriate research methodology and hopped to contribute to the bamboo based existing literature.
Classification of the p-subgroups of the finite group of order 12 was done using Cauchy’s Lagrange’s and Sylow’s Theorems up to Isomorphism subgroups and related to the Dihedral group of order 20 (D2n) in Chemical Bonding. Contribution/ Originality
This paper examines the causal relationship between four different measures of education and income in Turkey using time series data for the period 1971-2013. The four measures are: (a) gross primary-school enrolment, (b) gross secondary-school enrolment, (c) gross higher-school enrolment and (d) government expenditure on education relative to total government expenditure. The analysis employs a Toda and Yamamoto (1995) approach to Granger non-causality. The empirical findings indicate evidence of a unidirectional causality running from secondary-school enrolment to GDP per capita and higher-school enrolment to GDP per capita. The results also indicate that primary education and government spending on education do not Granger cause economic growth and vice versa. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the relationship between education and growth. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the causal relationship between four different measures of education and GDP per capita in Turkey using time series data for the period 1971-2013.
Four metabolisability trials on captive Wigeons were conducted comparing a complete pelleted diet with others where Taraxacum officinalis and Zostera noltii were added. The daily dry matter (DM) intake of Wigeons varied from 54.4 to 65.5 g/day and the amount of nutrients received from the four diets was similar. The nitrogen (N) content of droppings statistically diminished when Wigeons were fed diets containing Zostera noltii. Correlation among cell wall components (CWC) of droppings and that of intakes was always highly significant and positive. The DM metabolisability of the four diets was 42-51 %. The crude protein (CP) metabolisability varied significantly from 21 % for the diet with Taraxacum to 39 % for that with the Zostera collected in June. The metabolizabilities of CWC also differed significantly among diets. The apparent metabolizabilities of ash with the Zostera diets were significantly higher when compared to those of two other diets. Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies, which have investigated the metabolic responses of captive Wigeons (Anas penelope) to four different diets and compared the results of nutritional aspects to those of their wild counterparts.
There is an outcry in local authorities regarding human capital flight and poor service delivery. The ability of local authorities to retain qualified personnel is reportedly low. To recruit and retain experienced, educated and dedicated personnel requires that local authorities' practice retention strategies. By retaining talent local authorities may improve their productivity as well as achieve acceptable levels of service delivery. Some of the retention strategies recommended in this paper include, induction, and training, effective communication, a good human resource function, acknowledgement of achievement and concessionary loans. The paper exposes an extensive literature search. Literature on turnover and retention was studied at length and then appropriate retention strategies to retain talent were formulated. Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature on human resource management in Zimbabwe Local Authorities. The paper primarily contributes issues that are relevant to the Zimbabwean situation. The paper is one of the very few studies which have investigated causes of departures by employees in Zimbabwe Local Authorities.
The diffusion equation is solved in two dimensions to obtain the concentration by using separation of variables under the variation of eddy diffusivity which depend on the vertical height in unstable case. Comparing between the predicted and the observed concentrations data of Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) taken on the Copenhagen in Denmark is done. The statistical method is used to know the best model. One finds that there is agreement between the present, Laplace and separation predicted normalized crosswind integrated concentrations with the observed normalized crosswind integrated concentrations than the predicted Gaussian model. Contribution/ Originality
The levels and health risks of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were evaluated in twenty-nine commercial fish species collected from markets in Monrovia, Liberia. A mixture of HNO3, HClO4 and H2SO4 was used for complete oxidation of organic tissue. Total mercury was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption technique using an automatic Mercury Analyzer; while the concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Estimation of the dietary exposure of the consumers to these metals were determined based on data from the American Food Consumption Index and the associated health risks were evaluated by comparing intakes with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes (PTWIs). The hazard quotient and total hazard index for the tested metals in all the species were less than the USEPA guideline value of 1, suggesting that the consumption of the tested fish species has no adverse health effects considering exposure to the tested metals. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on heavy metal toxicity in commercial fish species and associated health risks to fish consuming populace. It is the first work of such nature covering a wide variety of fish species consumed in Monrovia, Liberia and thus provides a basis for future studies.
Male sexual dysfunction (MSD) might be produced by multifactorial determinants which include psychological disorders, androgen deficiencies, chronic medical conditions, vascular insufficiency, penile disease, pelvic surgery, neurological disorders, drugs, life style, aging and systemic diseases. This study sought to assess the antioxidant properties of the water-extractable component of the leaves of Black plum (Vitex doniana) and bark of Kola nut (Cola nitida),evaluate their effect on pro-oxidant generated lipid peroxidation in rat’s testes; and examine the effect on arginase which is among the major enzymes associated with Erectile dysfunction. The results of the total phenol, total flavonoid of aqueous extracts of Cola nitida and Vitex doniana revealed that Cola nitida (10.64 mgGAE/g) had significantly (P<0.05) more total phenol content than Vitex doniana (4.68 mgGAE/g). The result also revealed that Vitex doniana (2.1 mgQE/g) had significantly (P<0.05) higher total flavonoid content than Cola nitida (1.3 mgQE/g). Also, Vitex doniana (20.24 mgAEE/g) had significantly (p<0.05) higher reducing property than Cola nitida (17.43 mgAEE/g). The results of the 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS*) radical mopping up capacity of the water extractable component of Vitex doniana and Cola nitida also showed that the extracts are able to scavenge ABTS* radicals, however, Vitex doniana (1.8 Mmol TEAC/100g) had significantly (P<0.05) higher ABTS* mopping up capability than Cola nitida (1.2 Mmol TEAC/100g). Furthermore, the DPPH* result revealed that Cola nitida and Vitex doniana extracts scavenged DPPH* radicals in a concentration-dependent pattern. However, Vitex doniana (IC50 = 1.28mg/ml) had a significantly (P<0.05) higher DPPH* mopping up capability than Cola nitida (IC50 = 0.83 mg/ml). Both extracts were able to inhibit FeSO4-generated lipid peroxidation at a dose-dependent manner; however, Vitex doniana (IC50 = 1.07 mg/ml) had a higher inhibitory action of Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation than Cola nitida (IC50 = 1.01 mg/ml). Vitex doniana (IC50 = 0.38mg/ml) has the higher arginase inhibitory activity than Cola nitida (IC50 = 0.34mg/ml). High phenolic content and strong antioxidant properties could be part of the mechanisms through which the water extractable phytochemicals of Cola nitida (bark) and Vitex doniana (leaves) exhibits its preventive measure of erectile function. However, Vitex doniana displayed a stronger effect on Male reproductive function than Cola nitida. Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature that water extractable phytochemical of Cola nitida and Vitex doniana are rich in phenolic compounds and exhibited both anti-arginase and antioxidant activity with Vitex doniana displaying a stronger male sexual function than Cola nitida. These herbs showed potential as a functional food/nutraceutical in the managing of male reproductive malfunction such as Erectile dysfunction as it exhibited inhibitory activity on the key enzyme (arginase) linked to this dysfunction. Therefore, this could be part of the possible mechanisms through which the extracts exert their aphrodisiac properties by inhibiting arginase activities and preventing oxidative stress generated erectile malfunctioning.