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Listing 21 - 20 of 1931 results.

Environmental Conservation and Use of Economic Incentives to Conserve Biological Resources in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Greg Ekpung Edame
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
This paper analyzes environmental conservation and use of economic incentives to conserve biological resources in Nigeria. Conservation refers to the management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations.  Its compliments are preservation, maintenance, sustainable utilization, restoration and enhancement of the natural environment.  It is concerned with plants, animals, microbes, and with the non-living elements of the eco-systems which sustain them.  The varieties of ecological system in Nigeria create an endowment of biological resources of which the nation is justifiably proud of.  The conservation of these resources for the benefits of the present and future generations has been practiced with little attention given to develop a crop specialist (ecologists) to handle the subject.  Under this situation the urgency of conservation programmes can no longer be denied.  The establishment of the National Resources Conservation Council by the Nigerian Government is a welcome idea.  Working together, it should be possible to achieve the goal of conservation namely that human survival and sustainable economic development depend fundamentally on proper maintenance of renewable resources; vegetation and forest, water, marine and fisheries resources as well as wild animals and soil  resources. The paper finally looks at the values of biological resources, the cost of protecting biological resources and the status of conservation practices. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few empirical studies which have investigated environmental conservation and use of economic incentives to conserve biological resources in Nigeria. The paper employs descriptive method of analysis on the use of economic incentives to conserve biological resources. The paper’s primary contribution is in the area of the existing literature on environmental conservation and resources management.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 3

Analytical Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Residual Resistance Loss of Broken Wire Ropes Lifting

Research Article
Author(s): Chouairi Asmaa, El Ghorba Mohamed, Benali Abdelkader, Boudlal El Mostapha, Hachim Abdelilah, El Had Khalid
Journal: Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research

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Abstract
The lifting wire ropes are hierarchically complex structures, very helpful and widespread in heavy manufacturing roofs, lifting systems, mining industry, offshore structure, electric lines, elevators, suspension bridges and transmission towers. Generally, the metallic cables structure provides solutions particularly interesting and spectacular to current problems faced by industries, which are called regularly to perform tasks for mechanical handling in steps of manufacturing product. The repetitive nature of these tasks, rather than decreasing the risk of accidents, helps to accentuate them by a sort of addiction to risk.In this context, the wire ropes are a prime target of brutal damage, compared to conventional structures. More generally; the sudden failure is the major cause of cables degradation. Industrial experience shows that the failure of much of their hoisting ropes in use is most commonly due to cumulative damage of wires. This is particularly insidious due to its hidden nature; it can lead to significant reduction in strength capacity of wire ropes over time, which can sometimes lead to their total or partial rupture.In order to optimize the residual resistance loss of a lifting wire rope, we propose a study of rupture impact of its wires on the loss of residual strength elastic. The results of tests allow a comparison between the loss of ultimate strength and residual strength loss residual elastic, so as to determine the normalized resistance and estimate the damage. The results of this work would be operated to establish the bond between reliability as being a statistical size and the damage by artificial damage observed and caused by cyclic requests.
Contribution/ Originality


Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Energy Technologies and Policy Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Accessibility of Health Services in the South Eastern Nigeria: The Way Forward

Research Article
Author(s): Duru Patricia N., Nwadiaro Emmanuel C
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This paper examined the accessibility of healthcare services to the people in the South Eastern Nigeria. The reason behind the study is to assess how the people make timely use of the health services according to their need. This is related to physical distance and travel time from service delivery point to the user and also how the healthcare services are able to cover the population of the study area. Data used were obtained from National Bureau of Statistics and the population commission. Data revealed that there are more privately owned health facilities in the area. It also revealed that the total number of hospitals (government, private and community owned hospitals put together do not adequately cover the population of the area they are meant to cover. These inadequate health facilities have implications for the total health status and wellbeing of the indigenes of the south east. Recommendations were made on how to tackle this inadequacy if the millennium development goals will be realised.
Contribution/ Originality
This study gives a clear picture of the healthcare facilities in the South East vis a viz the population of the area. It equally serves as a guide and reliable source of information to the government and other stakeholders so that adequate healthcare facilities be provided for the study area. 
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Various Influence of Active Сhemical Additives on Hydrogen and Hydrocarbons Combustion

Research Article
Author(s): N.M. Rubtsov, V.I. Chernysh, G.I Tsvetkov, B.S. Seplyarskii
Journal: International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research

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Abstract
It is experimentally revealed that the methane combustion inhibitor CCl4 shows no effect on the lower ignition limit of hydrogen combustion. It is established that small amounts (~10-1 %) of chromium hex carbonyl promote combustion of 2H2 + O2 mixture, which manifests itself in increase in the propagation velocity of the flame, thus inhibition of oxidation of isobutene by this additive takes place. Therefore the role of hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbon oxidation is not significant and may result at least in participating in longer reaction chains than in hydrogen oxidation. It means that the kinetic mechanism of inhibiting combustion of hydrocarbons by carbonyls suggested in the literature based on accounting for termination of hydrogen atoms should be refined. 
Contribution/ Originality


Chemistry & Materials Sciences » International Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube

Research Article
Author(s): Shaoying Zhang , Qin Li, Yulan Mao
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
 To prolong the shelf life postharvest jujube, the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on senescence of postharvest jujube in relation to active oxygen metabolism was investigated. Jujubes were fumigated with CO gas at 5, 10, 20 or 40μmol/L for 1 h, and then stored for 30 days at room temperature. Changes in membrane permeability, malonaldehyde (MDA), H2O2, O2•− content, and activities of active oxygen metabolism associated enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in fruit were measured. The results indicated that a little of CO could exhibit positive physiological effect on controlling senescence of winter jujube during storage. The study further showed that fumigating jujube fruit with 10 μmol/L CO could reduce increase of MDA content and the relative membrane permeability, effectively inhibit oxidative damage to lipids, decrease H2O2 and O2•− content and maintain high activities of SOD, CAT and POD. The present data suggest that exogenous CO treatment might delay the jujube fruit senescence by regulating active oxygen metabolism.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents for the first time the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on H2O2, O2•− content and activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and POD) in relation to active oxygen metabolism during senescence of postharvest jujube.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 2

Improving SME’s Capacity through Learning and New Technologies

Research Article
Author(s): Ileana Hamburg
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Economic pressure and other pressure issues faced by small and medium sized companies (SMEs) require continuous improving of their capacities, of staff knowledge, of training and learning to survive or stay competitive. This issue is at the top of European, national and regional policies. But due to limited resources, often managers reduce learning activities and  using new technologies in their companies. Blended learning is a suitable way to learn in SMEs to increase their efficiency, to keep up competitiveness/surviving of the companies. Scenario-based learning is one method to be used in blended learning in order to improve learner engagement and problem understanding.Cloud computing is one of the emerging ICT trends in the past seven years. It has received much hype particularly in the past two years, with many companies considering the efficiency of cloud computing for their business, reduced costs, and easy access of data and particularly of new emerging ICT applications with little overhead.This paper contributes in the existing literature with results of interviews and case studies within projects aimed at problems of SMEs like suitable learning methods, advantages of cloud computing for SMEs efficiency and presents examples. The paper’s primary contribution is finding that blended learning is a suitable form for increasing competitiveness of SMEs and could be used also by introducing cloud services which will change the landscape of business also in SMEs in the next years.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper shows how European projects and cooperative work with participation of actors from different sectors can contribute to improving competitiveness and growth of SMEs 
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Dividend Policy Relevancy in Theoretical and Practical Economics

Research Article
Author(s): David Gordon
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The foremost purpose of this paper is to concisely explain to individuals teaching economics in an academic setting or using economics in a practical setting some of the basics of long run financial theory focusing on the dividend policy decision of a corporation. The main motivation for this study is based on observations of economists being very deficient in the discipline of finance especially in long run financial concepts. Many times practitioners or academics who are educated in the area of economics lack any type of background in finance and therefore are deficient with their knowledge of financial theory and applications. This disconnect prevents using many financial applications in their own classes, in their own businesses or with their own research. This paper serves as a primer to some of the long run dividend policy theories that individuals can use as a starting point to their additional research, study or use in teaching. Areas related to dividend policy and financial theory in general can be utilized by economists in academia and the private sector to enhance and advance their professional careers.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by demonstrating the usual disconnect between the disciplines of finance and economics. The paper illustrates that economists can gain substantially from a basic knowledge of financial theory. The contribution here emphasizes the dividend policy decision that corporations must make. 
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

S-Dimensional Assets Portfolio Evaluation

Research Article
Author(s): Luis F. Copertari
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
An approach to calculate the upper limit to any given portfolio with s assets (corporate stocks or government bonds) in it is provided, which does not require the relative weight of each asset in the portfolio. The value obtained is contrasted with the traditional weighting approach to calculate the portfolio’s value. The process followed is the scientific method, starting with observation and hypothesis and after analyzing two examples, a synthesis is performed by generalizing the concepts and the main thesis that the Pythagorean approach here proposed constitutes an upper limit for the portfolio’s value.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses a new estimation methodology to calculate the upper limit value of a portfolio of assets without the need to incorporate the weight of each asset. If there are no weights assigned to each asset, this upper limit may be the only way to calculate the portfolio’s value.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 9

Gender and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Library Staff in Private University Libraries in Ogun State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Onuoha, Uloma Doris, Samuel, Toyosi Daniel, Ojo, Adebowale Ifeoluwa
Journal: Journal of New Media and Mass Communication

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Abstract
This paper examined the influence of gender on job satisfaction among library staff in private university libraries in Ogun State, Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted for the study. The study population was made up of 162 library staff in seven private university libraries. Sampling was enumerative as all members of the population were given the opportunity to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used for data collected which was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings revealed moderate level of job satisfaction across gender with male making up 27.2%, and females 35.1% of the total percentage of 62.3% for job satisfaction. Gender was found to have no significant influence on job satisfaction while other factors such as stringent conditions for promotion, denied access to benefits and lack of job security were identified as major constraints to job satisfaction. Based on the findings, the study recommends that library administrators adopt a policy of equal treatment for each gender and review the conditions attached to promotion, among others as measures for enhancing job satisfaction.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on job satisfaction among librarians. While a number of studies have considered various other factors that may or may not contribute to librarians’ job satisfaction, this study considered the gender dimension.  It has revealed that gender does not influence librarians’ level of job satisfaction.
Social Sciences » Journal of New Media and Mass Communication » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Diversity, Use Pattern and Management of Forest Resources in the Eastern Himalaya: A Case Study of Mizoram, India

Research Article
Author(s): Vishwambhar Prasad Sati, P. Rinawma, N. Bobby Singh, C. Uday Bhaskara Rao
Journal: Journal of Forests

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Abstract
This paper examines forests diversity, their use pattern and management in the Eastern Himalaya with a case study of Mizoram state. The Eastern Himalaya is one of the bio-diversity hotspots of the world where the forest diversity varies from the tropical rainforest to temperate and alpine types because of the altitudes. In the case study area i.e. Mizoram, forest types vary from tropical evergreen forests to montane and temperate with rich biodiversity. Forests are lifeline for livelihoods sustainability in Mizoram as it is the second largest source of income after agriculture. Total forestland is 90.68%. They are conserved by the community people and the state forest department. Even, the whole country received decrease in forestland; Mizoram has registered about 1.4% increase. A study on forest cover and changes in the eight sister states of the Eastern Himalaya during the last decades was carried out to penetrate the current status of forest. Data from the secondary sources were gathered largely from the Forest Survey of India (FSI) 1991, 2001 and 2011. Similarly, data from the Department of Environment and Forest, Government of Mizoram on forest diversity and their distribution were also collected. Further, wide range of discussion was made with the officials working in the forest department and with the local people to elaborate the other aspects of forest resources such as use pattern of forest products. Personal observations on forest diversity use pattern and management of forest resources in Aizawl district was also carried out.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes the existing literature of forest resources in the Eastern Himalaya with spec
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Forests » Month: 03-2014 Issue: 1

Selected Saturated Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and Their Properties in Relationship of Resistance of Butyl-Rubber Polymeric Materials

Research Article
Author(s): Pavel Otřísal , Stanislav Florus
Journal: International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology

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Abstract
The article describes how to test isolative resistance times of the protective folio based on a polyamide carrier fabric coating with butyl-rubber polymer mixture measured by the linear substituted saturated chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. Information about quality of means of isolative protection is very important. Their availability may be limited, and therefore, in some cases will need to rely on the value of breakthrough times for basic hydrides of hydrocarbons, which are not substituted.
Contribution/ Originality


Physical Sciences » International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 2

Taming Waste via Laws of Physics

Research Article
Author(s): Mukesh Kumar
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
Achieving  sustainable solutions to  today’s burning environmental problems  like  atmospheric pollution, waste management etc  requires  some effective  long term  result  oriented  actions. These   can  be   correlated   with  energy  resources  generations and  its uses.  An understanding  of  laws of Physics  particularly  thermodynamics   laws  can  help in  providing a  sustainable  solution  to  these  serious  problems.  This article   discuss how  efficient  energy  resources  utilization  is   related to   waste  and  environmental  problems. The  renewable  energy  appear  to  provide an  effective  solution to waste  production and its management . The   various laws of   physics   give an idea of   their  future  energy utilization  patterns.   These laws do not offer complete solution to such  waste production and environmental degradation but  provide ways to minimize them  to such   an  extent  that  it  remains  within the  limit  of  human tolerance.  This can also show that efficient and  economic utilization  of energy  resources particularly renewable energy can results in sustainable solution to waste.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper’s primary contribution is finding that  it is renewable source of  energy not only produce  waste within tolerance limit  but  also help in  managing many environmental issues.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 3

Applied Optimization and Approximation

Research Article
Author(s): Octav Olteanu
Journal: International Journal of Mathematical Research

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Abstract
The present work deals with optimization in kinematics, generalizing previous results of the author. A second theme is maximizing the constrained gain linear function and minimizing the constrained cost function. Elementary notions of optimal control are considered as well. Finally, polynomial approximation results on unbounded subsets in several variables are applied to the moment problem. The existence of the solution of a two dimensional moment problem is characterized in terms of quadratic forms.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical analysis of the problems solved in the theorems 2.1, 2.2 (optimization in kinematics), 3.3 (minimization of the total cost), Lemma 4.2 (approximation), Theorem 4.3 (solving the moment problem). The paper’s primary contribution is finding that suitable polynomial approximation yields solving the multidimensional moment problem. This study documents how practical and theoretical  problems can be solved.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Mathematical Research » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 4

Prognostic Factors in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue Treated With Adjuvant Therapy Following Surgery

Research Article
Author(s): Valentina Krstevska , Snezhana Smichkoska , Beti Zafirova-Ivanovska
Journal: Cancers Review

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Abstract
Background. There is limited data on adjuvant treatment following surgery in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. Aims. This retrospective study investigates prognostic value of different factors for local relapse-free survival (LRFS), regional relapse-free survival (RRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with oral tongue cancer treated with adjuvant therapy following surgery. Materials and methods. Forty six patients with surgically treated oral tongue cancer were enrolled in the analysis. Adjuvant therapy consisted of postoperative radiotherapy (PO-RT) or postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (PO-CCRT). All patients received three dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Weekly cisplatin was given as concurrent chemotherapy. Identification of prognostic factors for survival was done with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was used for factors confirmed as significant on univariate analysis. Results. Independent prognostic factors negatively influencing LRFS, DFS, and OS were ECOG performance status (p = 0.002, p = 0.013 and p = 0.022, respectively), overall stage (p = 0.011, p = 0.010 and p = 0.009, respectively), and pathologic nodal classification (p = 0.016, p = 0.011 and p = 0.015, respectively). Surgical margin status was an independent prognostic factor for RRFS, DFS, and OS (p = 0.032, p = 0.027 and p = 0.028, respectively). The type of adjuvant treatment used was independently prognostic for lower rates of LRFS and DFS (p = 0.029 and p = 0.010, respectively).Conclusions. Positive postoperative nodal status and close or positive resection margins had the most prominent negative prognostic influence on patients’ survival.  
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated potential prognostic factors that might influence treatment outcome exclusively in patients with squamous cell carcinoma originating from the oral tongue whose adjuvant therapy following surgery consisted of postoperative radiotherapy or postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy. 
Medical Sciences » Cancers Review » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 1

Globalization and Environmental Issues: A New Framework for Security Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Ufomba Henry
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This paper is situated within the growing literature on globalization and environment issues as a vital sector in international security. Using a game theoretic approach, it makes hypothetical assumptions on how the impact of globalization on the environment will lead to future security problems in two dimensions- horizontal and vertical. It presents the threat of cross- border pollution between nations sharing geographical boundaries (horizontal dimension) and between developed and developing nations (vertical dimension) as a result of environmental scarcity.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first logical assumptions on how the environmental impact of the economic agents of globalization will become an issue in future international security.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 12-2014 Issue: 4

Finance For Growth and Policy Options for Emerging and Developing Economies: The Case of Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Wumi Olayiwola, Henry Okodua, Evans S. Osabuohien
Journal: Asian Development Policy Review

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Abstract
Finance is generally regarded as important for economic growth, but the role of finance in economic growth is a controversial issue in the economic literature. The concept of ?finance for growth? refocuses the relationship between finance and economic growth by redirecting the role of government policies in finance, and recognizes how finance without frontiers is changing what government policies can do and achieve. The focus of this paper is not to join the debate, nor to analyse the impact of financial development on economic growth, but to discuss the concept of ?finance for growth? within the context of emerging and developing economies. The increasing development needs of Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) to raise per capita income, reduce unemployment rate, construct and maintain basic infrastructure, and invest more in human capital, make the role of finance for growth in these economies indispensable. The paper reviews the financial policies in selected EMEs including: China, South Africa and Nigeria and attempts to situate the Nigerian economy among the EMEs within the context of Finance for Growth. The paper notes that financial policies designed in various EMEs had the similar goal of making the financial system to provide key financial functions. However, large differences exist in the efficiency of the financial system in each country. The paper found that what matters to economic growth is access to financial services or financial inclusion and not which sector supplies the funds. The paper suggests appropriate policy options to build confidence in the Nigerian financial system.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the concept of ―finance for growth‖ in EMEs. It approaches the problem by assessing the performance of financial policies of selected EMEs in mobilizing financial resources for economic growth, and identifying policy options necessary for achieving finance for growth.
Economics » Asian Development Policy Review » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Which Factors Affect Probability of Women Using Prenatal Care? The Case of Bangladesh

Research Article
Author(s): Sharjil Muktafi Haque, A. K. Enamul Haque
Journal: Asian Development Policy Review

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Abstract
This paper determines the probability of women in Bangladesh taking prenatal care based on changes in socioeconomic and health-related variables. Insight into factors affecting prenatal care usage will help policy-makers redirect health-related strategies and policies in more equitable directions. We used a total of 1,099 cross-sectional observations from Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2000) to estimate a logistic regression model. Our results show that education and income is positively associated with odds of women taking prenatal care while increase in age reduces odds of taking this service. We end by making several policy-relevant recommendations. 
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the existing literature by utilizing a dataset new to the context of analyzing determinants of prenatal care in Bangladesh and confirming the impact of several variables on prenatal care usage.
Economics » Asian Development Policy Review » Month: 06-2014 Issue: 2

Studies on Life Fecundity Tables of Tobacco Leaf Eatingcaterpillar, Spodoptera Litura (Fabricius) On Tobacco, Nicotiana Tabacum (Linnaeus)

Research Article
Author(s): R. A. Patil, D. M. Mehta, B. L. Jat, L. V. Ghetiya
Journal: International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology

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Abstract
Studies on Life tables of Spodoptera litura, were carried out on bidi tobacco cv ABD-101 under laboratory condition at 26 ± 1 °C temperature at Bidi Tobacco Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat). The results on number of individuals survived during development revealed that there was no mortality during egg stage and the maximum durations of egg, larva and pupa were 4, 22 and 14 days, respectively. The number that survived from 100 eggs to adult emergence was 76. The pre-oviposition period was ranged from 41 to 42 days of pivotal age. Females contributed highest number of progeny (mx = 328.12) in the life cycle on the 45th day of pivotal age. The net reproductive potential (Ro) was 758.93 females with the mean length of generation period (T) of 45.67 days. The innate capacity for increase (rm) and finite rate of increase () were found to be 0.1462 and 1.1574 females/ female/ day, respectively with a weekly multiplication rate (λ)7 of 2.78 times. The hypothetical F2 females were found to be 575974.70. Results on per cent contribution of different growth stages in stable age distribution revealed that the egg stage contributed was maximum (52.64%), while the contribution of larvae, pupae and adults were 45.86, 1.36 and 0.12, respectively at stable age distribution of S. litura on tobacco cv. ABD-101.
Contribution/ Originality


Physical Sciences » International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology » Month: 09-2014 Issue: 2

Influence of the Entrepreneur and Enterprise Characteristics on Success of Cage Fish Farming In the Asuogyaman and South Dayi Districts, Ghana

Research Article
Author(s): Anaglo J. N., Freeman C. K., Kumah W. K., Boateng S. D, Manteaw S. A.
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Aquaculture is becoming a very important source of income to many people as well as a source of protein in their diets. This study examined the influence of the entrepreneur and enterprise characteristics on small-scale cage fish enterprises in the Asuogyaman and South Dayi Districts. The research employed a descriptive-correlation survey design, which used quantitative method to collect data from 105 owners and managers of small-scale cage fish enterprises. The findings revealed that age of entrepreneurs influenced customer satisfaction as entrepreneurs experience also influenced growth in sales. It was observed that technical know-how, attitude towards work, and managerial skills, had a significant relationship with profitability, and customer satisfaction. Finally, age of the enterprise was found to have a significant relationship with growth in sales. In conclusion, all the variables had positive relationships with enterprise success, but not all the relationships were significant. It is recommended that cage fish farmers should be encouraged to invest more in technical education, which will help improve on the success of their enterprises. Furthermore, farmers should take precautions to reduce the risk of failure to increase their chances of success and survival.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to existing literature to emphasize the relevance of human resource development in the areas of technical education and entrepreneurs’ attitude towards work to the success of cage fish farming. Therefore investment in human resource of entrepreneurs is necessary for the success of cage fish farmers’ enterprises.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 08-2014 Issue: 8

Earnings Management and Stock Market Returns

Research Article
Author(s): Felicia Y. Amadi, Confidence W. Amadi
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
This paper investigates the variability of real business activities in the form of discretionary expenditures (accounts receivable, selling, general and administrative expenses, and net change in accruals), and the firm’s stock price performance in relation to the frequency of meeting or beating analysts’ earnings forecast.  In addition, the study investigated the relationship between the firm’s stock price performance, and the variability of these financial statement accounts.  The objective was to examine if these selected financial statement of accounts could be used by management to manipulate earnings in order to meet and/or beat analysts’ earnings forecasts so as to enhance the firm’s stock performance.  The study found that there is a significant difference between the variance of SG&A, NCA and stock returns of the firms that meet and/or beat the analysts’ forecast and those that do not.  It was also found that there is a significant difference in stock returns based on meeting and/or beating the analysts’ estimate. 
Contribution/ Originality
This study adds to the literature by demonstrating another avenue for earnings management that does not rely on the Jones’ model.  It also shows how the variance of financial statement accounts can be used to detect earnings management.  Finally, this paper shows that the change in stock price as a result of earnings announcement is temporary.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 10-2014 Issue: 10