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Listing 109 - 20 of 2275 results.

Efficiency of Microfinance (MF) Institutions in Bangladesh: A Study on Top 10 MF Institutions

Research Article
Author(s): Dilruba Afroze, Md. Riad Us Salehin
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Bangladesh has been referred to as “the birthplace (and sometimes as the 'Mecca') of microfinance all over the world. However, there are very few studies that investigate the efficiency of this industry. This paper aims to find the efficiency of the top 10 (in terms of market share) Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) of Bangladesh. The data were collected from secondary sources and annual reports of the 10 MFIs were used extensively. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method was used to measure the efficiency of those MFI and regression analysis to test the hypothesis. The DEA method measures efficiency by analyzing the inputs and outputs. The inputs for this paper were the number of employees (NE), Fixed Asset (FA) and Operating Expenses (OE) of each MFI. Based on these inputs, DEA measures the efficiency by comparing the outputs. The outputs were the amount of Loan Outstanding (LO) and Deposits of Members (DM) of each firm. This method not only measures the efficiency but also provides recommendation to minimize the inputs and maximize the outputs. The result of this study reveals that only 30% of the top 10 MFIs are operating with their full potential and their average efficiency rate is 65.5%. MFIs that are not operating under their optimal size, they have a 94.9% of average efficiency rate. However, it was found that in terms of collecting deposits, 60% of the top 10 MFIs are efficient whereas, only 10% are efficient in terms of disbursing loans.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents by focusing on the efficiency of some of the leading MFIs, who are campaigning that they are working for poor women, but are seemed to be inefficient and having public perceptions that these MFIs have their own agenda of making wealth in the name of helping poor.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 02-2020 Issue: 2

Does Capital Structure Affect the Profitability of Listed Family and Non-Family Firms? Evidence from Bangladesh

Research Article
Author(s): Mohammad Rajon Meah, Nasir Uddin Chaudhory, Md. Ibrahim Khalil
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine the impact of capital structure on firm performance. The proxy variables of capital structure are short-term debt ratio, long-term debt ratio and total debt ratio where firm performance is measured by return on assets (ROA) of Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) listed 39 family firms and 39 non-family firms. Based on a paired match sample selection procedure, 390 firm-years covering the period of 2013 to 2017 are used as the final sample of this study. By extrapolating from the Pooled Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regressions results, it is found that leverage ratios are significantly and negatively associated with the firm’s profitability. It is also found that family firms are highly influenced by debt financing than non-family firms. Finally, this study disagrees with the trade-off theory but agrees with the pecking order theory that profitable firms depend more on equity than debt as their key financing option in Bangladesh.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by identifying to what extent – and if – the firm performance of Bangladeshi listed family and non-family firms are influenced by capital structure between 2013 and 2017.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 03-2020 Issue: 3

An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Vendors in Some Selected Basic Schools in the Birim Central Municipality

Research Article
Author(s): Esther Korkor Djidjor, Jerry Worlanyo Ohene-Asah, Ibrahim Nshinmi Iddrisu, Joanna-Dzeagu Kudjodji
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
The study assessed food hygiene practices of food vendors in some selected basic schools in Birim Central Municipality in the Eastern Region-Ghana. A case study approach was used for this research. Questionnaire and an interview guide were the two main instruments used in the data collection. The study was conducted in Birim Central Municipality of the Eastern Region of Ghana and the large group was the basic schools. Random sampling technique was used to select basic 15 schools for the study. The list of names of all schools in the Municipality was collected from the Ghana Education Service (GES) office. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, ranges and prevalence rates of the study variables. It was found out that most of the vendors (92.3%) had low level of education but this did not affect their food hygiene practices. Also, majority of the vendors (91.39%) were found not to have storage facilities for uncooked food items. It was recommended that in-service training on food safety should be organized for food vendors on regular bases to improve on their food safety skills by their supervisors.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by examining the food hygiene practices among food vendors in selected basic schools in Brim Central Municipality.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Syndrome-Analysis of New Media and Political Economy in 21st Century

Research Article
Author(s): Oloo Daniel Ongonga
Journal: Journal of New Media and Mass Communication

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Abstract
In recent years, social media digital platforms are concentrated in the hands of the few individuals and corporate bodies globally. These giants include Facebook, WeChat, Amazon, Apple, and Google, who operate in the franchised model for-profit, political and economic signification. Their abilities to manipulate data, censor it, and repackages it gives them an upper hand in setting economic and political agenda in these new media markets. With the financial muscles at their disposal, these corporations have continued to mine individual data for their benefits, which is not limited to advertising but also influencing individuals' behaviours in political and social-economic development issues. Datafication and ''platformization'' of individual's data have paved the way for which there is a need to understand the new political economy of subjectivism. Personal information is used for the commodification of messages to make them appealing and create economic imbalances. Although individuals using such kind of platforms benefit from various advantages, which include social development and economic mileages that it is associated with them, they found it a challenge when it comes to the issue of privacy, unwarranted marketing messages, and intrusion into their solicitudes. Personal data is used for profit, tools for research development of new ideologies to direct and make vital political and economic decisions. This article explores the various ways in which the new media political, economic giants have strategized in the influencing of privatization of information for maximization of profits as well as creating barriers to access of vital information by their consumers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study logically analyses and contributes to the existing ever-growing literature on the new media and political economy. Therefore, it documents the importance of alternative usage of open source software that is feasible as a strategy to minimize exploitation from the few corporates’ giants in the new media economy.
Social Sciences » Journal of New Media and Mass Communication » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Penman and Thornwait Equations for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Under Semi-Arid Environment

Research Article
Author(s): Muhammad Hafeez, Allah Bakhsh, Abdul Basit, Zia Ahmad Chattha, Alamgir Akhtar Khan, Muhammad Adnan Majeed, Fatima Tahira
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
The estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is required for effective development and management of agriculture water systems. In order to define the most accurate method to estimate ETo in semi-arid climatic environment of Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar. Penman and Thornwait ETo methods are compared with standard Penman-Monteith (PM) ETo method. The statistical results show that Penman ETo method overestimates PM ETo method in all the semi-arid climatic regions of Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar by 34.91%, 39.51% and 30.75%, respectively. The R2 were 0.98, 0.98 and 0.99 at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather stations, respectively. The RMSE were 2.47 mm/day, 2.64 mm/day and 2.19 mm/day at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather station, respectively. The MBE of -2.41 mm/day, -2.58 mm/day and -2.13 mm/day were noted at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather stations, respectively. The statistical result of Thornwait (Th) ETo method as compared with PM ETo method indicates underestimation of ETo in winter season and overestimation of ETo in summer season by 13.81%, 22.43% and 14.54% at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar stations, respectively. The R2 of 0.92, 0.89 and 0.95 were noted at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather stations, respectively. The RMSE were 2.14 mm/day, 2.36 mm/day and 1.16 mm/day at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather stations, respectively. The MBE were -0.68 mm/day, -1.12 mm/day and 0.61 mm/day at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather stations, respectively. Overall, Thornwait method gave better estimation of ETo than Penman ETo method at all the weather stations.
Contribution/ Originality
The main objective of this research is to compare the performance of Penman and Thornwait ETo methods against standard PM ETo method under semi-arid climatic conditions of Lahore, Faisalabad and Peshawar, Pakistan.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Simulation and Experimental Verification of Electrical Power Output of a Microcontroller Based Solar Tracking Photovoltaic Module

Research Article
Author(s): Bamiji. Z. Adewole, Babafemi O. Malomo, Oluwaseun P. Olatunji, Abiodun O. Ikobayo
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
The study evaluated the performance of a microcontroller based solar tracking PV system. The system utilized a stepper motor, two light dependent resistors and a worm gear to intelligently control the rotation of the photovoltaic modules such that it automatically provides the best alignment of the solar panel with the sun for maximum power output. The performance of the PV system was evaluated through simulation and experiment. The effect of different levels of solar irradiance and cell temperature was investigated on the power output of the solar tracking PV system. An increase in maximum power output (Pmax, m), actual light generated current (Ipv) and actual short circuit current (Isc) has been observed with the increase in solar irradiance. With the decreasing cell temperature, the power produced decreases. The percentage relative error between the optimum simulated and the experimental values for Pmax and Ipv was found below 5%, indicating that the simulation model found good agreement with the experimental values. The results are expected to provide insights into the interaction between weather data (irradiance and temperature) and PV module power output during conversion of solar energy into electricity.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to the enhancement of photovoltaic (PV) conversion. This work integrates microcontroller and stepper motor to intelligently control the rotation of the PV module for higher absorption of solar energy. The work incorporates solar position algorithms and MATLAB model to evaluate the performance of the PV system using weather data from the study location and PV module datasets. The paper provides photovoltaic engineers with accurate model for predicting the performance of a microcontroller based solar PV systems at different solar irradiance and cell temperature.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Effect of Sorghum/Pulses Intercropping on the Productivity of Farmlands in the Moisture Deficit Areas of Belesa District, North West Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Tesfaye Jorgi Teferi, Masresha Gashaw, Tsedalu Jemberu, Anteneh Adebabay, Tilahun Tadesse, Zenebe G/ Medhin
Journal: International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology

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Abstract
Intercropping is considered for increasing and stability of yield per unit land. In order to study the effects of different intercropping arrangements on sorghum and different pulses yield and to find the land use advantage in the intercropping system, an experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete block design with nine treatments and three replications at East and West Belesa in 2017. The treatments were as follows: sole cropping of sorghum, sole cropping of mung bean, haricot bean, and three intercropping patterns of sorghum: mungbean, sorghum: haricot bean with ratios 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 respectively. The results showed that the maximum grain yield was obtained from both species in monoculture treatment. Land equivalent ratio (LER) in all evaluated treatments was more than one. The highest land equivalent ratio (1.54) was obtained in treatment (1:1sorghum-haricot bean intercropping). Also, the highest intercropping advantage (4837 and 4601) was related to treatment (1:2 and 1:1 sorghum-haricot bean intercropping) respectively. ATER 31% advantage in 1:1 sorghum-haricot bean combinations whilst 2:1 and 1:2 sorghum-mungbean combinations showed 90-95 % disadvantages. The result of economic analysis maximum net benefit (ETB35967) was obtained at 1:1sorghum-haricot bean row ratio. Thus, according to the productivity and economic evaluation indices, a 1:1 sorghum-haricot bean row ratio is recommended for East and West Belesa districts and similar conditions with this study.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the impacts of sorghum /pulse intercropping for the different farming systems to increase production and productivity for moisture deficit areas.
Physical Sciences » International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Nexus between Carbon Dioxide Emission, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Basirat Esan, Abubakar Hassan
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
This study investigated the nexus between carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Nigeria covering the year 1980-2016. The study use secondary source of data that were sourced from various energy parastatal database, these data were analyzed using the Granger block exogienty (wald test) and the Vector Autoregressive (VAR) with more emphasis on the impulse response and variance decomposition. GDP was found to be associated with increase in carbon emission in the Nigerian case, while primary energy consumption and emissions are positively related. This positive relationship, conforms to theoretical expectation, because of the large surplus in the supply and less than proportionate surplus demand of primary energy consumption in Nigeria. It was also found that the shock to all our variables are not necessarily available always i.e long run. Following the findings of the study; it recommended that investment in energy sector which facilitate diversification reduce carbon dioxide emission and meet up with raising energy demand should be in place. Also recommends that the need to use more energy conservation methods to increase the efficient use of energy and thus promote economic growth and improve environmental quality in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by investigating the nexus between carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Nigeria covering the year 1980-2016.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Critical Review of Literature on Brand Equity and Customer Loyalty

Research Article
Author(s): Henry O. Kegoro, Munywoki Justus
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Brand equity is recognized as the driving force of customer loyalty in the competitive firms operating in the changing business environment. The culture of attracting and retaining customers is dependent on which organization can enhance the value of their products to conform and exceed customer needs. By extension, brand equity is regarded as a multi-dimensional facet that comprise of brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, brand association and proprietary assets. Theories and models which have been discussed extensively and inform the basis of arguments of this study include; brand equity theory, consumer utility theory, customer based brand equity model, service branding dominant logic model and brand evolution model. Despite conflicting ideologies and evolving nature of brand equity based on psychological aspects of consumers like attitudes and perceptions, it is noted that that there is a positive correlation between brand equity and customer loyalty. Based on the existing literature, it can be concluded that brand equity is the only strategic marketing initiative companies can enhance customer relations and sustainability. Therefore, it is recommended that companies should always strive to enhance their image in the mind of consumers by repositioning their brands in the market.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by developing the link between brand equity, company attributes, customer attributes and customer loyalty.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 03-2020 Issue: 3

Death in the Mouth: The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Cured Fish from Selected Markets in Rivers State Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Bob-Manuel, R.B, Egbecho, E, Zakka, U
Journal: International Research Journal of Insect Sciences

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Abstract
Pesticide residues in cured fish from selected markets in Rivers State, Nigeria were determined to compare their residues content with FAO/WHO MRLs. The research was carried out at Ignatius Ajuru University of Education and Austino Research Laboratories, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples of cured fish were collected from different major markets in Rivers State, Nigeria. Each product was purchased from three different traders and kept in an air tight Ziploc envelope containing general information. Some of the samples were kept in 250 g plastic containers and kept on a laboratory bench for a period of 45 days to observe insect emergence while the other lots were taken to Austino Research Laboratory for pesticide residue analysis. The result shows varying degrees of damage ranging from slightly to undamaged and mean number of D. maculatus emergence was higher in smoked fish samples obtained at Rumuokwuta. The result also shows that in all the cured fish sampled, DDT, Captan, Hexazinone, and Tecnazene were found above the FAO/WHO MRLs and few compounds were below the MRLs. Conclusively, relevant authorities and agencies needs to increase surveillance and monitoring to check and control the illegal importation, sale and use of such compounds especially in controlling stored pests of cured fish. This could reduce cases of pesticide toxicity and food poisoning and other health implications due to its ingestion in such contaminated cured fish.
Contribution/ Originality
The objective of this research therefore was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in cured fish sold in selected markets in Rivers State Nigeria and to compare their residues content with FAO/WHO MRLs.
Agricultural Sciences » International Research Journal of Insect Sciences » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Analysis of the Skills Gap in Tourism and Hospitality Industry in Kenya

Research Article
Author(s): Kabii Francis, Ann Wamathai, John K.M. Wandaka, Naghea Jilo
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Most training institutions have supply led training instead of demand-driven training there by creating a supply of graduates whose knowledge and skills in not needed in the industry thereby creating a training gap between the educators and the industry. Limited studies in Kenya have been conducted to investigate factors that contribute to a widening of this gap. The purpose of this study was therefore to analysis of the skills gap in tourism and hospitality industry in Kenya. The specific objectives were to investigate the skills gap between tourism and hospitality graduates and industry expectation, examine the stakeholder’s opinion on performance university graduates as compared to graduates from Technical and Vocational Education Training institutes and examine the emerging trends in human labor in tourism and hospitality that educators should anticipate. The sample size was 200 respondents composed of managers and supervisors from 2 stars to 5 stars rating hotels. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews. The respondents rated graduates from Technical and Vocational training institutions higher than those from university in supervisory skills (?2=82.625, df =2, p<0.05), Management and leadership skills (?2=56.625,df =2, p<0.05) and Technical or operational skills (?2=27.792,df =2, p<0.05).It was found that training institution apply supply-driven training instead of demand driven there by creating a shortage of adequately trained and skilled staff suitable for the tourism job market. The study recommends involvement of educators and industry practitioner in training of resource persons in the tourism and hospitality industry and enforcement of National Qualification Framework to ensure standardized curriculum contents in training institutions.
Contribution/ Originality
This study evaluated the skills gap between what is taught in tourism and hospitality institutions in Kenya and what the industry expected. There is currently handful of such information currently available. The paper's primary contribution is finding that training institution apply supply-driven training instead of demand driven there by creating a shortage of adequately trained and skilled staff suitable for the tourism job market. Amongst the skulls gap found was technical skills, customer care and general management skills. Graduated from technical colleges were rated better that those from universities.
Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration by Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle Methods in Humid Subtropical Conditions

Research Article
Author(s): Muhammad Hafeez, Zia Ahmad Chatha, Alamgir Akhtar Khan, Allah Bakhsh, Abdul Basit, Fatima Tahira
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Various methods are available to predict reference evapotranspiration (ETo) but the Penman-Monteith (PM) ETo method has been considered to be the most accurate ETo method to determine ETo. The PM ETo method can be solved by various weather parameters like atmospheric temperature, wind velocity, moisture content and net solar radiations. There are many weather stations in the world that have no complete set of weather parameters to predict ETo by applying PM ETo method. So alternative ETo methods like Hargreaves (HG) and Blaney-Criddle (BC) ETo methods are used which need only a fewer number of weather parameters. In this paper, two ETo methods, HG and BC are compared with PM ETo method in humid subtropical climatic conditions of Islamabad and Kakul (Abbottabad) weather stations. The study indicate that HG ETo method overestimated PM ETo method by 23.78% at Islamabad weather station and 28.47% at Kakul station. The BC ETo method overestimated PM ETo method by 37.93% at Islamabad weather station and by 22.68% at Kakul weather station. The dissimilarity of HG ETo method with PM ETo method with RMSE was 1.09 mm/day at Islamabad weather station and 1.17 mm/day at Kakul weather station. The dissimilarity of BC ETo method with PM ETo method has Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.86 mm/day at Islamabad weather station and 1.48 mm/day at Kakul weather station.
Contribution/ Originality
The objective of this investigation is to compare ETo by HG and BC ETo methods with PM ETo method in humid subtropical climatic conditions of Pakistan.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Factors Influencing on Human Resources Development in SMEs Service Enterprises in Industry 4.0: The Case of Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam

Research Article
Author(s): Phung Tran My Hanh
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The study was conducted to analyze the factors and the level of influencing on human resource development for small and medium-sized service enterprises in Thai Nguyen province in Industry 4.0 because of artificial intelligence (AI) and the machines that make labor supply and labor fluctuations. With the dramatically changes of technology in the Industrial Revolution 4.0, jobs with creativity and flexibility, machines and robots cannot replace human resources. Employers will need high quality human resources, multi-disciplinary knowledge and flexible adaptations to changes in production methods in an era of technology. The research results show that there are 6 factors that positively influencing on human resource development for SMEs service enterprises in Thai Nguyen province in the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by identifying to what factors affecting on human resources development in SMEs service in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam in Industry 4.0.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 03-2020 Issue: 3

Effects of Inclusion of Processed Grapefruit Pulp on Wheat Flour Biscuit

Research Article
Author(s): Roland Monday Kayode, Victor Ephraim Edem, Niyi Julius Ogundun, Rilwan Olaitan Ajibola, Bukola Idowu Kayode
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
Biscuits were produced from the composite flour of grapefruit pulp and wheat flour. The Grapefruit pulp was boiled, fermented and some unfermented separately. Nine composite flours were made from the fermented, boiled and unfermented grapefruit pulp at different ratios of 10:90, 20:80 and 30:70 respectively while the control was 100% wheat flour. The proximate composition ranged from 6.50-8.25% (moisture), 5.46-11.36% (protein), 1.5-9.75% (crude fiber), 0.5-1.75% (ash), 2.93-4.35% (fat), and 62.77-80.04% (carbohydrate). The water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity ranged from 1.01-1.42 g water/g flour and 0.94- 1.56 g oil/g flour respectively. The values obtained for fiber fraction analysis ranged from 24- 44% (neutral detergent soluble), 11-39.75% (acid detergent fiber), 6.50-34.50% (lignin), 2.75-6.63% (silica), 2.5-7.5% (cellulose) and 5.00-20.50% (hemicellulose). The sensory scores of the biscuits indicated that sample 10BGP had the best overall acceptability among the composite flour pointing out high acceptability at up to 10% inclusion of grapefruit pulp flour to wheat flour. This research recommended the inclusion of boiled grapefruit pulp flour up to 10% with wheat flour for the production of biscuit.
Contribution/ Originality
This study showed the variations in proximate composition, water and oil absorption capacities, fibre fraction, and sensory properties of biscuit as affected by different levels of grapefruit inclusion. The acceptable level of grapefruit pulp flour to wheat flour for biscuit production was established.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Is Loyalty Still the Same? An Investigation of the Antecedents of Loyalty

Research Article
Author(s): Eduardo Mesquita de Sousa, Evandro Luiz Lopes, Eliane Herrero, Luis Fernando Varotto
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of satisfaction, perceived value and value for money on the relationship between store attributes and loyalty. This research is based on an Indian study that presents controversial results on the theory of marketing, namely: value for money has a low and negative impact on loyalty and sales promotion does not influence the customer’s perception of value for money. This theory inspired our study which inserts two additional variables to the Indian model, for a better understanding of the results. The aim of this study was to investigate the background of consumer loyalty in conjunction with value for money, perceived value and retail satisfaction, in an emerging country: Brazil. To achieve the objective, a survey was conducted, answered by 516 retail customers in the city of São Paulo and the data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results show that value for money, as well as satisfaction and perceived value, impacts loyalty. It was also found that all the retail attributes tested in this research contribute, in some way, to establishing loyalty of retail customers, even in a retail context of an emerging market (Brazil).
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to existing literature by investigating the effects of satisfaction, perceived value and value for money on the relationship between store attributes and loyalty.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 03-2020 Issue: 3

Investigating the Environmental Effects of Economic Growth in African Economies

Research Article
Author(s): Joshua Clifford Kofi Amissah, Samuel Attuquaye Clottey
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
Sustainable green environment, green innovation, and low-carbon economy are the top priorities of governments and global climate institutions. Indeed, the link between economic growth and environmental sustainability has been commonly discussed in the literature, with different outcomes. This paper endeavors to partly fill the research gap by using recent panel estimators to explore the long-run cointegration nexus between economic growth, trade openness, energy consumption, urbanization, and CO2 emissions (pollution). In terms of decision making, we further grouped the specified 25 newly emerging African nations into oil-exporting and non-oil exporting economies. The data collected are annual and cover the period from 1990 to 2015. The panel cross-sectional dependency and homogeneity results indicated that our selected variables are heavily interdependent across the various cross-sections in the long-run. Similarly, the panel unit root test and bootstrap cointegration estimates showed evidence of stationarity and long-run equilibrium connection between the chosen variables for all panels. The long-run panel estimates using the common correlated effects mean group approach shows that economic growth, energy usage, trade openness, and urbanization depicted a positive and substantial impact on long-run carbon emissions for all panels. The Dumitrescu and Hurlin non-causality results indicated a bidirectional causal relationship between income and pollution, energy consumption and pollution, urbanization, and pollution for all three panels. Likewise, except for the 25-countries panel, there was evidence of a feedback causality between trade openness and pollution. Our outcome further verified the EKC framework but with distinct threshold points for all three panels. Various policy scenarios are discussed.
Contribution/ Originality
This is one of the very few studies which have investigated the environmental effects of economic growth considering new emerging African economies. These nations were grouped into oil-exporting and non-oil exporting to enhance decision making and applying recent panel estimators while verifying the EKC framework within these economies.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 03-2020 Issue: 1

Corporate Reputation as a Strategic Management Tool: Through the Lens of Employees

Research Article
Author(s): Vildan Esenyel
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
As a result of the relationship with corporate reputation and financial facets, the role of employees in reputation management should be profoundly analyzed. In this sense, in this study, it is aimed to reveal the usefulness of the corporate reputation, which is called as a vital competition tool for the institutions, to the human resources to keep the qualified workforce, which has become one of the most critical problems of the enterprises. How employees see the company is reflected, other stakeholders therefore, it is necessary to examine the perception of the reputation of a company from the perspective of its employees. Through the critical analysis of corporate reputation literature, it is aimed to help the empirical research on corporate reputations. As a lack of related literature, a comprehensive literature review presents conceptual background information on reputation and the findings at the individual level provide input to all firms that give importance to the issue of corporate reputation, as well as the academic contribution to corporate reputation and strategic management literature.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by revealing the corporate reputation perception of the employees and the positive effect created by this perception in the relationship with the organizations.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 03-2020 Issue: 1

Determining Intention to Use Smartphone Banking Application among Millennial Cohort in Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Md Wasiul Karim, Mohammad Arije Ulfy, Md. Nazmul Huda
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The numbers of smartphone banking applications have risen over the years. Gaining popularity of smartphone banking apps resulted in many millennials switching from internet banking to mobile banking apps. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that influence millennials’ behavioral intention to use smartphone banking applications. The research framework is developed base on the technology acceptance model (TAM). A total of 310 questionnaires were distributed to the users of smartphone banking apps in Klang Valley area of Malaysia. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique is employed to process and analyze the data. The two-step approach involves in analyzing the data. Firstly, measurement model assessment which is associated with indicator loadings. Secondly, the structural model which is associated with path coefficient measures. The findings from this study reveal that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived trust and perceived security have a positive and significant influence on behavioral intention where perceived security has a stronger influence on trust and perceived ease of use on perceived usefulness. The findings from this study will benefit the banking apps service provider to ensure the best mechanism to be implemented to gain customers' attention.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated perceived security and perceived trust as variables to support the technology acceptance model (TAM) in the Malaysian context.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 03-2020 Issue: 1

Descriptive Assessment of Medical Outreach Services, Benefits and Factors Influencing Success of Outreach Program in Rural Communities of Enugu State

Research Article
Author(s): Kassy Wilson Chukwukasi, Ochie Casmir Ndubuisi, Ango Juliette
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Medical outreach services is evidence based strategy aimed to improve universal access to healthcare of underserved or rural populations. This study is aimed to describe the healthcare services delivered during medical outreach, benefits and the factors influencing the success of outreach program in a rural low resource country. The study was a community based descriptive cross sectional study of 660 adult participant in Enugu State with health complains within the services of an ongoing medical outreach. A two - stage sampling technique was used to select the communities where a total population study was done. A mobile fixed method of outreach was used and data collected were analyzed using proportions and chi – square. About half, 52.5% of participants received promotive services as a gateway to the outreach services. One quarter (27.4%) of adults screened was positive for malaria parasite. The prevalence of HIV (1.8%), diabetes (4.1%), hypertension (45.6%), overweight (27.0%) and obesity (10.9%) were within the national levels. As many as 86.1% received treatment for common illnesses. The commonest factors for success of the outreach were free services, presence of doctors, nurses and drugs, nearness of communities and influence of community leaders of which free services was associated with uptake of services. Medical outreach services mirrors primary healthcare services and when standardized for actors and players willing to use it for cooperate social responsibilities, it will serve as a useful tool for universal health access.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the benefits of outreach programme and the factors influencing them. It further emphasized that a standardized outreach program embraced by sponsors, state and local governments is a vital alternative vehicle to deliver healthcare to underserved areas in low income countries and consequent universal healthcare.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1

Analysis of Causal Nexus between Defense Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Toda-Yamamoto Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Ofino, Emmanuel Eromosele, Orisadare, Monica Adele
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
The research analysed the causal nexus between defense spending and growth in Nigeria. These were done with the aim to ascertain the causality direction between spending in defense sector and growth in Nigeria. Annual data from secondary sources spanning from 1980- 2017 were employed for the study. Defense spending data was gotten from the Statistical Bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), whereas real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) was gotten from World Bank Development Indicator (WDI). Toda-Yamamoto (TY) causality method was used to ascertain the causality direction between defense spending and economic growth. Lastly, empirical results using Toda-Yamamoto (TY) technique showed that there was no direction of causality between defense spending and economic growth within the research period since the probability value of LTOMILEX (0.38) and LRGDP (0.22) were higher than 0.05 level of significance. This denotes that defense spending did not granger cause economic growth and vis-a-ditto within the study. Therefore, the paper concluded that no direction of causality exist between defense spending and economic growth in Nigeria within the span of study.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on the causal nexus between defense spending and economic growth. The study uses new estimation methodology of Toda-Yamamoto (TY). It originates new formula for analyzing the causality. Hence, the study documents no direction of causality between the variables.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 06-2020 Issue: 1