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Listing 82 - 20 of 2022 results.

Financial Efficiency of India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) Limited: An Empirical Study

Research Article
Author(s): Mohd Taqi, Mohd Ajmal, Mohd. Shamim Ansari
Journal: Journal of Tourism Management Research

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Abstract
Tourism is one of the significant service sectors in India as it contributes about 9.6 per cent in Gross Domestic Production and the third largest foreign exchange earner for the country. The Government of India recognized this sector as an industry in 1986 and it became eligible for several incentives and facilities like tax incentives, subsidies etc. Further, the tourism industry was also declared as a priority sector for foreign investment in 1991. It is an important tool for employment generation, economic development and rural transformation. India is a country of vast geographical diversity which attracts tourists from all over the world throughout the year. A number of different groups, companies and organizations are operating in tourism sector like ITDC, Tata Group, Oberoi Group, ITC Ltd. etc. India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) is the leading public sector corporation and the prime mover in the progressive development, promotion and expansion of tourism in the country. Since, ITDC has been playing a vital role in the growth of tourism activities in the country, financial soundness and efficiency is prerequisite for such type of corporation engaged in development activities. Thus, it is important to investigate the operational activities and financial soundness of this corporation. The present study is an attempt to analyse the financial efficiency of ITDC in the context of its financial performance and operational activities from 2012-13 to 2016-17. The results indicated profitability and operational efficiency of this corporation found satisfactory during the study period. The study also concludes that ITDC is performing well in maintaining and developing tourism infrastructure and provide necessary facilities to the national and international tourist.
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » Journal of Tourism Management Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Did Global Warming and Climate Change Cause the Degradation of Lake Chad, Africa's Most Important 'Ecological Catastrophe'?

Research Article
Author(s): Enwere Dike, Ngozi Dike
Journal: Review of Environment and Earth Sciences

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Abstract
This paper explores six hypotheses/theories on Lake Chad’s degradation: i) natural climate variation; ii) anthropogenic climate change compounded the effects of the Sahel drought; iii) unregulated exploitation of Lake Chad’s hydrologic system overdrew the regenerative potential of the lake system; iv) high rates of deforestation in the tropical rain forest belt of West-Central Africa shifted the rain belt Southwards; v) pressure from rapidly expanding human and livestock populations exceeded the carrying potential of the Lake Chad ecosystem; and vi) anthropogenic aerosol emissions in the northern hemisphere shifted the tropical rain-belt southwards. The evidence shows that there is no single-cause explanation for Lake Chad’s degradation; rather the influence of global warming and climate change compounded those from pre-existing drought conditions and non-climate factors e.g unregulated exploitation of Lake Chad’s hydrologic system to degrade the lake.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes to the existing literature by exploring six hypotheses/theories to show that the influence of global warming and climate change on ecosystems can be compounded by non-climate variables. The degradation of Lake Chad illustrates vividly the interaction between the climate factors and non-factors in eco-system degradation.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » Review of Environment and Earth Sciences » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Effect of Institutional Factors on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Ewubare Dennis Brown, Ekwe Ernest Ibekwe
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
The study investigates the effect of economic, political and social institutions on FDI in Nigeria between 1980 and 2015. The Stock-Watson Dynamic Least Squares (DOLS) is relied upon for analyzing the data extracted from the World Bank WDI. The KPSS stationarity results indicate that all the variables were mixed integrated with FDI and political integration being levels stationary while economic and social factors were first difference stationary. The Johansen cointegration test finds evidence of two cointegrating equations in the model, indicating that long run relationship exists among the variables. The estimated cointegrating regression model showed that economic and social integrations were highly significant in explaining changes in FDI. Political institution factors, on the other hand, have an insignificant positive relationship with FDI. The Wald test showed evidence to support that the coefficients of the regressors were significantly different from zero. The result of the Granger causality test reveals that political and social institution has high predictive power for FDI flows to the Nigerian economy. Based on the findings, this study recommends that Nigeria should adopt a gradual reduction in all economic, political and social constraint to FDI inflows to optimize the benefits of foreign direct investment in Nigeria.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper is one of very few studies which have investigated the role of institutional quality in mobilizing FDI in capital deficient economies. Its measure of institutional quality from social, economic and political dimensions is noteworthy which add significantly to the existing literature.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Importance of Anger Management in Pre-School Childhood

Research Article
Author(s): Munevver Mertoglu
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Anger, although it is a natural emotion, when it cannot be managed, individuals experience extremely serious problems; at an extreme, they might even engage in criminal behaviors. The behaviours of people have some physical, hormonal, environmental, psychological and social causes that have positive or negative effects on anger. In this respect, it is crucial to understand the reasons for anger in preschools, which are an essential period in the formation of personality. The perfect behaviors of mothers, fathers, caretakers and other members of the family as well as the model behaviors of teachers and school administrators all can have an impact on the child. People dealing with an obstinate child or one throwing a temper tantrum may also become angry. In such cases, adults have an obligation to manage their anger as well as to help the child control his/her anger. The training received and the model samples encountered in the preschool period are significant determinants of the anger behaviors displayed in adulthood. When the fact is considered that there are teenagers or young adults who face serious problems due to instant loss of their tempers and even commit murders, the necessity of anger management training and proper model behaviors in the preschool period becomes more essential.
Contribution/ Originality
Violent behavior in society is the result of uncontrollable anger. Although there are many reasons for uncontrollable anger behaviors, it is also something can be learned. In the pre-school period, where the learning potential is highest. Therefore, this article, however, will contribute to studies on anger management in the pre-school period.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

Internal Law Enforcement Challenges in Bangladesh: An Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Yanwen Tang, Md. Bashir Uddin Khan
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
Criminality is a familiar concept around the globe. The way by which it can draw the attention of people throughout the world is the severe frequency of it. State considers the committal of such criminality in its territory as internal security challenges. Bangladesh, due to its socio-economic and socio-political issues is harboring significant types of criminal offences. Organizational failure to keep its stakeholders in a controlled environment and the political failure to keep its citizen’s moral characters upheld may have fueled the mushrooming growth of criminal activities within the country. This paper is an analysis based on the secondary information found especially from the official police statistics of Bangladesh, Non-government organizations and other reliable sources. This paper argues that Century-old legacy of laws, lack of public confidence to the law-enforcement agencies and sense of immunity after the commission of crime inspired the potential offenders of the country years after years. Here, less moral or legal education still hinders children’s balanced growing up with proper civic sense. As a result, a great number of crimes in one case provoke fear among people and at a time, it generates an inherent subconscious mind of people for taking these incidents in a usual way. Impact of international terrorism and illicit drugs directed the overall crime situation of this country in an unexpected destination. For bringing a positive change there, a paradigm-shift is essential. The starting is not easy in the existing system but that is indispensable here. Strategic formulation and implementation of proper planning accompanied by exercising moral teachings can improve the situation. Most importantly, the state authority should pay their heed in improving the situation while formulating policies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature with an analysis regarding the internal security challenges of Bangladesh and its seriousness. This study is one of the very few studies, which have investigated the overall crime situation of Bangladesh on the basis of police statistics.
Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 09-2018 Issue: 3

Globalization, Social Media and Imperatives in the Promotion of Nigerian Cultural Values

Research Article
Author(s): Charles Effiong
Journal: Journal of New Media and Mass Communication

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Abstract
Social media is undoubtedly one of the factors used in measuring the effect of globalization in the world. As countries of the world strive for sustainable development on account of the fact that the world has become compressed as a global village, communication through the use of social media has been outstanding. The promotion of different cultural values of the world has also been possible in this direction. While some countries rely on the effectiveness of the social media to fit into the globalization grid for sustainable development in terms of culture cum economy, others especially the third world seem to see globalization as an obstruction to their development. This forms the interest of this study to determine the effectiveness of promoting the Nigerian cultural values in the globalization grid through the use of social media. This is a qualitative study that describes the dependence on social media for communication purpose among the population in Calabar, Cross River State of Nigeria, and the extent to which the diffuse information globally. The submission, therefore, is that globalization is a paradigm for sustainable development of countries of the world; and based on the pervasiveness of the social media, Nigeria can positively promote her cultural values globally.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper is one of the few studies which have investigated the positives of cultural cum socio-economic relevance of globalization in developing economies like Nigeria; and has demonstrated how effective the social media can be as a factor in globalization paradigm to promote cultural values.
Social Sciences » Journal of New Media and Mass Communication » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Multi-Shuttle Automated Storage and Retrieval System

Research Article
Author(s): Amirhossein Mostofi, Hamidreza Erfanian
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) are being widely used in the logistics industry. This typical System, Systems are computer controlled storage systems that can automatically store and retrieve loads. Major advantages of AS/RS include high throughput, efficient use of space, high reliability and improvement of safety. There are some different operational modes in typical system. The choice of operational mode depends on the storage location assignment policy. Shared storage approach is one of these policies. In this approach, the empty space created by an act of accumulation throughout recovery can be quickly filled which conduces to save time and money. This paper examines the joint optimization of (AS/RSs) scheduling in multi-shuttle AS/RSs under shared storage in fuzzy and dynamic environment. From the view of analytical model, the advantage of operational mode under shared storage is verified. For optimization multi-shuttle automated storage and retrieval system to minimize travel time, present a zero-one fuzzy mathematical programming model. Use Genetic algorithm (GA) with Matlab software to solve large-sized problems. Various numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm and investigate the impact of different parameters on computational efficiency. The result indicates that in matters where the primary objective is to reduce travel time cycle, shared storage policy is appropriate. Furthermore, the fuzzy sets theory can be an effective tool to model the uncertainties which are available around the real applications.
Contribution/ Originality


Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Applying Building Information Modelling Plus-the Practice of Shanghai Shipping Service Complex

Research Article
Author(s): Xuefeng Wang, Yibo Wang, Jiawei Ge, Pengcheng Wu, Tianrong Huang
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
Taking advantage of Building Information Model (BIM) to integrate multi-dimensional information, such as time and space information can provide robust guidance for design, construction and operation management, which can produce strong technical support for improving project management. Based on the BIM+ theory and the ship lock construction in Shanghai Shipping Service Complex (SSSC), this paper formulates the stages and contents of the application of BIM technology. Through the implementation of BIM in the planning, design, construction and maintenance of ship lock engineering, the management of the whole life cycle of the project are realised. The application of BIM+ theory in SSSC lock engineering is explored effectively by 3D printing technology combined with Internet technology..
Contribution/ Originality
The primary originality of this study is to apply BIM+ theory to ship lock construction in SSSC.
Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Oral Mucosal Lesions in Patient With Bullous Pemphigoid - A Rare Case and Literature Review

Research Article
Author(s): Deliverska E, Kirilova J, Stefanov L
Journal: Journal of Diseases

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Abstract
Bullous pemphigoid /BP/ is a chronic blistering disorder that can affect oral mucosa very rarely. This autoimmune disease typically has a gradual onset and a chronic progressive course with exacerbations and remissions. Against components located in the epithelial basement membrane are formed autoantibodies. It is important to perform an incisional biopsy to establish a definitive diagnosis. Direct immunofluorescent findings are identical in BMMP and BP. Indirect immunofluorescence shows circulating IgG antibodies against the components of basement membrane in the majority of cases with BP but very rarely in patients with BMMP. There is no correlation between antibody titer and disease severity in BP. The aim is to present a very rare case of bullous pemphygoid of oral mucosa histologically proved with immunostaining. We present a patient with clinically identified oral lesion - bullae with clear fluid content in buccal mucosa of maxilla. After the rupture of bullae it left painful, superficial, ulcerated areas of oral mucosa. Hystopathological examination revealed subepithelial blister formation with clean separation of the full thickness of the epithelium from the underlying connective tissue layer. Direct immunofluorescence revealed a continuous linear band of immunoreactants at the basement membrane area. This immune deposit consist mainly IgG and C3, localized in the basement membrane. Conclusion: The treatment depends on the severity of the disease, tendency of progression and the affected areas. Therefore the clinicians should thoroughly examine all mucosal sites in order to make a proper diagnosis. The chronically characteristic of this autoimmune disease can lead to significant morbidity to patients. The adverse effects from long-term use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressives agents can also contribute to morbidity.
Contribution/ Originality


Medical Sciences » Journal of Diseases » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Does Gold Price Lead or Lags Islamic Stock Market and Strategy Commodity Price? A Study from Malaysia

Research Article
Author(s): Siti Nurulhuda Ibrahim, Rahayu Hasan, Amirudin Mohd Nor
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
There is a few claimed in literature and financial media that gold, Islamic stock and commodity market provide as hedging tool against inflation. Therefore, derive from this similarity characteristic, we are interested to know which among of this investment variety are the leader and laggard in the Malaysian market. Among of them, numerous studies have been done on gold as a hedge against inflation, but almost non-existence amount of research endeavor to analyze the lead-lag of this precious metal with other investment avenues. Thus, several methods are employed to answer the issue of this study which are unit root tests and Johansen’s cointegration test, followed by long-run structural modelling (LRSM) and vector error-correction modelling (VECM), variance decompositions (VDCs), impulse response functions (IRFs) and persistence profile (PP). The results showed that spot Kijang Gold lags all investment avenues in Malaysia. It indicated that the performance of the Kijang Gold is dependent on FTSE Bursa Malaysia Emas Shariah Index, macroeconomic variables and strategic commodities. This provides some important policy implications in the regulation of the Kijang Gold itself whereby FTSE Bursa Malaysia Emas Shariah Index performance and other variables are among the key predictive inputs on the expected performance of the Kijang Gold. Hence, we humbly suggest to the investors and investment portfolio managers to include Islamic shariah equities, crude palm oil and crude oil commodities as part of their investment portfolios as may act as diversification and hedging tool especially for an investment portfolio which consists of Kijang Gold and forex, as we had identified these latter investment avenues as the most follower (endogenous) variables.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the lead-lag analysis among these three-investment avenues by using VECM, VDCs and other related techniques. Furthermore, this study attempts to fill the gap in empirical studies and associated theory which remains unexplored and not broadly discussed in the literature.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 6

Efficiency Enhancement in Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Employing High Performance TiO2 Photoanode Doped with Silver Nanoparticles

Research Article
Author(s): Nazia Nasr, Muhammad Hassan Sayyad, Hytham Elbohy, Qiquan Qiao
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research

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Abstract
High performance TiO2 photoanodes undoped and doped with silver nanoparticels of size about 15 nm were fabricated. Employing these electrodes dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using N719 dye as sensitizer and iodide-triodide as redox couple. Current-voltage measurements were performed under the illumination of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5). The electrical parameters of the fabricated cells were extracted from the current-voltage data that include open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, shunt resistance, series resistance, fill-factor, ideality factor and solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The comparison of parameters revealed improvement in both the photovoltaic and electrical parameters of the plasmonic cell. The conversion efficiency measured for the reference cell without Ag NPs in TiO2 was 7.43 %, whereas the efficiency of plasmonic device with TiO2:Ag NPs was 9.26 %, resulting an overall efficiency improvement of 23% with Ag NPs. The increased performance of the plasmonic DSSC can be assigned to the improvement of its photovoltaic and electrical parameters. The improved short-circuit photocurrent density appears to be boosted due the enhanced light harvesting capability of the photoanode caused by the localized surface plasmon resonance effect induced in Ag nanoparticles. While, the rise in Voc can be credited to the upward shift of Fermi level of TiO2 due to the dopping of Ag nanoparticles in TiO2 network.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is based on one of the few attempts on photoanode engineering employing plasmonic effect for developing higher efficiency DSSCs. The comparison with the existing data has revealed significant improvement in the photovoltaic and electrical properties of the plasmonic device. This study has reported that Ag nanoparticles hold a unique plasmonic effect employing which performance parameters of the DSSC are improved much greater as compared to other metallic nanoparticles.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Measuring and Assessing the State of Technological Innovations and the Level of Interaction between Rice Processors and Stakeholders in Rice Processing Industry in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): AKINTELU Sunday Olufemi
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The study examined the state of technological innovations in rice processing industry and investigated the level of interaction that exists between rice processors and stakeholders involved in rice processing operations in Nigeria. Data were collected from 35 (12 integrated and 23 medium and small-scale mills) rice processing firms in four geopolitical zones of Nigeria through the use of questionnaire. These firms were selected using snow balling sampling technique. The questionnaire elicited information on the state of technological innovations in the firms and the level of existing interactions among rice processors and relevant stakeholders. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result showed that majority (71.4%) of the firms had technological innovations involving introduction and improvement of existing product and 45.7% of them had technological innovations involving introduction of a new process and improvement of the existing process. More than two thirds (82.9%) of the firms carried out technological innovations mainly by themselves. Also, 65.7% of the technological innovations originated mainly in Nigeria, 31.4% were imported while 2.9% were sourced jointly in Nigeria and abroad. The results further showed that the firms have low (mean < 2.58) level of interactions with important stakeholders such as banks, local suppliers of equipment, universities/research institutes, foreign firms and government with a mean of 2.91, 2.57, 2.49, 2.09 and 1.86 respectively. The study concluded that to enhance technological innovation in Nigerian rice processing industry, there is a need for the development of strong linkage between the industry and the stakeholders involved in rice processing operations.
Contribution/ Originality
This study has contributed to the existing literature through the establishment of the state of technological innovations identifiable in rice processing industry. It also provides the existing relationship between rice processors and stakeholders involved in rice processing operations.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 6

Fault Tolerance in Real Time Distributed System

Research Article
Author(s): Gajendra Sharma, Ankita Yadav
Journal: Review of Computer Engineering Research

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Abstract
Fault tolerance is in the center of distributed system design that covers various methodologies. This research paper aims to investigate different types and techniques of fault tolerance which are being used in many real time distributed systems. The fault can be detected and recovered by many techniques. Moreover, an appropriate fault detector can avoid loss due to system crash or any kind of failure in system. This paper provides a framework for detecting fault in real time system which is supposed to be handled and processed further by the help of coordinator.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature of fault tolerance in time distributed systems.
Computer Sciences » Review of Computer Engineering Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Current Approaches in Prediction of PVT Properties of Reservoir Oils

Research Article
Author(s): Hajirahimova Mаkrufa, Aliyeva Aybeniz
Journal: Review of Information Engineering and Applications

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Abstract
PVT (pressure-volume-temperature) properties of reservoir fluids in the oil and gas industry constitute an integral part of the required data for a thorough study of the reservoir, optimally compilation of oil production and operation schemes. In the absence of PVT data that measured in laboratory conditions, empirical correlation is used to evaluate these properties. These correlations cannot be applied universally due to the differences of crude oil composition, the working condition of geographical and oil environment. In the article widespread correlations and models was investigated in the field of prediction of PVT properties of reservoir oil from different regions. Their accuracy and productivity was thoroughly analyzed too.
Contribution/ Originality


Computer Sciences » Review of Information Engineering and Applications » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Edible Films and Coatings: A Good Idea From Past to Future Technology

Research Article
Author(s): Beyza H. ULUSOY, Fatma K. YILDIRIM, Canan HECER
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
Scientific studies carried out on the use of thin layer edible films and coatings which can be consumed with food, are still maintained today. Edible films and coatings help to preserve the sensory qualities such as taste, aroma and appearance in various food products, prevent oxidative rancidity in meat and products, delaying ripening in fruits and vegetables, keep pigments in food products and extend shelf life in foods. Over the years, a variety of methods have been developed for the application of coatings to food as a result of scientific research conducted on the subject. In the production of these films and coatings, polysaccharides, proteins, lipids are being used as the main components. Resins are used to prevent water vapour permeability in all these used materials, solvents to effect tensile strength, and plasticizers to provide flexibility and permeability. Further studies were needed to be done on topics such as increasing the variety of foodstuffs that can be applied coatings food safety, the development of technological applications and the reduction of costs.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the recently research studies related with edible films and coatings that promising packaging alternative
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Antihyperglycemic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Zingiber Officinale, Cinnamonum Zeylanicum and their Combination in Experimental Rats

Research Article
Author(s): Muhammad Ibrahim Usman, Adamu Jibrin Alhassan, Hauwa Sa ad
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This research was conducted to evaluate antihyperglycemic property of aqueous extract of Cinnamon (Cinnamonum zeylanicum) bark; Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome and a combination of the two on Alloxan induced diabetic rats. Thirty two rats were grouped into eight groups of four rats each. Group I served as normal control, group II were normal rats and administered with 200mg/kg body weight of ginger aqueous extract, group III were normal rats and administered with 150mg/kg body weight of Cinnamon aqueous extract. Group IV served as diabetic control group, group V were diabetic and administered with 200mg/kg body weight of ginger extract, group VI were diabetic and administered with 150mg/kg body weight of Cinnamon extract. Group VII were diabetic and administered with a combination of Ginger and Cinnamon extract in a ratio of 4:3 respectively. Group VIII were diabetic and administered with metformin at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. The animals were administered with the extracts for 14 days while monitoring the fasting blood glucose at a 3-day intervals. The fasting blood glucose level was found to be significantly (p<0.05) decreased in all groups administered with the extracts, with the highest hypoglycemic activity seen in group VII administered with a combination of the two extract compared to the diabetic control group. The findings of this study suggests that Ginger rhizome, cinnamon bark and their combination may be used in the management of diabetes mellitus, although further studies need to be carried to confirm their potential benefits in diabetes management.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the antihyperglycemic potential of Zingiber officinale rhizome and Cinnamonum zeylanicum bark so that they may be considered as alternative medicines in management of hyperglycemia.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Patterns of Plant Community Formation and Vegetation Structure in the Afro-Alpine Vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

Research Article
Author(s): Getahun Tassew Melese, Berhanu Abraha Tsegay, Getinet Masresha Kassa, Getnet Belay Kuratie
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
This study was conducted in Simien Mountains National Park, Northwest Ethiopia with the objective of evaluating the patterns of plant community formation and vegetation structure in the afro- alpine vegetation. The data were collected from stratified mountains by using systematic sampling in each stratum from October to November 2015. A total 62 (20 m x20 m) main plots were sampled. In each main plot five (1m x1m) subplots, one at each corner and one at the center, were used to collect data for herbaceous species. In each plot, data on plant species identity, abundance, height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) were recorded. Collected specimens were identified at field and also at National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University. Plant community analysis was performed using R version 3.1.3. Sorensen’s similarity coefficient was used to detect dissimilarities among communities. Shannon - Wiener diversity index was computed to describe species diversity of the plant community types. Results showed that a total of 86 plant species representing 34 families and 63 genera were recorded from which90.7 % were herbs, 7% shrubs and 2.3 % trees. Asteraceae is the species richest family whereas Poaceae is the dominant. Three plant community types were recognized from cluster analysis. Species richness, diversity and evenness varied among the plant communities. Analysis of population structure of the dominant species revealed various patterns. Because this afro-alpine area has varied habitat heteroginity, separate plant community regimes need separate planning and implementing (management) measures for sustainability of the vegetation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by providing basic information for other researchers regarding the patterns of plant community formation and vegetation structure in the afro-alpine vegetation of Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. Moreover this study documents the patterns of plant community formation and population structures of the Simien Mountains National Park within the study period.
Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Athletic Identity and the Transition Out of Sport among Division I Football Players

Research Article
Author(s): Mykal Manswell, Scott P. Barnicle
Journal: Journal of Sports Research

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Abstract
Athletic identity is a key factor in multiple areas in a student-athlete’s career however, athletic identity is both fragile and critical simultaneously, effecting things such as self-confidence, self-identity, and reputation around campus. Through interviews with 10 football players at a Mid-Atlantic American Division 1 University, qualitative data was gathered examining interests outside of the sport, their process of becoming a Division 1 athlete, and preparation for life after football. Primary findings explored common trends among the participants such as shared long-term goals, sport attached identity, and the absences of post athletic-career skills, or even exposure to such skill training at their university. Additional results suggested participant student-athletes have a solid sense of who they are but do not have a stable outlet for who they want to become outside of sport. This study can inform universities that student athletes not only desire innovative methods for career development, but also possess diverse ideas for their future beyond the student-athlete experience.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which examine the current state of post-athletic career resources available to American Division 1 collegiate athletes. From an athlete-identity framework, this quasi-experiemental study sheds light on the current state of elite Division1 football through the lense of a student-athlete.
Physical Sciences » Journal of Sports Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Human Capital Development and Organizational Survival: A Theoretical Review

Research Article
Author(s): Obiekwe, Onyebuchi
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
Effective human capital development is a major prerequisite to equip employees to acquire relevant new ideas, competencies and adapt to a changing market, and effectively drive organizational competitive advantage in order to achieve the survival goals. This paper theoretically examines the relationship between human capital development and organizational survival. It notes that human capital development is essential to equip the employees towards taking the organization to its expected destination. The paper concludes that by developing employee’s human capital, an organization improves her performance, productivity and innovative abilities which are essential for survival. In addition, human capital developments tend to turn human resources into a more tangible assets, as well as help match up the employees to strategic organization needs. It is recommended that organizations should invest in the various aspect of human capital development as it helps firms to attain greater performance and to remain competitive for their long-term survival. Business firms should cultivate high human capital development practices as human capital development drives employee’s loyalty, commitment and a sense of employee’s feeling of obligation toward the organization. Additionally, organizations should make human capital development an important aspect of their corporate strategic plan to upgrade their employees skills, enhance their conceptual knowledge, and broadens their understanding of the organizations total business objectives and values.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributed new knowledge to the existing literature of management. Utilizing a theoretical approach, it investigated the impact of human capital development on organizational survival. The paper's primary contribution is finding that human capital development activities are vital for organizational survival and effectiveness, and in driving organizational competitive advantage.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 04-2018 Issue: 4

Preparing Nurses for Community Health Care: A Comparative Study of the ADN and BSN Programs

Research Article
Author(s): Masoud Ghaffari
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Because of current changes in our society and the healthcare system, it is important to be aware of the expertise and efficiency of nurses in terms of how they are prepared to meet the health care needs of our society today and in the future. Along with this awareness, it is important for us to examine carefully the manner in which nurses are educated to meet the increasing demands of a changing society and the increased need for community health care. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree to which ADN's and BSN's graduates, from selected schools in the Northeast region of the United States that were exposed to community health nursing concepts during their educational programs. This descriptive, non-experimental study compared the community health orientation of graduating nursing and the degree of student exposure to community health concepts in their curricula. Data analysis revealed a difference in the perceived exposure to community health nursing concepts, with BSN students perceiving greater exposure to the concepts. Also, there was a difference in the community health orientation of students, with the highest orientation demonstrated in BSN programs.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to the existing literature regarding the importance of incorporating community health contents into Associate Degree Nursing curricula in order to prepare new ADN graduates to work in the home health care field and community health settings.
Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2