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Listing 52 - 20 of 2018 results.

Managerial Judgement Versus Financial Techniques in Strategic Investment Decisions: An Empirical Study on the Syrian Coastal Region Firms

Research Article
Author(s): Oubay Mahmoud
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
While there has been extensive research on the use of financial appraisal techniques [Pay Back (PB), Return on Capital Employed (ROCE), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV)] in Strategic Investment Decisions (SIDs), little research has been conducted on the role of the Managerial Judgement factors (MJ factors) – past experience, intuition and own judgement - in the SIDs. In practice, many investments are undertaken on the basis of financial returns with little or no analysis of the growth options embedded in the proposed investments. Essential to considering these options in the SIDs is the deployment of MJ factors in the SIDs. This research draws on a 36-firm survey of finance directors in Syrian coastal region firms to set out the relative importance of the MJ factors and financial techniques in the SIDs. The findings from the survey show high usage of the MJ factors in the SIDs but not at the expense of the financial techniques usage which are used regardless of the MJ adoption in the SIDs. However, There is a tendency towards using MJ factors more than financial techniques for investments with growth options. There is no relationship between neither the ownership nor the sector with the MJ adoption. ROCE and PB are the most frequently used financial techniques.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to capital budgeting literature through identifying the relative importance of the managerial judgement compared to financial techniques when assessing new investments, especially when these new investments have strategic and non-quantifiable returns. It shows the crucial role the finance managers can play using their past experience, intuition and own judgement in the strategic investment decision- making process.

Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 3

A Study on River Ecotourism Development: Case Study: Karaj River

Research Article
Author(s): Hanieh Goharipour, Masoud Mahdavi Hajiluie
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Tourism industry considered as the largest and most diverse industry in the world. Many countries face this dynamic industry as the main source of income, local community Employment, infrastructure, and private sector development. One of the most popular branches of tourism is ecotourism referring as sustainable tourism, green tourism or responsible tourism, which is the most popular branch of tourism. In terms of geographical location, climate variability, and complexity of natural attractions, Iran is a unique country enjoying great tourism potentials that can create job, currency, and economic growth, particularly in deprived inaccessible areas. However, unfortunately, little attention paid to this tourism category yet. Iran's rivers are one of the most important ecotourism resources and have many capabilities for scientific planning. Given the high potentials of Karaj River such as sufficient width, river depth, and its suitable stream for rafting, local people's familiarity with rafting, access to roads, and other natural, historical and cultural attractions near Karaj River as well as the development of river ecotourism will be discussed in this study. Karaj River and its environment are programmable ecotourism attractions; and many planning projects offered to sustainably utilize this river for the purpose of employment, ecotourism sustainable development, conserving natural environment, cultural promotion, creating positive experiences between the host and guest society, creating fun and excitement among families, sport tourism development and promoting rafting. This research uses ecological McHurg Model, and library and field studies, including multiple river exploration, and rafting, and using GIS software. It is hoped that the present study used to promote tourism goals in the region and even international level.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature for river ecotourism development. This document the important role of the rivers in sustainable development, ecotourism, conserving natural rivers and local community empowerment.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 04-2016 Issue: 4

The Impact of Text Type and Difficulty on Metacomprehension among 10th Grade Students

Research Article
Author(s): Shafeq Alawneh, Safaa Yadak
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
The current experimental study aimed at identifying the effect of text type (scientific or historical) and difficulty level (difficult or easy) and their interaction on student’s metacomprehension performance. A sample of 180 10th grade female students enrolled in public schools at Alrusiafah district participated in the study; and they were distributed equally on four groups ((1) easy historical text group, (2) difficult historical text group, (3) easy scientific text group and (4) difficult scientific text group). They completed a metacomprehension pretest, read the texts assigned to them (subjects were not familiar with the texts), and then completed the metacomprehension posttest. Metacomprehension test was adapted from Moore et al. (1997); Anderson (2005) and Schmitt (1990). It included (44) items distributed on (7) dimensions. Validity and reliability of the test were insured. Statistically significant differences were found in the metacomprehension posttest in favor of groups 3 and 4, and in favor of group 4 in overall posttest. Differences are found in the metacomprehension dimensions posttest in favor of groups 3 and 4, and in groups 2 and 4 performances in metacomprehension dimensions posttest.
Contribution/ Originality
The study documents text type and difficulty impact on high school students, a stage important in Jordanian culture because it prepares students to a stage considered most important before admitting to university, its findings may help educators to focus on students metacomprehension for better achievement and success.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 3

Significant Impacts on Egyptian Legal System Caused by Egyptian Investment Legislation

Research Article
Author(s): Ashraf M. A. Elfakharani, Rohana binti Abdul Rahman
Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Letters

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Abstract
The Egyptian government and its legislators have been putting forth legislative amendments to its domestic laws that are controversial in relation to investment, tenders, bids, and investment guarantee as top priority. On one hand, they are doing this in order to encourage and reassure the foreign investors in Egypt, and on the other hand, they are likely facing psychological fears of international massive litigations. However, these legislative investment amendments could threaten and undermine the stability of inherited Egyptian jurisdiction systems and integrity. These amendments include providing avenues of escape of corruption and financial crimes through the reconciliations with the foreign investors who have been damaging the Egyptian economy and its citizens’ livelihoods. As the role, size, and impact of foreign investment grow worldwide. The mechanisms holding such entities accountable are actively diminishing. Unfortunately, the legal framework of foreign investment is aggressively shrinking the state’s role in regulating these foreign investment enterprises in Egypt, while challenging the very sovereignty and jurisdiction of the Egyptian court system to investigate allegations of violations committed by foreign investors. In effect, this results in absolute impunity by foreign investors in Egypt. Moreover, this trend of more legal privileges and the loose accountability to the foreign investors create a negative impact on Egyptian public interests and then on the Egyptian legal system as well as on the Egyptian Constitution. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to highlight the lawful deficiencies of the amended investment laws as well as its patterns trespass to the Egyptian Constitution. In addition, this paper brings out the implications of these violations on the inherited Egyptian legal system.
Contribution/ Originality
This paper contributes to existing literature in two ways; first, it critically analyzed the presidential decrees that amended some part of the Egyptian laws. Secondly, the study also evaluates the effects of these legislative amendments on the Egyptian legal system.

Social Sciences » Humanities and Social Sciences Letters » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

Investigating the Demand of Small Hotel and Restaurant Businesses for Bank Financing: The Case of Turkey

Research Article
Author(s): Aysa Ipek Erdogan
Journal: Journal of Empirical Studies

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Abstract
The literature argues that small businesses are highly dependent on bank financing due to their inability to access the capital markets. We paint a different picture in this paper that analyzes the demand of small hotel and restaurant businesses for bank financing in Turkey. The results of a countrywide survey done with the owners/managers of the businesses that were responsible for the financial affairs are used for the analysis. We find that the majority of the businesses in the sample did not make a loan application in the last three years. Moreover, the tendency of firms to apply for bank financing did not change with age. When asked whether their firm were in a position not to apply for a bank loan in the last three years even if they needed bank financing with the idea that the application would be rejected, nearly all the participants responded negatively. The majority of the owners/managers of the firms declared that their firm’s demand for bank loans would increase with lower interest rates and lower collateral requirements. On the other hand, firms that would have a higher demand for bank loans if there were a reduction in interest rates and collateral requirements were younger firms.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is the finding that the majority of the businesses did not apply for a bank loan in the last years. The study documents that younger firms would to have a higher demand for bank loans if there were a reduction in interest rates and collateral requirements.

Economics » Journal of Empirical Studies » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

Protective Effects of Sweet Orange Peel (Citrus Sinensis L.) The Induction of Micronuclei Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes

Research Article
Author(s): Ekhlas Mohammed. F. Al -Taai
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
Recycling of fruit waste is one of the most important ways of utilizing it in a number of novel products , as well as in medicine, so came this research to verify the protective role of the extracts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peels against genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide on human peripheral lymphocytes using the micronucleus and chromosomal aberration tests. Conducted overlap between Aqueous and alcohol extracts orange peel with the drug, through three types of transactions (before, after, with treatment). In order to test the effectiveness of the extracts, three concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 µg / ml where tested the prevention or minimization the effect of the drug (80 µg / ml) on human blood lymph . The extracts of the orange peel has antimutagenic potential induced by cyclophosphamide this may prevent the mutagenic effect of various genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, and thus utilization of fruit waste and products for therapeutic purpose.
Contribution/ Originality
 This study is one of very few studies which have investigated of antimutagenic effect of fruit waste such as orange peel against cytotoxic effect of cyclophosphamide , The paper's primary contribution is its finding that these fruit waste can be used to prevent the mutagenic effect of various genotoxic or carcinogenic agents . These findings contribute to the understanding of the health benefits of fruit waste. This study originates new formula  to recycling of  fruit waste and benefit  from it  in the therapeutic purpose.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

Analysis Place Branding as a Local Culture Kampung Naga West Java Indonesia

Research Article
Author(s): Mutia Tri Satya, Aneu Kuraesin
Journal: International Journal of Management and Sustainability

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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to describe the situation and condition of place branding local culture ethnic villages, determining factors of place branding that will be the basis for further strengthen an area icon,  it will generate factors of place branding so that the area can determine which factors will be retained as a characteristic of the region, making attractive icons to be used as place branding is a  ethnicvillage, which has been the ethnic village does not have a powerful icon to be used as selling points both for the local market and market global. For the respondents are either tourists, guide, organization commitee, and chairman of the organization. To view these researchers will use AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process).
Contribution/ Originality


Business & Management » International Journal of Management and Sustainability » Month: 02-2016 Issue: 2

Improving the Geological Understanding of the Niger Delta Basin of Nigeria Using Airborne Gravity Data

Research Article
Author(s): Eke, P. O, Okeke, F.N, Ezema, P.O
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
Airborne gravity anomaly over parts of Niger delta basin of Nigeria has been interpreted qualitatively and quantitatively. The residual anomaly was obtained from the observed field data through a second order polynomial method and then enhanced by a filtering process. The qualitative interpretation of the gridded data reveals NS, EW and NE-SW trending subsurface structures. The inverse and forward modeling results show spherical and dyke-like anomaly structures at depths of between 1,090 m to 3,538 m, while the density contrast of formations identifies areas of  possible hydrocarbon occupation. The Euler deconvolution windowed solutions reveal depth to anomalous sources of between 2,000 m to 9,300 m for structural index of one, and depths of between 3,200 m to 10,600 m for structural index of two. The source parameter imaging reveals depth ranges of between 1,700 m to 10,600 m. The work reveals that the maximum depth to basement in the study area is 10,600 m.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the structure, stratigraphy and depths to basement information of parts of the southern Niger delta of Nigeria using airborne gravity data. The papers primary contribution is in determining the maximum depths to basement in this region as lying between 9,300 m to 10, 600 m.

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 05-2016 Issue: 5

Determinants of Tax Revenue in Ethiopia (Johansen Co-Integration Approach)

Research Article
Author(s): Workineh Ayenew
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Tax revenue in Ethiopia has been low throughout the study period (1974 to 2013). Tax revenue in Ethiopia was below the average of sub Saharan African countries. The main objective of this study is to empirically examine the major determinants of tax revenue in Ethiopia for the period ranging from 1975-2013, using Johansen maximum likelihood co-integration approach. The result revealed that in the long run real GDP per capita income, foreign aid and industrial value added share of GDP positively and significantly affect tax revenue. However, inflation exerted a negative and significant influence. Whereas, in the short run Real GDP per capita income and inflation have negative effect, whereas industrial Value added share of GDP has positive effect on tax revenue in Ethiopia. The sign of real gross domestic product per capita income is contrary to the priori expectation. Moreover, the coefficients of the lagged error correction term (ECM (-1)) is significant and negative as expected, which imply the existence of economic or government forces that restore the long run equilibrium from short run shocks. Finally, the study recommends measures such as a boost in per capita income growth, structural transformations, introduction of new tax bases and efficient utilization of foreign aid inflow have to be considered by the concerned bodies so as to bring efficient tax administration and enhance revenue growth. Moreover, the government shall give a due recognition to the development of the industrial sector.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the relationship between sectoral and macroeconomic variables with tax revenue in Ethiopia. It contributes to the existing literature in the study of tax revenue in Ethiopia. It identifies important determinants of tax revenue using econometric analysis.

Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 6

Clinical Presentation of Infertility in Mkar-Gboko, North-Central Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Jonathan Abina Karshima, Victor Chuwang Pam, Iornum Hembe Shambe, Charles Ujunwa Anyaka, Michael Ira Reich
Journal: International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research

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Abstract
Infertility is a worldwide health concern with dissimilarities in mode of presentation among couples.  It is the commonest reason for gynaecological consultation in central Nigeria.    Therefore there is need to appraise the clinical presentation of infertility and describe the manner of presentation by women in the region. Aim: To identify the mode of presentation and pattern of presenting complaints by women with infertility at a rural gynaecological outreach clinic. Method: A descriptive retrospective study at NKST Hospital Mkar-Gboko, north-central, Nigeria.  Clinic records of patients who attended the outreach gynaecological clinic over eight years (1st January 2005 to 31st July 2013) were analysed using descriptive statistics with Excel 2010. Results: Of the 1,926 women studied, 1030 (53.5%) complained of inability to conceive, and 941 (92.0%) folders met inclusion criteria. Women with primary and secondary infertility were 264(28.1%) and 677(71.9%) respectively.  The mean (±SD) age, parity and duration of infertility of the women were 31.5±5.9 year, 0.8±1.2, and 7 ±5 years respectively.  The predominant complaints were inability to conceive, lower abdominal pain, abnormal menstruation, lower abdominal swelling and vaginal discharge.  Majority of the women (55.0%) skipped inability to conceive as their chief complaint.  In past surgical history, 194 (20.6%) of the women had 234 abdominal surgeries.  On physical examination 538 (57.2%) of the women had no remarkable findings.  Abdominal scar (n=194, 47.0%), enlargement of the uterus (n=166, 40.0%), vaginal discharge (n=42, 10.0%) were common findings. Conclusion: Non acute lower abdominal pain is a common mode of presentation of infertility in this population.  The duration of marriage/age of last childbirth against the number of living children and contraceptive usage can be a clue to the woman’s desire.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents that non acute lower abdominal pain is a common mode of presentation of infertility by women in central Nigeria.  The duration of marriage/age of last childbirth against the number of living children and contraceptive usage can be a clue to the woman’s desire and appropriate intervention.

Medical Sciences » International Journal of Medical and Health Sciences Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 2

A Review on EU Transportation Projects within the Case of Turkey for European Union Regional Development Policy

Research Article
Author(s): Soner AKIN, Zehra Gul, Yeter Cicek, Ugur Yildirim
Journal: International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy

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Abstract
The transportation issue is one of the thematic priorities which give policy makers great inspiration and demand background. Today’s transport networks are leading the way in sustainable, efficient and safe mobility, increasing access to all regions. Large scale projects, infrastructures, networks, EU Cohesion policy’s nearly 22% fund support were mostly emphasized in this sense. This is also valid for candidate countries for Union. This paper discussed the case of Turkey, i.e. she is a candidate state for European Union, and benefiting from the financial instruments for funding regional development process as European Regional Development Fund, Cohesion Fund, European Social Fund, EU Solidarity Fund, IPA and Turkish Cypriot community, Turkey only benefits from the IPA program. This study was prepared in order to present a review upon the transportation projects within the regional development policy of EU. Today, the available member countries are part of a policy mechanism via being joined the mostly known transport projects as Baltic Sea, Interrag V-A sub projects, and Central Europe integration in transportation manners.  Those projects were also analyzed in order to show the inspiration themes for the future and today’s concepts and needs of Turkey to be fulfilled in the regional development politics on transportation issue. The number and budgets of transport themed projects and major projects and Turkish TEN-T and similar IPA supported projects were also evaluated in this study.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature about case analysis on how regional development policies were affected by macro transportation projects.

Economics » International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

Empathy and Communication: A Model of Empathy Development

Research Article
Author(s): Faith Valente
Journal: Journal of New Media and Mass Communication

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Abstract
Empathy is an important communication skill that has been shown to affect both individual knowledge acquisition and interpersonal relationships. How empathy develops and subsequently influences human interactions, and the consequences associated with those interactions, is the focus of this study. I examine the empathetic perceptions of upper division undergraduate college students and integrate their lived experience with empathy related factors discussed in the literature to describe a model of empathy development. The results suggest people can learn to communicate more efficiently and effectively by developing empathy in them-selves as well as in other people. More specifically, the findings indicate empathy is a function of several internal and external elements beyond biological and environmental antecedents. Respondents associated four internal themes with increased empathetic understanding: emotional sharing, positive relationships, mutual regard, and personal genuineness. Respondents also identified three external themes that moderated the strength or direction of their empathetic perceptions: the perceived similarity, relevance, and availability of the person being observed. Each of these seven themes is explicated in order to discern how one person might better empathize with another or enhance the ability of other people to empathize with them. The practical implications for more empathetic communication are explored, as are suggestions for future research.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents how empathy develops in human beings and the communication consequences associated with such empathetic development.  The paper provides a review of previous empathetic research before surveying individuals about their personal empathetic experience. Those interviews are analyzed and reveal four mediators and three moderators of empathy development as well as relate a variety of benefits associated with empathetic communication. A synthesis of empathy literature is used in conjunction with survey findings to propose an integrative model of empathy development.  The theoretical contributions of this paper may be useful as a basis for future communication research and applied communication applications.

Social Sciences » Journal of New Media and Mass Communication » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Confirming the Mediation Effect of A Structural Model By Using Bootstrap Approach: A Case Study of Malaysian 8th Grade Students’ Mathematics Achievement

Research Article
Author(s): Ahmad Nazim Aimran, Sabri Ahmad, Asyraf Afthanorhan
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
The performance of Malaysian students in Trends In Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was not up to par. The rank of Malaysian students in the assessment is the bottom one third, not the top. However, there are still a very low number of studies have been conducted with the TIMSS finding. This study intends to a) confirm items reliability included in the study( for Malaysian students), b) confirm the significance of latent exogenous constructs toward latent endogenous construct and c) confirm the type of mediation exist in the structural model. Secondary data obtained from TIMSS 2011 database has been used in this study. Items have been grouped into latent exogenous constructs; school, teacher, motivation, self-confidence; latent mediator construct; attitude and latent endogenous construct; achievement. From the analysis, it is found that only a few items included are reliable to represent respective constructs. Furthermore, it is explored that all latent exogenous constructs have significant direct effects toward latent endogenous construct. And lastly, it has also been confirmed that, all latent exogenous constructs except school latent construct have indirect effects toward endogenous latent construct; students’ achievement through the mediator latent construct; attitude.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the usefulness of  bootstrap approach in confirming the type of mediation exist in a model. Commonly, bootstrap approach is only used when the data is small and/or the multivariate normal distribution is not fulfilled.

Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 04-2016 Issue: 4

The Particle Size and Thermal Properties of Flour from three Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Cultivars Grown in Nigeria

Research Article
Author(s): Kiin-Kabari David Barine, Njoku Victor
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
Flour from three plantain cultivars (Agbagba, Cadaba and French horn) commonly grown in Nigeria were investigated for their particle size, bulk density and thermal properties. The results showed that Agbagba cultivar had the least particle size (10.04%) at 125µm sieve size and significantly increased to 29.45% at 180µm sieve size. Cadaba and French horn plantain cultivars showed a particle size of 56.54% and 36.20% at 125µm sieve size, respectively and decreased significantly with increase in sieve sizes. The bulk density ranged from 28.62% to 30.50% and showed no significant differences between the cultivars. The moisture content ranged from 7.65% (French horn) to 8.7% for (Cadaba) and showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) observed in specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity between the cultivars studied. The data thus obtained showed that chemical composition of the cultivars may influence thermal properties and this will serve as a useful engineering tool for the design and development of sieves and dryers for plantain flour.
Contribution/ Originality
This study provides necessary information that can be used in the design of dryers for plantain flour. This study also showed that proximate composition rather than differences in cultivars influenced thermal properties.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1

The Implication of Customer Service in Higher Education: Review Paper

Research Article
Author(s): Shifa Wahab
Journal: International Journal of Education and Practice

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Abstract
Higher Education (HE) is becoming highly competitive today and therefore, Institutions of Higher Learning need to look closely at improving their customer service strategies. Consumers in the education sector are now much more aware of what exactly they want; and therefore the demand for these services is similar to what they demand for commercial businesses. Customer service has become the centre of management activities which constitutes the basis of competition in the higher education sector today.  Universities and colleges should begin by becoming proactive not reactive in the marketing of their services. The Customer Service Quality model has been widely used to study service excellence in a number of service industries; education inclusive.
Contribution/ Originality
The study documents the performance of higher institutions of learning with regard to improving quality and increasing productivity. This is seen through institutional policies and structures to deliver the services promised, recruiting staff competent enough and responsive to the dynamic education sector and designing the environment to fit an academic context.

Arts and Education » International Journal of Education and Practice » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 3

Measuring Efficiency in Banks: A Brief Survey on Non – Parametric Technique (Data Envelopment Analysis)

Research Article
Author(s): Khalad M. S. Alrafadi, Mazila Md Yusuf, Badrul Hisham Kamaruddin
Journal: International Journal of Business, Economics and Management

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Abstract
Objective: This paper provides a survey of efficiency in banks using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in developed and developing countries. Methods: There are two ways were used; the first one is analyse previous reviews, and the other one is systemic search from ProQuest, Emerald, Scopus and Science Direct. The search conducted to identify efficiency in banks in developed and developing countries. Originality: This study contributes in the existing literature in measuring efficiency in banks using DEA as a non – parametric technique. Results: Studies that was survey showed that the score of allocative efficiency was more than technical and cost efficiencies. Also, Studies showed that the scores of cost efficiency were more than the scores of profit efficiency. Conclusion: This paper shows that most of these studies were conducted in developed countries context, Also many studies were in developing countries. But, very few studies were conducted in the context of banking industry in Arab countries.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to fill the gap in literature for studies were conducted to measure the efficiency of banking industry. Also it contributes in the body of knowledge by understanding the status of efficiency in the banking industry using non – parametric approach.

Economics » International Journal of Business, Economics and Management » Month: 05-2016 Issue: 5

Geographical Distribution of Egyptian Lot-Chosen and Civil Associations’ Pilgrims - Chronic Diseases and their Demographic Characteristics

Research Article
Author(s): Yasser Abdelazim Abdelmawgoud Samak
Journal: International Journal of Geography and Geology

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Abstract
This study examines modes of transport for Egyptian lot-chosen and civil associations’ pilgrims and their demographic characteristics in the period starting from 2000 in terms of increase in their number and their modes of transport (Air – Land – Sea). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to test the differences between pilgrims across various demographic variables and modes of transportations across censuses and Least Square Difference (LSD) test was applied. Maps and scatters are also plotted. By studying the statistical differences between pilgrims in terms of gender, it was found that there was no difference reported by census among the female pilgrims throughout the study period while records of governorates found differences among females. All characteristics revealed the presence of significant differences when applied to the pilgrims’ governorates of origin. Till date land travel is more encouraged than sea or air. Hence there is an urgent need to improve land transport and make it more luxurious and convenient for different economic classes.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by comparing the means of transport suitable for pilgrims to Hajj and need for development of specific sectors of transportation. This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the variation in means of transport for pilgrims in line with demographics

Energy & Environmental Sciences » International Journal of Geography and Geology » Month: 07-2016 Issue: 7

Impact of Shear Connector Spacing in Composite Construction Incorporating Cold-Formed Steel Channel Lipped Section

Research Article
Author(s): Anis Saggaff, Mustapha Muhammad Lawan, Mahmood Md. Tahir, Jahangir Mirza
Journal: Review of Industrial Engineering Letters

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Abstract
Composite construction with traditional Hot Rolled Steel (HRS) sections has been known to perform much better than with Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) sections for decades; as observed by extensive rules and requirements for their design as prescribed in current design codes. There is, however, limited technical information available about the use of composite systems that incorporates the use of light gauge steel sections, despite the potentials of the system in residential and light industrial constructions. However, the composite action of CFS with an in-situ concrete, especially Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) using bolted shear connector has not yet established. Therefore, this study attempted to investigate the behaviour of bolted shear connector used with SCC and CFS to form a composite beam system at designated longitudinal spacing. Push-out and full-scale test specimens of longitudinal spacing of 250 mm and 300 mm with bolted shear connector of grade 8.8 installed with single nut and washer on the CFS flange and beneath it were fabricated, cast and tested till failure occurred. The experimental test results shows that the bolted shear connector possessed good ultimate strength and ultimate moment capacities with an increase in the longitudinal spacing of the bolted shear connector from 250 mm and to 300 mm respectively. It was therefore concluded that, longitudinal spacing between bolted shear connectors had significantly influenced the shear connector strength capacities.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature by demonstrating the use of Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) section with bolted shear connector embedded in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC).

Engineering » Review of Industrial Engineering Letters » Month: 06-2016 Issue: 1

Extraction and Purification of L-Asparaginase Produced by Acinetobacter Baumannii and their Antibiofilm Activity Against Some Pathogenic Bacteria

Research Article
Author(s): Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Israa M.S. AL_Kadmy, Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali, Nadheema Hammood Hussein, Ahmed Sahi Dwaish, Ban Talib El-Haboby, Sraa Nsayef Muslim, Suhad abbas abid
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology

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Abstract
L-asparaginase is an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of L-asparagine and formation of L-aspartate and ammonia and widely used as anticancer drug in pharmaceutical and food industry. This amino acid (L-asparagine) has an important role for development of cancerous; in contrast the normal cells don’t need this amino acid. Eight Acinetobacter baumannii isolates of were isolated from different blood and sputum samples and it was found that high isolation rate of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from sputum was consisted with their association with lower respiratory tract infections. All these eight isolates were screened for higher L-asparaginase production and found that among all these isolates, Acinetobacter baumannii Sp3 gave higher asparaginase activity of 7.32 U/ml. L-asparaginase was purified to homogeneity by sequential chromatographic steps involved ammonium sulfate at 45% saturation followed by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography with a recovery yield of 68% and 22.65 fold of purification. L-asparaginase had antibiofilm activity against all tested biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii) after using Congo red agar and Microtitration plates methods for detecting biofilm formation ability. Highly antibiofilm of L-asparaginase recorded against  Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with reduction of biofilm formation ratio to 32 and 41% ,respectively compared with (100)% of control. Thus we can conclude that L-asparaginase has promising benefit as antibiofilm agent against biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria that have multidrug resistance.
Contribution/ Originality


Biological Sciences » The International Journal of Biotechnology » Month: 01-2016 Issue: 1

“Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis Sativus Linn. For their Hepatoprotective Activity by Molecular Docking Studies”

Research Article
Author(s): Subbarayan Bothi Gopalakrishnan, Thangaraj Kalaiarasi, Shanmugam Gnanendra
Journal: Journal of Food Technology Research

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Abstract
Cucumis sativus Linn.(Fam. Cucubitaceae) is commonly known as “Vellari” in Tamil, “Cucumber” in English and “Sakusa” in Sanskrit. Cucumis sativus fruit is shown to possess various activities such as ameliorative, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, carminative and ameliorative and antacid properties. It is used in Cosmetics as treatment for skin-inflammation and skin protectant. Pulp of the fruit is useful in   dysentery, diarrhea, dropsy, piles and leprosy. It is also used as a liver tonic. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a metabolic disorder which is emerging as a severe problem and is a disease involving liver disorder. In the present study, six phytochemical constituents isolated and identified from the ethanol extract of the fruits of Cucumis sativus Linn. by GC-MS analysis have been screened for inhibitory activity against Hepatitis B X and Heme oxygenase I using molecular docking studies. The binding affinities of the Phytochemical constituents were compared with that of the known hepato protective agent, silymarin. The ACD/Chemsketch tool was used to generate 3D structures of ligands. A molecular file format converter tool has been used to convert the generated data to the protein Data Bank (PDB) and has been used for docking studies. The active site of the target protein was identified using Q-site finder tool. The energy values for docking interactions between the active site and the phytochemical constituents have been studied by using Flex X tool. Out of all inhibitors, silymarin, followed by 2-(2-methyleyclohexylidene)-hydrazine carboxamide possess the highest energy value indicating them as efficient inhibitors with the target proteins to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. The effective properties may be due to the presence of carbonyl and alholic OH groups present in the ligand molecules.
Contribution/ Originality
Cucumis sativus Linn. fruit has a number medicinal uses. The fruit is traditionally used by medical practitioners for curing liver disorder. The present study is a new original contribution. Six phytochemical constituents isolated and identified by GC-MS analysis by our group has been subjected to molecular docking studies for the first time with two novel hepato carcinoma receptors, Hepatitis B X and Hemo Oxygenase I whose 3D structures were retrieved from PDB database.  Flex X docking program has been used to specify binding surface of the receptors and phytochemical constituents in SDF format. The present study gives an additional theoretical proof that the phytochemical constituents of the ethanol extract of Cucumis sativus can be used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma which has already been proved pharmacologically by our group.

Agricultural Sciences » Journal of Food Technology Research » Month: 03-2016 Issue: 1