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Listing 78 - 20 of 2020 results.

How Parental Education and Literacy Skill Levels Affect the Education of their Wards: The Case of Two Schools in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana

Research Article
Author(s): Robert Andrews Ghanney
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The study sought to explore how parents’ level of education and literacy skills affect their children’s basic education within the context of cultural capital theory.To achieve the objectives of this study, a case study design was employed which comprised the use of interviews with twelve parents and twelve teachers in two school communities in the Winneba East educational circuit of the Effutu Municipality of Ghana.The population of the study consisted of all parents in the Effutu Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana. A snowball sampling technique was used to select the individual parents for the study. The data were analysed through coding to identify themes.The study reveals that most parents were aware of the benefits of education but the reality of their lives including educational and literacy challenges affected involvement in their children’s basic education.In-spite of this handicap, most parents relied on extended families and community members for assistance.Thus, when parents are eager to see their wards through formal education, their own illiterate status does not become a handicap. Consequently, the study recommends that policies on education decentralization must reflect greater consideration of contextual factors including formal education and literacy skill levels which impact on parental involvement in children’s basic education.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the existing literature related to parental education and literacy skill practices in the home setting. The study has highlighted specific issues to do with differences in parental capacity linked to level of education and literacy skills which affect children’s education. This demands focus on contextual factors when considering parental involvement in children’s education.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

Teacher Perception of Parents Involvement in their Children’s Literacy and their Reading Instructions in Kuwait EFL Primary School Classrooms

Research Article
Author(s): Anaam Al-Fadley, Abeer Al-Holy, Amal Al-Adwani
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
There is an increasing awareness of the benefits that accrue from parental involvement in a student's academic learning and of the impact that teachers have on programs regarding such parental involvement. This study seeks to investigate the views of the teachers working in Kuwait’s public schools regarding the effectiveness of parental involvement in their children's’ learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) in primary school. Epstein's Overlapping Spheres of influence framework (2002), provides the conceptual framework to address the study questions. Data collection was driven by the case study methodology. The data were triangulated from: 1) face-to-face interviews with 33 English language teachers having at least 5 years' experience in teaching English in a primary school; 2) documental analysis of the teachers' backgrounds; and, 3) observing and tracking the reading activities included in the Kuwaiti curriculum that is used in the EFL classroom. Data collected from the documents and from the face–to-face interviews were analyzed using (Maxwell, 1996) strategies for analyzing qualitative data as that it helped prevent confusion. Three main themes emerged from the data. First, teachers believed that parental involvement in their children's preparatory learning of a foreign language was valuable, although the level of parental involvement varied, depending on the locality and the educational level of the parents. Second, teachers offered various suggestions to promote the parents' home reading activities with their children. Third, the teachers were fully aware of the deficiency in the reading skills of the student’s in Kuwait's public schools. However, they did have insights and suggestions to overcome such challenges.
Contribution/ Originality
Educating children in a foreign language is a challenging endeavor which intimidates some parents, but understanding how teachers influence parental involvement has the potential to create positive social change and awareness among educators and parents which will facilitate the improvement and support for students' literacy programs. Thus, we believe that this study can contribute in the existing literature by pinpointing the importance of understanding teachers’ perceptions of parents’ involvement, a thing that can help in providing valuable initial insights about the level of parental involvement that teachers believe in. In addition, this study can help in filling a current gap in prior research regarding teachers’ perceptions of parental involvement in their children’s literacy.
Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

Social Media: Research on Changing the Roles of Journalists

Research Article
Author(s): Amjad Omar Safori
Journal: Journal of New Media and Mass Communication

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Abstract
The impact of rise in the use of social media on the journalism and on various positions within the industry has been discussed by several researchers. However, contemporary studies do not provide any significant qualitative research related to the impression of journalist interaction with social media. The current study is focused on the opinions of the Jordanian journalist about how the social media has affected their profession and role in journalism. Several interviews are conducted that provide an insight on the journalist perception related to the interaction with the reader. Audience interaction, rise of personalized journalism and preferences of the journalists related to social media are investigated in this study. The investigation provides contrasting views. A result validates the drastic impact of social media on profession with some participants supporting that social media has helped in advancement in their profession, and others consider it as interference in their professional role.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature to explore the perception and opinion of journalist about how social media effect their profession. Additionally, the study may also help to document the recent advancement of social media, its impact on journalists and journalism, and an insight to future of the industry.
Social Sciences » Journal of New Media and Mass Communication » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Some Thoughts on Operationalizing the Concept of Sufficiency in Efficiency Analysis

Research Article
Author(s): Malte L. Peters, Stephan Zelewski
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The concept of sufficiency is rarely acknowledged in mainstream business economics and has not been addressed so far in the literature on efficiency analysis. In this paper, satisficing levels as known from the Efficiency Analysis Technique With Output Satisficing (EATWOS) and from its extension Efficiency Analysis Technique With Input and Output Satisficing (EATWIOS) are suggested to operationalize sufficiency in efficiency analysis. Moreover, a simple data transformation approach is proposed in order to use satisficing levels in other efficiency analysis techniques, particularly in the widely used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA).
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to the literature on efficiency analysis and to the literature on sustainable development. Its primary contribution is to operationalize sufficiency in efficiency analysis by utilizing the concept of satisficing levels.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

A Behavioral Study of Cylindrical Object Impacted by Bullet Using FEA

Research Article
Author(s): Tanadon Saisueb, Pattaraweerin Woraratsoontorn
Journal: International Journal of Natural Sciences Research

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Abstract
Crime news has now become a popular mass media topic with offenders often using pocketknives and firearms. Pocketknives are inexpensive and easily obtained while in Thailand firearms have also become readily available. Some people are lucky and survive gunshot wounds; articles carried in their shirt pockets, especially a metal pen, may increase survival chances. Deformation behavior of a cylindrical object and a stainless steel pen impacted by a 9 mm FMJ (full metal jacket) bullet were investigated under various conditions. Finite element analysis (FEA) was applied to simulate different shooting conditions. Comparison of FEA shooting test simulation results revealed that a cylindrical object and stainless steel pen behaved in a similar manner. Simulation results can be useful to support forensic science examinations. Analysis of the findings indicated that having a stainless steel pen in your shirt pocket may improve the chances of surviving a bullet wound.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the chances of survival after being shot by a bullet. A simplified cylindrical object was used to replicate a stainless steel pen with a simulation using 3D finite element analysis.
Engineering » International Journal of Natural Sciences Research » Month: 01-2018 Issue: 1

Profiling Saltwater Recreational Anglers toward the Threats of Marine Environment

Research Article
Author(s): Jennifer CHI, Yeong Nain CHI
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
This study utilized cross-sectional data extracted from the 2013 National Saltwater Angler Survey, conducted by NOAA Fisheries Service, to examine saltwater recreational anglers’ concerns to the threats of marine environment, identify groups exhibiting common patterns of responses, and examine the association between clusters of identified socio-demographic characteristics. The format of marine environmental threats in this study was composed of 13 Likert-scaled items scored from severe threat to not a threat at all. Concerns of marine environmental threats from these participants were examined through factor analysis which identified three reliable factors. Cluster analysis was used to identify three prominent clusters. Statistical tests were used to investigate the association between socio-demographic characteristics, including age, gender, income level, educational level, region of the respondent, and the identified factors and clusters. Results of this study may provide insight to understanding saltwater recreational anglers’ concerns of marine environmental threats and could be an indicator of potential participation and behavior of saltwater recreational fishing projects.
Contribution/ Originality
This study focuses on trying to understand saltwater recreational anglers’ perceptions on what they may consider a threat to the marine environment they interact in. This gives us the opportunity to receive some empirical insight on the groups’ common response patterns. This insight can thus provide baseline information about what they may deem as a concerning factor towards marine environmental threats. In return, there is growth to take these results and apply them towards marine fisheries awareness programs and/or management campaigns that can improve the quality of marine life. There is not a lot of collected data on this particular group, whom may offer a different perspective on how marine life has changed over time. Through their expertise, their insight would be considered quality information which can be transmitted into collectable data.
Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

Assessing Situated Knowledge

Research Article
Author(s): Walter M. Geerts, Henderien W. Steenbeek, Paul L. C. van Geert
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Subconsciously, experienced teachers make use of situated knowledge: knowledge that is connected to, and arises from, the interactions between the physical environment where the action takes place and a material body acting in that environment. Since situated knowledge is important in day-to-day teaching to solve incidents, it should be taught in teacher training courses. Consequently, in the test at the end of such a course, these learning objectives should be tested. By using cases and by setting higher learning objectives that explicitly address the situated nature of this knowledge, situated knowledge can be assessed. In this study, the main question is: Do teacher trainers use cases that are aimed at acquiring situated knowledge? An empirical study, carried out in eleven secondary teacher-training programs in the Netherlands, revealed that just a single program did indeed assess situated knowledge. Considering its importance, however, it is essential that it is included in all secondary teacher-training programs. To assist teacher training programs to achieve this goal, this article offers recommendations for implementing tests with cases to assess situated knowledge.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

Mössbauer Research of Surface-Surface Concentric-Zonal Color Effects in Zoloceramic Materials

Research Article
Author(s): Shokanov A.K., Vereshchak M.F., Kulbekov M.K., Manakova I.A., Hamraev Sh.Zh., Smikhan Y.A.
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
The paper describes the results of a study of volume-surface concentric zonal color effects in gyro ceramic materials. The dependence of zonal flowers on the phase composition is established by the Mossbauer effects method.
Contribution/ Originality
The work is devoted to Mossbauer studies of wastes from coal-fired power plants. These products, according to their physical and mechanical properties are 1.5 to 4 times superior to traditional materials from clays. The paper's primary contribution is finding that Mossbauer research of surface-surface concentric-zonal color effects in zoloceramic materials.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

The Simulation of Egg Hatching Trend of Aedes Aegypti Associated with Rainfall Distribution

Research Article
Author(s): Najir Tokachil, Nuraini Yusoff
Journal: Animal Review

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Abstract
Aedes aegypti is primary vector of Zika virus, dengue, and chikungunya which go through four different stages of life cycle: Egg, Larva, Pupa, and Adult. The mosquito might be able to lay 100 eggs at a time. The eggs can hatch when there is water and submerged in the water, but it can survive without water almost to 8 months by sticking to the walls of a container. In this research, the trend of egg hatching was simulated by using a stage-structured Lefkovitch matrix model. The matrix model consists of a function of egg hatching which associated and depends on rainfall distribution. The purpose of the function is to identify the relationship between egg hatching and rainfall which provide water to egg. Using the same mathematical model, the population of adult Aedes aegypti has also simulated which the population related to egg simulation and rainfall. The graphical results were shown to illustrate the relationship between the rainfall, egg number and adult Aedes aegypti. We found that there was a significant relationship between the rainfall and these two stages of mosquito life cycle which are egg hatching number and adult Aedes aegypti. However, it is recommended to look for more possible factors such as the size of an opening container and humidity which possible to contribute to the development of mosquito to acquire more accurate results.
Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes in the existing literature which stated that both factor rainfall and temperature involved in the development of mosquito life cycle. We found that, the rainfall distribution factor is the most significant to identify the trend of development of mosquitos’ population and meanwhile the factor of temperature influences more on the increase of dengue virus transmission.
Agricultural Sciences » Animal Review » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Investigation on SMEs Features in Both China and Iran

Research Article
Author(s): Babak Besharati Loroun, Xu Ming, Syed Ahtsham Ali
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
In this article the Chinese and Iranian SMEs features have been investigated and briefly pointed out some common features and differences. Comparable table has been developed. It is also mentioned that how the Chinese entities started the low price strategies to capture the foreign markets. It has been discussed that how SMEs of China could overcome the challenges and barriers they have encountered. But recently Chinese companies have lot of advantages to go to the market with low price strategy due the elements which influences their cost to be low is getting expensive. On the other side, SMEs of Iran are more risk taker and also interested to be more active in international markets. But due to the lack of interest to develop their initial relationship with overseas companies, political risks, sanctions, lack of banking and finance support of government, fluctuation of exchange rate occurs. So they are not so successful in entering the foreign markets despite of their suitable capacities and possibilities. Chinese SMEs are more cautious and playing a role in stable economic and political environment and having also better access to the market intelligence, fund and wide range of business services render by different providers. By studying the feature of SMEs in both countries we will have a better study on similarity and differences and we will find out the effect of any specific feature in business cooperation of two sides. It could be also helpful how to identify and recognize the ways and methods to make SMEs of two countries to be closer to each other and maintain the stable economic and commercial ties between two nations.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper has been studied for a practical orientation results which enable managers of SMEs from both countries to get familiarity with features and specialty of the other side in order to maintain the best possible ways and approach to be closer and start their collaboration.
Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 02-2018 Issue: 2

Effect of Substrates on Nutritional Composition and Functional Properties of Pleurotus Ostreatus

Research Article
Author(s): Mbassi Josiane E. G., Mobou Estelle Y., Ngome Francis A., Sado Kamdem S. L.
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Pleurotus species, commonly known as oyster mushrooms, are edible fungi cultivated worldwide. Pleurotus genus is one of most extensively studied white-rot fungi due to its exceptional ligninolytic properties. These mushrooms have the ability to colonize and degrade a wide variety of lingo-cellulosic wastes with relatively short cycle. The objective of this study was to review published research works on the effect of substrates on nutritional composition and functional property of Pleurotus ostreatus. A literature search was done on the internet and university libraries in this area. It was found that different substrates used in cultivating mushrooms do have effect on the functional, organoleptic and nutritional properties of mushrooms. This review presents a practical checklist of effect of substrates on quality of Pleurotus ostreatus that may help different users.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of type of substrate on nutritional composition and functional property of Pleurotus ostreatus.
Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

The Effect of Work-Life Balance on Accounting Ethics

Research Article
Author(s): Cem Berk, Fatih Gundogmus
Journal: The Economics and Finance Letters

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Abstract
Accounting professionals work in a stressful environment where their social life might have effect on work performance and unethical behavior. For this study, a survey is conducted for members of Istanbul Chamber of Certified Accountants, Turkey. The number of respondents is 491. The methodology used in the research is a multiple regression. The research questions are whether there is an effect of work-life balance on ethical behavior at work and if the work life balance and accounting ethics differentiate based on demographic factors for the respondents. The main objectives of the research are to test the relationship, and analyze four different independent variables of work life balance to find out whether they contribute to accounting ethics. Other objectives of the research are testing the differentiation of work life balance and accounting ethics based on gender, age, education and marital status. The main hypothesis is that there is a relationship between accounting ethics and work life balance. Based on the results, the main hypothesis is statistically accepted.
Contribution/ Originality
There are many studies that explain ethical behavior but this study is unique to combine work-life balance and accounting ethics by a survey applied to Istanbul Chamber of Certified Accountants. This creates many practical opportunities to rethink the way accountants are employed. The availability of differentiation analysis also helps to focus some potentially problematic cases and take proactive decisions.
Economics » The Economics and Finance Letters » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Duration of Freezing Influences Sensory Attributes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Plantain (Musa paradisiaca AAB)

Research Article
Author(s): Mbassi Josiane E. G., Mapiemfu-Lamare D., Eyenga Eliane F., Ngome A. F.
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
In order to reduce post-harvest losses, this work was designed to evaluate the impact of freezing time on the organoleptic and nutritional properties of cassava and green plantain. Peeled fresh cassava (C), fresh plantain without peeling (PWP) and fresh plantain with peeling (PP) were cut into pieces of regular sizes, weighed, bagged in plastic packages and placed in a freezer at -18 °C. Over a period of 30 days, samples were removed from the freezer for sensory and nutritional analysis. Sensory analysis revealed that there was a significant difference (P?0.05) between samples frozen at different time for different sensory attributes. The score for taste decreased from 3.56 to 2.9 for the cassava and 4.55 to 2.60 for the plantain with the increase in the time of freezing. As far as the overall acceptability is concerned, all the cassava samples were rated approximately the same, while for the plantain, there is significant difference between non-frozen and 30 days frozen. In fact, the score for the overall acceptability of non-frozen plantain was the highest (4.00) followed by 3 and 7 days frozen plantain and from 14 days of freezing, the samples had the least mean value (1.85) because they started getting brown and their taste has changed. Regarding the nutritional properties, there is no significant differences both for the cassava and plantain. Freezing time has no significant impact on the cassava while the taste and color of plantain change from the seventh day. Freezing time decrease the organoleptic properties of cassava and plantain but does not affect their nutritional quality.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the influence of freezing duration on physic-chemical and proximate analyses of cassava roots and plantain fruits.
Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 1

Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of Maastrichtian and Paleocene Sediments in the Northern Alborz, Iran, Using Foraminifera

Research Article
Author(s): Masoud Asgharian Rostami, Behnaz Balmaki
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
In this study, the late-Maastrichtian and early-Paleocene transition at the Ziarat-Kola section has been investigated to recognize the biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes. We applied a high-resolution quantitative study by using planktic foraminifera taxa and benthic foraminiferal morphotypes. Sixty-five species belong to twenty-eight genera were identified and seven biozones were differentiated. These biozones are 1. Racemiguembelina fructicosa, 2. Pseudoguembelina hariaensis, 3. Pseudoguembelina palpebra, 4. Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, 5. Parasubbotina pseudobulloides, 6. Subbotina triloclinoides, 7. Globonomalina compressa-Preamurica inconstans. In the late Maastrichtian, benthic and planktic foraminifera are well mixed of epifauna/infauna morphotypes and diversified suggesting a stable and mesotrophic environment. By contrast, the early Paleocene is marked by high values of epifaunal benthic morphogroups, and extinction of Cretaceous species suggesting highly unstable and variable conditions, partly due to the dramatic collapse of calcareous primary producers. Additionally, four different zones were determined based on the benthic foraminifera morphogroups that show several changes in oxygen and organic matter flux during this time. Also, analysis of planktic foraminifera genera in this section indicating a close similarity with assemblages in Tethyan provinces.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes a new methods to understand the biostratigraphy and ageing the rock samples in late Cretaceous of eastern Tethys. Also, This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the pal ecology and oxygen changes in Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments by using the plank tic and benthic foraminfera that are small microorganism.
Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

Security Threats and Privacy Issues in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET): Survey and Perspective

Research Article
Author(s): Emmanuel Bamidele Ajulo, Raphael Olufemi Akinyede, Olumide Sunday Adewale
Journal: Journal of Information

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Abstract
In Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) Wireless-equipped vehicles are able to communicate with each other as well as Road-Side Units (RSUs) located at strategic places on the road, this enables the formation of self-organized networks connecting the vehicles and RSUs. The (vehicles) nodes are fast mobile causing the network topology to change frequently and unpredictably. Since VANETs do not really rely on any form of central administration or control, nodes in the wireless range dynamically discover each other and establish connection with each other. Due to the pervasive nature of the mobile nodes, it cannot be assumed that VANETs will always be under the control of their owners; nodes could be stolen or tampered with. Each vehicle (node) acts as an independent router and fault detection and network management becomes distributed and more difficult. The shared wireless medium is accessible to both legitimate and illegitimate users; and this has raise formidable research challenges to providing security for this network. This paper take a selective review of the published research work carried out in the security and privacy issue of VANET between 2003 and 2015 and derived a new perspective into the security and privacy attacks in VANET.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of the very few studies which have investigated security and privacy issues in VANET. We carried out a selective review of published work on this field between 2003 and 2015; and based on our findings, derived a new perspective, and categorized the security attacks on this type of network.
Computer Sciences » Journal of Information » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

On the Prediction of the Inflation Crises of South Africa Using Markov-Switching Bayesian Vector Autoregressive and Logistic Regression Models

Research Article
Author(s): Katleho Makatjane, Ntebogang Moroke, Diteboho Xaba
Journal: Journal of Social Economics Research

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Abstract
The aim of this study is to build an early warning system (EWS) model for inflation rates of South Africa (SA). A logistic regression model (LRM) is used in collaboration with a Markov-switching Bayesian vector autoregressive (MS-BVAR) to produce the estimates. Monte Carlo experimental methods are used to simulate both the inflation rate and repo rate of the SA economy. The procedure simulated 228 observations for the period of January 1999 to December 2017. Preliminary results confirmed the applicability of both models for further analyses. MS (2)-BVAR(1) proved to be the most appropriate model for detecting regime shifts in inflation rates. The results indicate that SA inflation might be in a low inflation regime for the period of 11 years and 4 months. Surprisingly, we discovered that the repo rate is not a good tool to combat the inflation rate in SA i.e a 1% increase in the repo in a month significantly increased inflation rate by about 81%. The findings also confirmed 51% and 53% of in-sample and out-of-sample SA inflation crises forecasts to be correctly classified. This is in accordance with the reported results of Cruz and Mapa (2013) and Makatjane and Xaba (2016). The verdicts of the study are relevant for policy purposes and literature.
Contribution/ Originality
This study uses new estimation methodology to quantify the likelihood of future inflation crises in South Africa.
Economics » Journal of Social Economics Research » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Rural Farmers’ Coping Strategies to Effects of Climate Change on Watermelon Production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Oyediran, W. O., Omoare, A. M., Alaka, F. A., Shobowale, A. A., Oladoyinbo, O. B.
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research

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Abstract
In the past two decades watermelon production has been a major source of livelihood sustainability in the rural farming system especially among the younger farmers. In recent time however, climate change has threatened and undermined this potential. This study was therefore carried out to assess rural farmers’ coping strategies to effects of climate change on watermelon production in Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 150 watermelon farmers as sample size for this study. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were used to analyse the data. The findings showed that there was significant relationship between respondent’s personal characteristics and coping strategies adopted by the watermelon farmers at p < 0.05 level. Also, there was significant relationship between sources of information and coping strategies adopted by the watermelon farmers at p < 0.05 level. It is hereby recommends that effort should be put in place by the government and Seed Council of Nigeria (SCN) to come up with improved, and high drought and disease resistant watermelon seeds to increase productivity and reduce cost of seeds importation in the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is finding that watermelon farmers combined both scientific and indigenous farming strategies to cope with adverse effects of climate change.
Agricultural Sciences » International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2

Predictors of the Drop in School Marks in Secondary School: Evidence for Effects of Students’ Socio-Demographic Background

Research Article
Author(s): Florian Klapproth, Romain Martin
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Referring to the stage environment fit theory (Eccles and Midgley, 1989) we examined whether after the transition from Luxembourgish primary to secondary school students’ school marks would drop. Actually, using latent growth curve modeling it was found that school marks deteriorated in their main school subjects German, French, and mathematics. The drop of school marks was larger in mathematics than in languages. Moreover, the drop of school marks was affected by various socio-demographic variables as the students’ gender, their socio-economic background, and their ethnicity. This finding stimulates the assumption that certain subpopulations of students in Luxembourg receive different support in school, regardless of their academic competences. However, even students’ competences were predictive of the development of their school marks. In the vocational track, high achievers were more likely to drop in school marks than low achievers. We presume that this result indicates a lack of academic challenges in the vocational track, which might eventually hinder better performing students in keeping their initial high achievement level.
Contribution/ Originality


Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 3

Effect of Plasmodium Falciparum on Liver Function Parameters of Children in Akoko Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Augustine O. OLUSOLA
Journal: Journal of Diagnostics

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Abstract
Background: Malaria remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, primarily affecting children under five years of age. The highest death burden occurs in young children who have not yet developed protective immune mechanisms against the parasite. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Plasmodium falciparum infection on liver function in malaria patients in Ikare Akoko, Ondo State Nigeria. Methods: Blood samples taken from 101 patients (children between the ages of 6 months – 5years) at the State Specialist Hospital Ikare Akoko Ondo State Nigeria between August to October, 2012 were examined. After screening, the patients were grouped into two. Group 1, the test group (those who tested positive to falciparum malaria) and a total of 101 children were selected into this group while 101 children who tested negative to malaria were selected into group 2 (control group). Changes in the activities of serum enzymes were determined in both groups using normal range values as baseline. Results: In falciparum malaria patients, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities respectively were 63.10+2.76, 138.46+5.04, 70.50±4.33 and those of the non infected patients respectively were 62.39+2.96, 131.46+4.38 and 65.57 ±2.39. This indicates the serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP in infected patients were significantly (P = 0.05) elevated relative to their non-infected counterparts, an indication of defective liver function. Conclusion: This study suggests that malaria parasites could be responsible for derangement of the liver functions in patients and could therefore contribute to organ damage in affected individuals if not treated.
Contribution/ Originality
This is an original article. It has not been submitted to any other journal for publication. The major contribution to knowledge by this research work is that it suggest malaria parasites could be responsible for derangement of the liver functions in patients and could therefore contribute to organ damage in affected individuals if not treated.
Medical Sciences » Journal of Diagnostics » Month: 03-2018 Issue: 1

Productivity Analysis of Labor for Use on Potatoes

Research Article
Author(s): M. Noor Salim
Journal: Current Research in Agricultural Sciences

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Abstract
Potato production in Indonesia is not yet optimal, other factors are related, knowledge level, job outpouring rate, working capital, production facilities and management. The purpose of research to determine the level of productivity and factors of production that is the number of labor, age, education and length of working of labor use. The study was conducted in Pangalengan District, South Bandung in November 2017 until January 2018. The samples were 30 potato farmers. Work productivity is based on the ratio between the amount of revenue and the amount of income employees. Analysis of data with multiple linear regression. The optimization of labor usage based on production elasticity is the ratio of marginal product price to labor cost. Simultaneously the amount of labor income, age, education and length of real employment for employees who work with the magnitude of the division of 75.5%. In general, the amount of labor has a negative effect on the use of labor, while age, education and duration of employment cannot be used for labor usage. The optimization level of -9.589 <1, indicates that the use of labor in the study site is too much, not optimal. The proposed suggestion is that the use of labor needs to be recalculated in the maximum amount of the farmers' maximum wage energy. Suggestions of analysis in accordance with the stages and networks in farmer groups or between groups of farmers.
Contribution/ Originality


Agricultural Sciences » Current Research in Agricultural Sciences » Month: 06-2018 Issue: 2