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Listing 83 - 20 of 1931 results.

Antihyperglycemic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Zingiber Officinale, Cinnamonum Zeylanicum and their Combination in Experimental Rats

Research Article
Author(s): Muhammad Ibrahim Usman, Adamu Jibrin Alhassan, Hauwa Sa ad
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This research was conducted to evaluate antihyperglycemic property of aqueous extract of Cinnamon (Cinnamonum zeylanicum) bark; Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome and a combination of the two on Alloxan induced diabetic rats. Thirty two rats were grouped into eight groups of four rats each. Group I served as normal control, group II were normal rats and administered with 200mg/kg body weight of ginger aqueous extract, group III were normal rats and administered with 150mg/kg body weight of Cinnamon aqueous extract. Group IV served as diabetic control group, group V were diabetic and administered with 200mg/kg body weight of ginger extract, group VI were diabetic and administered with 150mg/kg body weight of Cinnamon extract. Group VII were diabetic and administered with a combination of Ginger and Cinnamon extract in a ratio of 4:3 respectively. Group VIII were diabetic and administered with metformin at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. The animals were administered with the extracts for 14 days while monitoring the fasting blood glucose at a 3-day intervals. The fasting blood glucose level was found to be significantly (p<0.05) decreased in all groups administered with the extracts, with the highest hypoglycemic activity seen in group VII administered with a combination of the two extract compared to the diabetic control group. The findings of this study suggests that Ginger rhizome, cinnamon bark and their combination may be used in the management of diabetes mellitus, although further studies need to be carried to confirm their potential benefits in diabetes management.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the antihyperglycemic potential of Zingiber officinale rhizome and Cinnamonum zeylanicum bark so that they may be considered as alternative medicines in management of hyperglycemia.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Patterns of Plant Community Formation and Vegetation Structure in the Afro-Alpine Vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Getahun Tassew Melese, Berhanu Abraha Tsegay, Getinet Masresha Kassa, Getnet Belay Kuratie
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This study was conducted in Simien Mountains National Park, Northwest Ethiopia with the objective of evaluating the patterns of plant community formation and vegetation structure in the afro- alpine vegetation. The data were collected from stratified mountains by using systematic sampling in each stratum from October to November 2015. A total 62 (20 m x20 m) main plots were sampled. In each main plot five (1m x1m) subplots, one at each corner and one at the center, were used to collect data for herbaceous species. In each plot, data on plant species identity, abundance, height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) were recorded. Collected specimens were identified at field and also at National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University. Plant community analysis was performed using R version 3.1.3. Sorensen’s similarity coefficient was used to detect dissimilarities among communities. Shannon - Wiener diversity index was computed to describe species diversity of the plant community types. Results showed that a total of 86 plant species representing 34 families and 63 genera were recorded from which90.7 % were herbs, 7% shrubs and 2.3 % trees. Asteraceae is the species richest family whereas Poaceae is the dominant. Three plant community types were recognized from cluster analysis. Species richness, diversity and evenness varied among the plant communities. Analysis of population structure of the dominant species revealed various patterns. Because this afro-alpine area has varied habitat heteroginity, separate plant community regimes need separate planning and implementing (management) measures for sustainability of the vegetation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the patterns of plant community formation and vegetation structure in the afro-alpine vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. Moreover this study documents the patterns of plant community formation and population structures of the Simien Mountains National Park within the study period.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Athletic Identity and the Transition Out of Sport among Division I Football Players

Research Article
Author(s): Mykal Manswell, Scott P. Barnicle
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
Athletic identity is a key factor in multiple areas in a student-athlete’s career however, athletic identity is both fragile and critical simultaneously, effecting things such as self-confidence, self-identity, and reputation around campus. Through interviews with 10 football players at a Mid-Atlantic American Division 1 University, qualitative data was gathered examining interests outside of the sport, their process of becoming a Division 1 athlete, and preparation for life after football. Primary findings explored common trends among the participants such as shared long-term goals, sport attached identity, and the absences of post athletic-career skills, or even exposure to such skill training at their university. Additional results suggested participant student-athletes have a solid sense of who they are but do not have a stable outlet for who they want to become outside of sport. This study can inform universities that student athletes not only desire innovative methods for career development, but also possess diverse ideas for their future beyond the student-athlete experience.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which examine the current state of post-athletic career resources available to American Division 1 collegiate athletes. From an athlete-identity framework, this quasi-experiemental study sheds light on the current state of elite Division1 football through the lense of a student-athlete.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Human Capital Development and Organizational Survival: A Theoretical Review

Research Article
Author(s): Obiekwe, Onyebuchi
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Effective human capital development is a major prerequisite to equip employees to acquire relevant new ideas, competencies and adapt to a changing market, and effectively drive organizational competitive advantage in order to achieve the survival goals. This paper theoretically examines the relationship between human capital development and organizational survival. It notes that human capital development is essential to equip the employees towards taking the organization to its expected destination. The paper concludes that by developing employee’s human capital, an organization improves her performance, productivity and innovative abilities which are essential for survival. In addition, human capital developments tend to turn human resources into a more tangible assets, as well as help match up the employees to strategic organization needs. It is recommended that organizations should invest in the various aspect of human capital development as it helps firms to attain greater performance and to remain competitive for their long-term survival. Business firms should cultivate high human capital development practices as human capital development drives employee’s loyalty, commitment and a sense of employee’s feeling of obligation toward the organization. Additionally, organizations should make human capital development an important aspect of their corporate strategic plan to upgrade their employees skills, enhance their conceptual knowledge, and broadens their understanding of the organizations total business objectives and values.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributed new knowledge to the existing literature of management. Utilizing a theoretical approach, it investigated the impact of human capital development on organizational survival. The paper's primary contribution is finding that human capital development activities are vital for organizational survival and effectiveness, and in driving organizational competitive advantage.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

Preparing Nurses for Community Health Care: A Comparative Study of the ADN and BSN Programs

Research Article
Author(s): Masoud Ghaffari
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Because of current changes in our society and the healthcare system, it is important to be aware of the expertise and efficiency of nurses in terms of how they are prepared to meet the health care needs of our society today and in the future. Along with this awareness, it is important for us to examine carefully the manner in which nurses are educated to meet the increasing demands of a changing society and the increased need for community health care. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree to which ADN's and BSN's graduates, from selected schools in the Northeast region of the United States that were exposed to community health nursing concepts during their educational programs. This descriptive, non-experimental study compared the community health orientation of graduating nursing and the degree of student exposure to community health concepts in their curricula. Data analysis revealed a difference in the perceived exposure to community health nursing concepts, with BSN students perceiving greater exposure to the concepts. Also, there was a difference in the community health orientation of students, with the highest orientation demonstrated in BSN programs.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to the existing literature regarding the importance of incorporating community health contents into Associate Degree Nursing curricula in order to prepare new ADN graduates to work in the home health care field and community health settings.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

Variations of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Stability Conditions Over Climate Belts in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): David O. Edokpa, Moses O. Nwagbara
Journal: International Journal of Climate Research

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Abstract
This study examined the variation of atmospheric stability conditions in Nigeria’s climate belts using the Pasquill-Gifford (PG) technique. Surface meteorological data (2010-2015) from Era-Interim platform were used. Results show that across climate belts in Nigeria unstable conditions increased from the coast of Port Harcourt (tropical wet climate) to Kano (tropical continental climate) in the northern part of Nigeria. There is a revered trend for the neutral conditions. It is also observed that stable atmospheric stability conditions are slightly higher in the tropical continental climate and the semi-arid zone than the coastal zone. However the climate of Nigeria is dominated by the unstable atmospheric conditions. Very stable atmospheric conditions (stability class F) prevailed during the hours of the dawn for most of the seasons in the coastal areas while less stable atmospheric conditions (stability class E) prevailed in the semi-arid region of Nigeria. During the day, the boundary layer atmosphere is slightly unstable in the coastal areas and moderately unstable in the semi-arid belt. However, it indicates otherwise during transition periods. The implication of these atmospheric conditions across the various locations especially for the coastal city of Port Harcourt is that uncontrolled emissions will be constrained at ground level during the night due to subsidence inversion triggered by the very stable condition of the boundary layer. This will create health problems for boundary-layer dwellers exposed to severe air pollution episodes. Policy makers should ensure that emission reduction techniques are engaged by potential emitters sited near sensitive receptors in cities such as Port Harcourt.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature the pattern of stability conditions over the climate belts of Nigeria. This identifies the most prevalent stability category that could either enhance or suppress boundary layer emissions.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Climate Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Creation of Algoritms for Recommendation System Based on Users Data on Internet Advertisement Marketing

Research Article
Author(s): Kamala K. Hashimova
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
Nowadays, products are offered to buyers in different varieties and qualities on the Internet environment. Recommedation systems are needed to make the right choices and make effective decisions. The article offers a new method and algorithm based on data obtaned through different ways and by creating hybrid recommendation systems. Estimation method is given based on information about objects and users for proper development of the algorithm. The proposed method can identify the proximity between the users group and the objects the users are interested in.
Contribution/ Originality


Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

The Potential Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Reproductive Profile of Male Rat and its Possible Consequences

Research Article
Author(s): Aamir Nawab, Yi Zhao, Fahar Ibtisham, Guanghui Li, Mei Xiao, Jiang Wu, Wenchao Liu, Shuyan Tang, Lilong An
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Zinc (Zn) has antibacterial and antifungal properties, so, it is being widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. Transition metal especially Zn deficiency has deleterious effects all over the world due to wide consumption of Zn deficient food byproduct. Several studies have reported that transition elements especially Zinc deficiency affects the endocrine and reproductive system. This overview comprises the information about negative effects of Zn deficiency on reproductive system of male rat and their possible outcomes. Scientific studies indicated that Zn deficiency severely affects the reproductive physiology of male rats. Zn deficiency suppresses the function of male rat testes inclosing spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis by reducing the production of androgen hormone. In addition, Zn deficient rats also indicated testicular atrophy, primary and secondary spermatogonial stem cells disruption, lower number of sperm cells count, sperm quality, motility, viability, enhance in oxidative stress, inhibition of Testosterone (T) level which, in turn may cause infertility. The different consequences in animal models by zinc application are dose and duration dependent. Several studies propose that both higher and lower Zn concentration can effects the rat reproductive function. Therefore, the available outcomes revealed that Zn deficiency might have significant influence on luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone affecting the sperm physiology and histology in certain tissues.
Contribution/ Originality
This recent study has contributed significant scientific information on a particular subject area “Zinc deficiency”. A lot of reports have discussed the Zinc and its effects on human but there is lack of sufficient data related to Zn deficiency on reproductive profile of male rats. Therefore, this study is one of very few studies which have documented that Zinc is necessary in male reproductive system of human and animals. On the other side, it is recommended that optimum amount of Zinc supplementation should be used to avoid the deleterious effects on male reproductive physiology.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

An Evaluation of Effectiveness of Oversight Committees: A Case of City of Johannesburg, Section 79 Committees

Research Article
Author(s): Michael Toyi Mokgari, O Pwaka
Journal: International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research

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Abstract
This research investigated the effectiveness of oversight committees in the City of Johannesburg, focussing on Section 79 committees which are constituted under Section 79 of the Municipal Structures Act, 1998, and which are tasked with performing oversight on departments. The problem with the separation of powers is that the performance and effectiveness of the oversight model in the City of Johannesburg Legislature (committees) has not been assessed and its performance level is still unknown. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the oversight model in holding the executive accountable. Interviews with thirteen respondents aided the researcher to gather valuable information, understanding, and insight, into the oversight model and its reporting function at the City of Johannesburg. The research findings show shortcomings in the oversight model, which include late reports, Executive absence from committee meetings, lack of tracking and implementation of committee resolutions, lack of political will and integrated reporting framework. The study recommends that the City of Johannesburg develop an integrated reporting framework in order to assess the efficacy of the oversight model by engaging the services of retired professionals. Also, the City should develop a booklet with all relevant legislation and policies for oversight purposes.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents and highlights the shortcomings in the present oversight model which, since inception, have not been assessed. The programmes and objectives of the oversight committees have therefore not been effectively monitored and evaluated. These factors have hampered the effectiveness of the section 79 committees within the City of Johannesburg.
Economics » International Journal of Public Policy and Administration Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

An Investigation into the Causes of Failures in Railway Infrastructure at Transnet Freight Rail - A Case of the Steel and Cement Business Unit

Research Article
Author(s): Mpho Ramuhulu, Ngonidzashe Chiranga
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate the causes of railway infrastructure failures in the case of Transnet Freight Rail’s Steel and Cement business unit and suggest methods to increase the reliability of the business unit’s railway infrastructure and recommend policies to increase the reliability of the railway infrastructure., A reliable railway infrastructure will grow the market share of the business unit, reduce operating costs, grow the economy of South Africa, create employment, and increase the revenue of the business unit. A quantitative approach was used to conduct the research and questionnaires were distributed to a population of 1048 employees that work for the business unit with the participants chosen based on their railway infrastructure experience and railway exposure. The study revealed that extreme weather conditions, ageing railway infrastructure, vegetation, lack of maintenance, other Transnet departments, poor railway infrastructure maintenance, theft and vandalism, are the major causes of railway infrastructure failures in the business unit. The research made a number of recommendations including that the business unit develop a lifecycle management program for its ageing infrastructure and introduce skills transfer programs in place. Railway maintenance was suggested as being a key performance measure.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution determined that management needs to improve on asset protection and security measures and controls, as neglected these can lead to substantial financial forfeiture and loss of life. The study identified the inadequacy of current security measures and makes a number of suggestions to alleviate loss.
Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Pulsing Preservatives to Prolong Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers in Bahir Dar, Northwestern Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Selamawit Zelalem, Melkamu Alemayehu, Tadele Yeshiwas
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
The longevity of cut flowers including cut roses can be however prolonged using different pulsing preservatives where researches in this regard are lacking in the country. Keeping these bottlenecks of the sector in mind, this study was therefore initiated with objective to evaluate the effectiveness of different pulsing preservatives in prolonging vase life of cut rose varieties. The experiment was conducted at Tana Flora PLC in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. As pulsing preservatives Al2(SO4)3)(250 mg-1), Ca(ClO)2 (66.7 mg-1), STS [Ag (S2O3)2] (0.5 ml-1), Sugar (20 g-1) and distilled water were used. The three rose varieties namely: Upper class, Athena and Moon walk were used. Healthy flower buds having uniform length and harvested early in the morning were put immediately in containers filled with the respective concentration of pulsing preservatives. Flasks with six rose flowers each were placed in pre-cooling room (8-10 OC) for about 2 hours. Finally, treated cuttings were transferred into experimental room with temperature of 22-250C and 75% relative humidity and arranged in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. At this time, pulsing preservatives were replaced by distilled water. The analysis of variance revealed that most of parameters were highly significantly influenced by the main as well as interaction effects of pulsing preservative and varieties (P<0.0). Maximum water uptake (7.73 g/flower/day), transpiration loss (7.08 g/flower/day), flower fresh weight (21.77 g/flowers), flower head diameter (7.6 cm), and maximum flower vase life (23 days) were recorded in Athena variety pulsed with STS.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated to improve the shelf life and quality of rose flowers particularly in our country. Therefore, the present finding will contribute to flower growers through identifying appropriate pulsing preservatives for rose cut flower.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 12-2018 Issue: 4

Teachers of Secondary Education and Professional Stress with Students Performance: A Geographical Case Study

Research Article
Author(s): Xanthippi Foulidi, Evangelos C. Papakitsos, Xenophon Vamvakeros, Irini Dimou
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
This paper presents a small-scale empirical qualitative research on school performance, which is a professional stressor for teachers of Western Attica’s (Greece), serving in schools of senior Secondary Education, as well as on effective ways of limiting this phenomenon. The sampling, the sample, the tool, and the credibility criteria of this particular survey are determined. The outcomes and the relevant conclusions, resulting from the processing and analysis of primary data, are presented along with a proposal for further research. According to these conclusions, the teachers’ stress is increased in the 3rd and last grade of senior secondary education, because of the national admission examinations to tertiary education that their pupils participate in. The stress-levels are exacerbated by parents and their expectations of their children’s success. For reducing professional stress, different strategies are applied by individual teachers, headmasters and Teachers’ Associations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature about teachers’ professional stress, by presenting the strategies for reducing the stress of teachers in senior secondary education of Greece, applied by headmasters and Teachers’ Associations, along with a few general policy proposals for dealing with this issue.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2018 Issue: 3

Macroeconomic Indicators and Capital Formation Growth in Nigeria: A New Evidence

Research Article
Author(s): Anthony Orji, Jonathan E. Ogbuabor, Onyinye I. Anthony-Orji, Mbonu Chibudem O.
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
This paper estimates the impact of macroeconomic indicators on the growth of capital formation in Nigeria. Adopting the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL), the empirical findings showed that Foreign aid which is proxied by Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) and Domestic Private Investment (DPI) had positive impact on capital formation growth in Nigeria, while exchange rate, trade openness, and external debt had negative impact for the period under review. The study therefore recommends that aid, especially from the West should not be highly depended upon as a major source of revenue for the development of the economy. Other macroeconomic determinants of capital growth that government should encourage include; savings, investment and the quality of institutions.
Contribution/ Originality
This study tests the impact of macroeconomic indicators on the growth of capital formation in Nigeria within the framework of the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL).
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Foreign Capital Inflows and Unemployment in Nigeria: A New Evidence from ARDL-Bounds Testing Approach

Research Article
Author(s): Onyinye I. Anthony-Orji, Anthony- Orji, Jonathan E. Ogbuabor, Emmanuel O. Nwosu
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Using a novel approach, this study disaggregates and estimates the impact of foreign capital inflows on unemployment in Nigeria by adopting the Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag- Unrestricted Error Correction Methodology (ARDL-UECM). The ARDL-bounds test co-integration results show evidence of co-integration between disaggregated Foreign Capital Inflow variables (such as Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Portfolio Investment and Remittances) and unemployment rate in Nigeria within the period from 1977Q1 – 2013Q4. The empirical results also show that foreign direct investment, foreign private investment and trade openness have negative impact on unemployment rate. On the other hand and interestingly, remittances and real exchange rate show a positive impact. The study therefore recommends the routing of remittances through the banking channels which would help in allocating remittances and other financial flows to productive uses. Again, government should enact investor-friendly policies and build conducive business environment in order to attract more Foreign Capital Inflows which will support job creation for the teeming population and thereby reduce biting unemployment.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature by adopting the Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag- Unrestricted Error Correction Methodology (ARDL-UECM) in estimating the impact of disaggregated foreign capital inflows on unemployment in Nigeria.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 6

Analyzing the Relationship between International Accreditation and the Quality of High-End Business Talents in China

Research Article
Author(s): SUN Xinqi, ZHU Wenzhong, PAN Wenchao
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
In recent years, with the deepening of internationalization of higher education and the increasing intensification of international academic exchanges and cooperation, a large number of business schools in China participated in the process of international accreditation and evaluation in order to improve their quality of training and competitive power. Obtaining internationally acknowledged accreditations such as AACSB, EQUIS, AMBA raises their status among internationally outstanding business schools and a testimony of the quality of their business school. The existing research literature mainly focuses on the evaluation and policy review of international accreditation. Little or no research has been conducted empirically on the effectiveness of international accreditation. This study focuses on students as main stakeholders of education and their acceptance of the credibility of such international accreditations and their perception of education quality attached. This study is the result of an empirical research conducted through a survey questionnaire. A major finding of this research is evident in students’ offering a high degree of recognition to international accreditation Moreover, the “4+2” education mode led by international accreditation has a good impact on the improvement of the quality of training in business schools. The findings of the study would provide decision makers of business school effective data support and relevant policy advice.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies that have investigated empirically the subject of International Accreditation and The Quality of High-End Business Schools. It focuses on students’ perception and their acceptance of international accreditation as a benchmark of education quality.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

A Survey on Efficient Power Management Using Smart Socket and IoT

Research Article
Author(s): B.Santhosh Kumar, R. Cristin
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
Energy Saving is visualized to be one of the key components driving vitality uses in electronic gadgets. In spite of the fact that there are various methods and standards used to moderate vitality, there is no prescribed answer for any of the issues overseeing wastage of electrical vitality. These wastages might be because of obliviousness, indiscretion and a few different variables. Instead of utilizing a sensor organizes, keen attachment is utilized as a part of the request to decrease the vitality devoured while watching those associated gadgets. These attachments are equipped for estimating the present going through them and transmit with each other by means of the Zigbee organize inside the home portal and exchange the information bundles in like manner. These vitality utilization subtle elements are the associated with the server through a web association. Here, the attachments are arranged such that it covers the whole ecological space and are assigned with urgencies in light of client's way of life, time of the task, day of activity and the aggregate vitality that is accessible. Consequently, there is better checking of energy devoured without squandering critical vitality in observing.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature on efficient power management using smart socket and IoT. It refers to the use of intelligently connected device and systems to gather large amount of data. It is envisioned as an era in which objects can automatically and intelligently serve people in a collaborative manner.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Social Protection and Agricultural Production in ECOWAS: The Youth Unemployment Question

Research Article
Author(s): Romanus Osabohien, Godswill Osuma, Chisom Ndigwe, Emmanuel Ozordi
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
In an economy youths play a very pivotal role as they constitute the greatest share of human resource which is essential in the economic development of a country. However, this potential in built in youth if not efficiently harnessed through gainful employment, portends a danger to the society. Youth unemployment can be likened to time dynamite if effective policies are not put in place to create employment for the youth especially in ECOWAS where graduate unemployment has been on the increase. On the other hand, the agricultural sector remains the most veritable tool for generating youth employment, poverty reduction and the attainment of food security. At any rate, the capacity of the agricultural sector to generate employment depends greatly on how the sector is been protected, which creates incentive to operate as business just as recently enshrined in agricultural transformation agenda; however, agricultural output can be enhanced by social protection programmes. Thus, this study examines the extent of social protection policies that are related to agricultural sector and how it influences the level of youth employment in ECOWAS using panel cointegration econometric analysis finds that in the long run, agriculture has the potential for ameliorating youth unemployment in ECOWAS.
Contribution/ Originality


Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

A Review of Organic Food Consumption from a Sustainability Perspective and Future Research Directions

Research Article
Author(s): Chamila R. Perera, Lester W. Johnson, Chandana R. Hewege
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
This paper reviews organic food consumption from a sustainability perspective with a view to suggesting future research directions. It gives an overview of historical evolution of organic food consumption as a sustainability movement and provides a critical review of a large body of previous research, which examines organic food consumption from various perspectives. The paper highlights some research gaps and suggests essential future research directions in the field of study: (1) a discourse analysis of the notion of organic food; (2) a systematic industry review of the multiple organic food certification systems; (3) a comparative study to examine consumers’ confusion between scientifically proven health benefits of organic food and perceived value of organic food; (4) an examination of socio cultural aspects of organic food consumption; (5) an assessment of how the benefits of developing organic food markets transfer to developing countries and; (6) a development of a detailed profile of global consumers in the organic food market.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on organic food consumption by providing six future research directions. It provides a critical review of literature on organic food consumption from a sustainability perspective. The study highlights key issues and inconsistencies in the existing research findings pertaining to the research phenomenon.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

Comparison of Recover Heart Rate Status among 4th Year Male Sport Science Summer Program Students, Wollega University, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Edosa Jabesa
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
This study aimed to experiment, measure and evaluate the level of recovery heart rate among male sport science students of the summer program and to compare their mean with the standard status of the recover heart rate rating scale. From a total population of 80, the sample consisted of 40 male sports science students. The samples were selected by using a random sampling technique. The subjects were divided into two equal sections on a random basis (section A, and section B) consisting of 20 subjects in each group. Harvard step test was used to measure the recovery heart rate of the students' wich is an index of cardiovascular fitness. To compare the mean differences among the students independent t test was applied with the help of SPSS (version, 20) Software. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The findings of the current study show that the mean value of recovery heart rate for section A was calculated 104.2 with S.D. 3.4 and section B was recorded 106.8 with S.D. 2.24 respectively. The t-value on recovery heart rate is 2.924 which are greater than the required table value (2.021) with 38 df. So there is a statically significant difference in the recovery heart rate variable between section A and section B sport science students. There were statistically significant mean differences in recovery heart rate among the section A and section B male students, also the recovery heart rate level of the subjects was below the standard level of recovery heart rate rating scale.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature as the first investigation to comparatively examine the level of recovery heart rate among the students and to compare their mean with standard status of recover heart rate rating scale set by YMCA. The paper´s contribution is increasing the participation of subjects in regular physical exercise which is important for preventing themselves from different chronic disease.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Association between Physical Activity, General Health and Burden of Dementia Caregivers

Research Article
Author(s): Dimakopoulou E., Sakka P., Karydaki M., Margioti E., Theodorelou M.
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
Most caregivers do not engage in physical activity programs despite evidence that physical exercise improves general health and relieves symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. The aim of the study is a) to investigate the amount of physical activity of caregivers in everyday life, b) to examine the reasons of limited participation in physical activities and c) to find out if limited participation in physical activity affects their general health. Fifty three (n=53) caregivers (59.04±12.76 yrs) were recruited by a Dementia Day Care Center. A caregiver questionnaire was designed to obtain information on basic demographics, living habits and current care details (hours of care, etc). The Greek version of PASE questionnaire was used to measure the amount of physical activity undertaken by caregivers. Caregiver burden was assessed via the Greek version of the validated Zarit burden interview and general health was investigated via the Greek version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). All data were analyzed by using SPSS, version 22. The majority of caregivers are daughters or wives. The current sample had a PASE mean score of 168.0±87.46. Differences in PASE score were found between occupational status (F=6.210, p=0.001) and living arrangements (F=3.882, p=0.05). No differences were found in PASE score between different levels of burden (F=1.058, p=0.376). PASE score was not related to GHQ28 scores. High correlations were found between ZBI and GHQ28 total (r=0.71, p=0.001) and ZBI and GHQ28 four subscales (somatic: r=0.62, p=0.001, anxiety-insomnia: r=0.66, p=0.001, social dysfunction: r=0.54, p=0.002, severe depression: r=0.44, p=0.003). ZBI was also correlated with years of care (r=0.38, p=0.004) and hours of care/day (r=0.40, p=0.003). The most frequent barriers to physical activity cited by caregivers were their living arrangements and their occupational status. In addition, burden was not cited as a significant barrier.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the amount of physical exercise of dementia caregivers and connects it with other important aspects of caregiving, as general health and their burden. Additionally, this paper explores the possible reasons that caregivers do not engage in physical exercise.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1